By Sukanya Sen Sharma and Shaishavi Kashikar MBICT College
Introduction 1.Why Web Designing? 2.What And Why? 3.Web Standards HTML XML Comparison
Web design is the practice of creating presentations ofcontent (usually hypertext or hypermedia) that aredelivered to an end-user through the WorldwideWeb,using a Web browser or other Web-enabledsoftware. The intent of web design is to create a website²acollection of electronic documents and applications thatreside on a Webserver/servers. The website may includetext, images, soundsand other content, and may beinteractive.
Why Web designing –1. First impression counts 3 important element2. Professionalism 1. Colour and tone of3. Competition website 2. Use of graphics 3. Quality of contents What is the use of web designing1. Marketing2. Advertisement
W3C standard What is the W3C? What does it do?? What are the W3C standard 1. HTML 4.0 standard 2. XML 1.0 3. XHTML 1.0,1.1 4. CSS 5. DOM
An Webpage is best thought as a set of VIRTUAL ELEMENTS (paragraphs,titles,tables,list,ima ges). HTML(Hyper type Markup Language ) defines the structure and layout of elements of a Web page with a variety of TAGS. Each tag may have a set of attributes that modify the appearance and layout of the virtual elements contained by the tag.
BASIC STRUCTURE <!DOCTYPE html> <html> <body> <h1> My first Heading </h1> <p> My first paragraph </p> </body> </html>
1. Used to display any type of document on the host computer. 2. A versatile language and can be used on any platform. 3. Used to make the text look attractive. 4. Can link one document with another. 8
~ Background~Bgcolor~size~font~color~Left margin~Top margin….etcThe above mentioned attributes are explained in the next section. 9
<HTML> <BODY> THIS TEXT IS WRITTEN IN FONT SIZE 3.<FONT SIZE ="+2"> THIS TEXT IS WRITTEN IN FONT SIZE 5.</FONT><FONT SIZE = "7"> THIS TEXT IS WRITTEN IN FONT SIZE 7.</FONT><FONT SIZE ="+12"> THIS TEXT IS ASLO WRITTEN IN FONT SIZE 7 COZ ITS VALUE IS OUT OF THE RANGE.</FONT> </BODY></HTML> 11
<HTML> <HEAD> <TITLE> COLOR TESTING </TITLE> </HEAD> <BODY> <FONT SIZE="5" COLOR="RED"> THIS TEXT IS WRITTEN IN FONT SIZE 5 AND IN RED COLOR. </FONT> </BODY></HTML>
HTML defines six levels of heading.The heading element is written as: <Hn>………………………</Hn>Where n - level of heading and can take values from 1 to 6. H1 -- most prominent heading ,while H6 --least prominent heading. Headings are usually displayed in bolder and larger font than the normal text.NOTE: (From the example next)- An extra line is generally inserted above and below the heading.
The PARAGRAPH Element <P> indicates a paragraph. The paragraph can be aligned by using the ALIGN attribute. The ALIGN = LEFT/CENTER/RIGHT attribute can be added to the <H1> through to <H6> elements. SYNTAX: <P> ……………………………..</P><br>This element is used to insert a line break with extra space in the beginning.
<HTML> <BODY> <P> THIS IS FIRST PARAGRAPH </P> <P ALIGN="CENTER"> THIS IS SECOND PARAGRAPH WHICH IS CENTER ALIGNED </P> <P ALIGN ="RIGHT"> THIS IS THIRD PARAGRAPH WHICH IS RIGHT ALIGNED </P> </BODY></HTML>
1. B (BOLD) Syntax: <B> ---------- </B>2. I (ITALIC) Syntax: <I> ----------- </I>3. SUB (Subscript) Syntax: <SUB> ---------- </SUB>4. SUP (Super script) Syntax: <SUP> ---------- </SUP>
<HTML> <BODY> <H1 ALIGN="CENTER"><B> SOME CHEMICAL FORMULAS</B></H1> <BR> <B>CO<SUB>2</SUB></B> <B>H<SUB>2</SUB>O< BR></B> H<SUB>2</SUB>SO<SU B>4</SUB> <BODY><HTML>
eXtensible Markup Language Markup language for documents containing structured information Defined by four specifications: XML, the Extensible Markup Language XLL, the Extensible Linking Language XSL, the Extensible Style Language XUA, the XML User Agent
Based on Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) Version 1.0 introduced by World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) in 1998 Bridge for data exchange on the Web
An XML element is made up of a start tag, an end tag, and data in between. Example: <director> Matthew Dunn </director> Example of another element with the same value: <actor> Matthew Dunn </actor> XML tags are case-sensitive: <CITY> <City> <city> XML can abbreviate empty elements, for example: <married> </married> can be abbreviated to <married/>
An attribute is a name-value pair separated by an equal sign (=). Example: <City ZIP=“94608”> Emeryville </City> Attributes are used to attach additional, secondary information to an element.
A basic XML document is an XML element that can, but might not, include nested XML elements. Example: <books> <book isbn=“123”> <title> Second Chance </title> <author> Matthew Dunn </author> </book> </books>
Authoring guidelines: All elements must have an end tag. All elements must be cleanly nested (overlapping elements are not allowed). All attribute values must be enclosed in quotation marks. Each document must have a unique first element, the root node.
<BOOKS><book id=“123” loc=“library”> BOOKS book <author>Hull</author> article loc=“library” <title>California</title> ref <year> 1995 </year> 123 555</book><article id=“555” ref=“123”> author year author title <author>Su</author> <title> Purdue</title> title</article></BOOKS> Hull 1995 Su Purdue California
A data island is an XML document that exists within an HTML page. The <XML> element marks the beginning of the data island, and its ID attribute provides a name that you can use to reference the data island.
The first XML query languages LOREL (Stanford) XQL Several other query languages have been developed (e.g. UNQL, XPath) XML-QL considered by W3C for standardization Currently W3C is considering and working on a new query language: XQuery
Developed at AT&T labsTo extract data from the input XML dataHas variables to which data is bound and templates which show how the output XML data is to be constructedUses the XML syntaxBased on a where/construct syntax Where combines from and where parts of SQL Construct corresponds to SQL’s select
Example 1 Example 2 Retrieve all authors of books XML-QL query asking for all published by Morgan Kaufmann: bookstores that sell The Java Programming Language for under $25: where <book> where <store> <publisher><name> <name> $N </name> Morgan Kaufmann <book> </name> </publisher> <title> The Java Programming Language </title> <title> $T </title> <price> $P </price> <author> $A </author> </book> </book> in “www.a.b.c/bib.xml” </store> in construct <result> $A </result> “www.store/bib.xml” $P < 25 construct <result> $N </result>
Semi structured data is often encountered in data exchange and integration At the sources the data may be structured (e.g. from relational databases) A mediator is complex software component that integrates and transforms data from one or several sources using a declarative specification Two main contexts: Data conversion: converts data between two different models e.g. by translating data from a relational database into XML Data integration: integrates data from different sources into a common view
Example: Export the following data into XML and group books by store Relational Database: Store (sid, name, phone) Book (bid, title, authors) StoreBook (sid , bid, price, stock) price stock name Store StoreBook Book authors phone sid title bid
XML HTML XML fundamentally HTML specifies separates contents (data presentation. and informati0n) from presentation. XML allows tags and HTML explicitly defines grammars to be used. a set of legal tags as well as grammar.
BROWSER COMPATIBILITY NAMING CONVENSIONS QUALITY OF CONTENT GRAPHICS AND IMAGES