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Planning Process
Dr. Sumit Kumar Singh
Introduction
• There are several processes or analysis of a plan for tourism
development. It is very important that these processes are properly
adhered to.
• The description of these planning processes as given here can only
be briefly indicative and limited to mere suggestions of the topics or
steps without entering into detailed analysis.
• Any plan must take into account these processes if it is to attain
objectives in a given period of time.
The main steps or phases in the planning
process are as follows:
• (a) Assessment of demand & supply;
• (b) Establishing objectives;
• (c) Territorial planning;
• (d) Basic infrastructure;
• (e) Financial planning;
• (f) Human resource planning;
• (g) Administrative structure;
• (h) Marketing and promotion
• (i) Monitoring progress; and
• (j) Time factor.
1. Assessment of Tourist Demand and Supply:
• One of the early steps in planning is gathering information on the thing the way
they are and on the potential available for desirable growth.
• One of the main problems in investigating the potential of tourism can be the
simple lack of information.
• Recording of information and the development of statistics is, therefore, of
utmost importance.
• The important initial steps in evaluating a potential for tourism development
lives in determining present status.
• An analysis of the present structure of demand and supply in tourism is a
precondition of any other estimate.
2. Objective Setting:
• The initial data or the information thus gathered should develop a composite
picture of what tourism can do for and to a particular area.
• In order to relate these projected results to a decision on whether to proceed
with tourism development, there must be a basis for comparison.
• This basis is the cumulative set of objectives which should be developed
concurrently.
• Basically, objectives for tourism should be a sub-set of the overall objectives
(either implicit or document) for the nation, its economy, people and the social
structure within an area.
• There are, however, no hard or set rules as to what the objectives should be.
3. Territorial Planning:
• The need will arise for locating each pole of tourism development so as to fit in
with the general policy of territorial planning.
• Particular attention must be given here to natural and cultural assets of the
country, while avoiding the damage which results from an unbalanced
exploitation of their economic value.
• The need for tourist territorial planning must be reconciled with the limits in
place of industrialisation and urbanisation which, even though complementary
to tourism, can constitute a serious danger to it.
• It will also be necessary to plan further tourism development in the selected
zones in order to avoid excessive concentration in one area.
4. Basic Infrastructure:
• If a tourism development programme is to succeed, it is necessary to provide
life support through a number of infrastructure facilities and services.
• Infrastructure elements comprise the system of services and utilities which are
necessary to the operation of a tourism destination.
• The estimation of the basic infrastructure required for tourist expansion
accordingly becomes a key economic factor in proceeding to the active phase of
implementation.
• This infrastructure will be either specifically touristic in nature, e.g., transport, or
more general, such as energy producing units, and will in any case relate with the
type of tourism envisaged.
5. Financial Planning:
• Financial planning is very essential for a successful tourism development plan.
• Before any major attraction facility of a destination gets into full swing,
considerable expenses are involved.
• There follows the study of a vital element in tourist development, that is, the
financing of both infrastructure and superstructure.
• Assessing the cost of the project is relatively easy when compared to assessing
benefits.
• There may be a choice of locations or a choice of techniques. Estimates must be
made for each choice within a feasible range.
6. Human Resource Planning:
• Efficient and professional management is an obvious prerequisite of successful
tourism development.
• Of equal importance, however, is the quality of staff training, which is often
relatively neglected during the early stages of tourism sector development.
• Tourism basically being a service business, a destination must take the necessary
steps to build a pool of efficiently trained manpower to fill various jobs.
• A variety of jobs will have to be created to look after and manage various tourist
services.
• Special attention, therefore, will have to be given to needs in manpower and
personnel to be trained and rendered qualified for the various tourism
professions.
7. Administrative Structure:
• Next comes the necessity of setting up an adequate administrative organisation
to look after various aspects.
• If a tourism programme is to succeed, the responsibility of success must be
assumed by some entity in the form of an organisation.
• This organisation should have a charter and resources appropriate to carry out
various functions.
• Many countries have established special department or agencies to manage and
coordinate tourism programmes.
• Depending upon the economic, social and political structure in the country, the
tourism organisation may be a governmental department, a semi-government
agency.
8. Marketing and Promotion:
• The final stage of the plan is concerned with the preparation of promotional
activities aimed at launching the new tourist industry both within and outside the
country.
• The main concern of tourists is having an enjoyable and pleasant experience
rather than details associated with planning their journeys.
• Most of the tourists leave these details to travel professionals and intermediaries
who look after all the details to travel plans.
• Contacts with and support of travel professionals and intermediaries are among
the most important factors for successful marketing and promotion of tourist
destination.
9. Monitoring Progress:
• Monitoring the progress periodically is very crucial to get the best results.
Preparation of a plan document is not an end in itself.
• The task of the planner does not end when a plan for three years, five years of
seven years has been prepared.
• A system of constant revision and monitoring of the plan progress should be a
part of the exercise of the planning.
• Targets must be revised continually in the light of changing resources and other
circumstances.
• To use a more elegant vocabulary, a plan is static and planning must be dynamic.
10. The Time Factor:
• Time factor is a very important element.
• The plan could be for 25 years, 10 years, 7 years or 5 years duration.
• Many planners are of the view that the first development plan should be a 10-
year plan, as it requires an assessment of long-term perspective.
• Time is a fundamental factor in the preparation of the plan and in the
identification of the objectives to be attained upon its termination.
• The medium-term plan ranges between three and seven years with five years as
the most popular choice.
• The long term ranges upwards from 10 years to 25 years.
Conclusion
• Tourism is receiving ever-increasing attention from national governments and
from international developmental agencies.
• It can generate the much-needed foreign exchange for financing other sectors of
the economy of a developing country and also for bridging the trade gap.
• In its broadest sense, tourism can do more to develop understanding among
people, generate employment and raise the living standards than any other
economic force known.
• If properly conceived and executed such development will prove not only to be
financially viable but will also prove to be of immense benefit to a country.
• Inadequate planning and development on the other hand, can increase
probabilities of failure resulting in great loss.
ThankYou!

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Destination planning procedure

  • 2. Introduction • There are several processes or analysis of a plan for tourism development. It is very important that these processes are properly adhered to. • The description of these planning processes as given here can only be briefly indicative and limited to mere suggestions of the topics or steps without entering into detailed analysis. • Any plan must take into account these processes if it is to attain objectives in a given period of time.
  • 3. The main steps or phases in the planning process are as follows: • (a) Assessment of demand & supply; • (b) Establishing objectives; • (c) Territorial planning; • (d) Basic infrastructure; • (e) Financial planning; • (f) Human resource planning; • (g) Administrative structure; • (h) Marketing and promotion • (i) Monitoring progress; and • (j) Time factor.
  • 4. 1. Assessment of Tourist Demand and Supply: • One of the early steps in planning is gathering information on the thing the way they are and on the potential available for desirable growth. • One of the main problems in investigating the potential of tourism can be the simple lack of information. • Recording of information and the development of statistics is, therefore, of utmost importance. • The important initial steps in evaluating a potential for tourism development lives in determining present status. • An analysis of the present structure of demand and supply in tourism is a precondition of any other estimate.
  • 5. 2. Objective Setting: • The initial data or the information thus gathered should develop a composite picture of what tourism can do for and to a particular area. • In order to relate these projected results to a decision on whether to proceed with tourism development, there must be a basis for comparison. • This basis is the cumulative set of objectives which should be developed concurrently. • Basically, objectives for tourism should be a sub-set of the overall objectives (either implicit or document) for the nation, its economy, people and the social structure within an area. • There are, however, no hard or set rules as to what the objectives should be.
  • 6. 3. Territorial Planning: • The need will arise for locating each pole of tourism development so as to fit in with the general policy of territorial planning. • Particular attention must be given here to natural and cultural assets of the country, while avoiding the damage which results from an unbalanced exploitation of their economic value. • The need for tourist territorial planning must be reconciled with the limits in place of industrialisation and urbanisation which, even though complementary to tourism, can constitute a serious danger to it. • It will also be necessary to plan further tourism development in the selected zones in order to avoid excessive concentration in one area.
  • 7. 4. Basic Infrastructure: • If a tourism development programme is to succeed, it is necessary to provide life support through a number of infrastructure facilities and services. • Infrastructure elements comprise the system of services and utilities which are necessary to the operation of a tourism destination. • The estimation of the basic infrastructure required for tourist expansion accordingly becomes a key economic factor in proceeding to the active phase of implementation. • This infrastructure will be either specifically touristic in nature, e.g., transport, or more general, such as energy producing units, and will in any case relate with the type of tourism envisaged.
  • 8. 5. Financial Planning: • Financial planning is very essential for a successful tourism development plan. • Before any major attraction facility of a destination gets into full swing, considerable expenses are involved. • There follows the study of a vital element in tourist development, that is, the financing of both infrastructure and superstructure. • Assessing the cost of the project is relatively easy when compared to assessing benefits. • There may be a choice of locations or a choice of techniques. Estimates must be made for each choice within a feasible range.
  • 9. 6. Human Resource Planning: • Efficient and professional management is an obvious prerequisite of successful tourism development. • Of equal importance, however, is the quality of staff training, which is often relatively neglected during the early stages of tourism sector development. • Tourism basically being a service business, a destination must take the necessary steps to build a pool of efficiently trained manpower to fill various jobs. • A variety of jobs will have to be created to look after and manage various tourist services. • Special attention, therefore, will have to be given to needs in manpower and personnel to be trained and rendered qualified for the various tourism professions.
  • 10. 7. Administrative Structure: • Next comes the necessity of setting up an adequate administrative organisation to look after various aspects. • If a tourism programme is to succeed, the responsibility of success must be assumed by some entity in the form of an organisation. • This organisation should have a charter and resources appropriate to carry out various functions. • Many countries have established special department or agencies to manage and coordinate tourism programmes. • Depending upon the economic, social and political structure in the country, the tourism organisation may be a governmental department, a semi-government agency.
  • 11. 8. Marketing and Promotion: • The final stage of the plan is concerned with the preparation of promotional activities aimed at launching the new tourist industry both within and outside the country. • The main concern of tourists is having an enjoyable and pleasant experience rather than details associated with planning their journeys. • Most of the tourists leave these details to travel professionals and intermediaries who look after all the details to travel plans. • Contacts with and support of travel professionals and intermediaries are among the most important factors for successful marketing and promotion of tourist destination.
  • 12. 9. Monitoring Progress: • Monitoring the progress periodically is very crucial to get the best results. Preparation of a plan document is not an end in itself. • The task of the planner does not end when a plan for three years, five years of seven years has been prepared. • A system of constant revision and monitoring of the plan progress should be a part of the exercise of the planning. • Targets must be revised continually in the light of changing resources and other circumstances. • To use a more elegant vocabulary, a plan is static and planning must be dynamic.
  • 13. 10. The Time Factor: • Time factor is a very important element. • The plan could be for 25 years, 10 years, 7 years or 5 years duration. • Many planners are of the view that the first development plan should be a 10- year plan, as it requires an assessment of long-term perspective. • Time is a fundamental factor in the preparation of the plan and in the identification of the objectives to be attained upon its termination. • The medium-term plan ranges between three and seven years with five years as the most popular choice. • The long term ranges upwards from 10 years to 25 years.
  • 14. Conclusion • Tourism is receiving ever-increasing attention from national governments and from international developmental agencies. • It can generate the much-needed foreign exchange for financing other sectors of the economy of a developing country and also for bridging the trade gap. • In its broadest sense, tourism can do more to develop understanding among people, generate employment and raise the living standards than any other economic force known. • If properly conceived and executed such development will prove not only to be financially viable but will also prove to be of immense benefit to a country. • Inadequate planning and development on the other hand, can increase probabilities of failure resulting in great loss.