Graphic Design How To Create A Research Paper


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Graphic Design How To Create A Research Paper

  1. 1. How To Create A Research Paper
  2. 2. <ul><li>STEP ONE : SELECTING A TOPIC </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Selecting a Topic: </li></ul><ul><li>When selecting the topic for your research paper, make sure that it is something that interests you . </li></ul><ul><li>Ask yourself these questions before selecting a topic: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What interests you most about a particular subject? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is there anything you wonder about or are puzzled about with regard to that subject? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If your topic genuinely interests you, chances are you'll enjoy spending time working on it and it won't seem like a chore or boring to you. </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>There are many ways for you to find reliable information on your topic. Consider the following : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Take a trip to the library . Use the electronic catalog or browse the shelves to look for books on your topic. If you find a book that is useful, check the bibliography or list of sources in the back of that book for other books or articles on your topic. Don’t be afraid to ask the librarian for help! </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Surf the internet . Use the internet to your advantage. Go to websites such as: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>Finding Sources Continued: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use search engines . Go to websites such as the ones listed below and type in your topic or a particular aspect of your topic – multiple links should appear with the information you are looking for. REMEMBER avoid websites such as , as the information on the website is NOT reliable! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use other sources such as: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Newspapers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Periodicals </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Magazines </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Almanacs, Atlases, AV Catalogs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Encyclopedias and Dictionaries </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Keeping Track of Your Sources: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>REMEMBER to keep a list of all the sources that you use for your research paper. It is important that you know the following about each of your sources : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The title of the source </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The author </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Publisher </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The place of publication </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The date of publication </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If you use a website, remember to keep the web address </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-This list is the beginning of your bibliography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Make sure that the sources you select have information that relate to your topic and will add to your paper </li></ul></ul>
  9. 11. <ul><li>What is a Thesis Statement? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Think about what the main point of your research paper will be. This will be the basis of your thesis statement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do some critical thinking and write your thesis statement down in one sentence. Your thesis statement is a declaration of your belief or beliefs . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The main portion of your essay will consist of arguments to support and defend this belief. Your thesis statement will appear in your research paper in paragraph one. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 13. <ul><li>STEP FOUR : CREATE AN OUTLINE </li></ul>
  11. 14. <ul><li>Creating an Outline: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The purpose of an outline is to help you think through your topic carefully and organize it logically before you start writing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A good outline is the most important step in writing a good paper. Check your outline to make sure that the points covered flow logically from one to the other. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Include in your outline an INTRODUCTION , a BODY , and a CONCLUSION . </li></ul></ul>
  12. 16. <ul><li>STEP FIVE : WRITING YOUR FIRST DRAFT </li></ul>
  13. 17. <ul><li>Writing a Draft: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Every essay or paper is made up of three parts : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Body </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The INTRODUCTION : is the first paragraph of the paper. It often begins with a general statement about the topic and ends with a more specific statement of the main idea of your paper (your thesis). The purpose of the introduction is to: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>let the reader know what the topic is </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>inform the reader about your point of view </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>arouse the reader's curiosity so that he or she will want to read about your topic </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 18. <ul><li>Writing a Draft Continued: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The BODY : portion of the paper that follows the introduction. It consists of a number of paragraphs in which you develop your ideas in detail. Things to keep in mind: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limit each paragraph to one main idea. (Don't try to talk about more than one idea per paragraph.) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prove your points continually by using specific examples and quotations from your sources </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure you DO NOT PLAGERIZE (edit copy edit paste from the source) instead, paraphrase , summarize , and directly quote your sources </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 19. <ul><li>Writing a Draft Continued: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The CONCLUSION : The conclusion is the last paragraph of the paper. Its purpose is to: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>summarize your points, leaving out specific examples </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>restate the main idea of the paper (reword your thesis) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure to include your internal citations within the text of your research paper. A citation should appear after each direct quote or directly after each paraphrased or summarized paragraph. Types of internal citations: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Book/Publication: (Authors Last Name Page Number) ex. (Smith 28) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internet Source: (Web address) ex. ( </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Online Article: (Authors Last Name) ex. (Smith) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 21. <ul><li>STEP SIX : CREATING A BIBLIOGRAPHY </li></ul>
  17. 22. <ul><li>Creating a Bibliography: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A bibliography is list your sources (texts, articles, and web addresses, and so on) in alphabetical order by authors' last names. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sources that don't have authors (encyclopedias and web addresses) should be alphabetized by title. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to Cite Source in Bibliography: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For a BOOK : </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Author (last name first). Title of the book . City: Publisher, Date of publication. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For an ENCYCLOPEDIA : </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Encyclopedia Title , Edition Date. Volume Number, &quot;Article Title,&quot; page numbers. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- For a MAGAZINE : </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Author (last name first), &quot;Article Title.&quot; Name of magazine . Volume number, (Date): page numbers. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 23. <ul><li>Creating a Bibliography Continued: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How to Cite Sources in a Bibliography Continued: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For a NEWSPAPER : </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Author (last name first), &quot;Article Title.&quot; Name of newspaper , city, state of publication. (date): edition if available, section, page number(s). </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For a CD-ROM : </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disc title : Version, Date. &quot;Article title,&quot; pages if given. Publisher. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For a FILM : </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Title , Director, Distributor, Year. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For an INTERNET ARTICLE : </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Author, (Date). Subject of message. Electronic conference or bulletin board (Online). </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For an INTERNET SITE : </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>URL (Uniform Resource Locator or WWW address). author (or item's name, if mentioned), date. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 26. <ul><li>Check! Check! Check! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Revising your First Draft: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Try to set aside your draft for a day or two before revising. This makes it easier to view your work objectively and see any gaps or problems. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Revising involves rethinking your ideas , refining your arguments, reorganizing paragraphs, and rewording sentences. You may need to develop your ideas in more detail, give more evidence to support your claims, or delete material that is unnecessary. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Read your paper out loud . This sometimes makes it easier to identify writing that is awkward or unclear. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Have somebody else read the paper and tell you if there's anything that's unclear or confusing. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 27. <ul><li>Check! Check! Check! Continued: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proofreading your final draft: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Look for careless errors such as misspelled words , incorrect grammar , punctuation , and capitalization . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Errors are harder to spot on a computer screen than on paper. If you type your paper on a computer, print out a copy to proofread . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>REMEMBER, spell checks and grammar checks don't always catch errors , so it is best not to rely on them wholly. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 28. <ul><li>Check! Check! Check! Continued: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Here are some commonly used markings used to indicate errors: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Apostrophe or single quotation mark </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Close up (basket ball – basketball) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Comma </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Delete </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insert </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 29. <ul><li>Check! Check! Check! Continued: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commonly used markings used to indicate errors continued: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Begin new paragraph </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do not begin new paragraph </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Period </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Double quotation marks </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Space </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 30. CONGRATULATIONS ! <ul><li>You have successfully gone through the steps of creating a research paper! </li></ul>