DRAWINGS:
( A Graphical Representation)
The Fact about:
If compared with Verbal or Written Description,
Drawings offer far...
Drawings
(Some Types)

Botanical Drawings
( plants, flowers etc.)

Nature Drawings
( landscape,
Geographical
scenery etc.)...
ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS :
IT IS A TECHNICAL DRAWING IN WHICH DIFFERENT VIEWS OF AN OBJECT
ARE PROJECTED ON DIFFERENT REFE...
PLANES

1
PRINCIPAL PLANES
HP AND VP

AUXILIARY PLANES

Auxiliary Vertical Plane
(A.V.P.)

غ

A.V.P.
⊥ to Hp & ∠ to Vp

A...
PATTERN OF PLANES & VIEWS (First Angle Method)

2

THIS IS A PICTORIAL SET-UP OF ALL THREE PLANES.
ARROW DIRECTION IS A NO...
3

Methods of Drawing Orthographic Projections

Third Angle Projections Method
Here views are drawn
by placing object

Fir...
FIRST ANGLE
PROJECTION

FOR T.V.

IN THIS METHOD,
HE OBJECT IS ASSUMED TO BE
SITUATED IN FIRST QUADRANT
MEANS
ABOVE HP & I...
THIRD ANGLE
PROJECTION

FOR T.V.

IN THIS METHOD,
THE OBJECT IS ASSUMED TO BE
SITUATED IN THIRD QUADRANT
( BELOW HP & BEHI...
ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS
{ MACHINE ELEMENTS }
OBJECT IS OBSERVED IN THREE DIRECTIONS.
THE DIRECTIONS SHOULD BE NORMAL
TO T...
FOR T.V.

1

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS

R
FO

.
S.V

FO
R

FRONT VIEW

L.H.SIDE VIEW

F.
V.

x

PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS G...
FOR T.V.

2

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS
FRONT VIEW

R
FO

.
.V
S

FO
R

X

Y

F.
V.

TOP VIEW

PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIV...
FOR T.V.

3

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS
FRONT VIEW
L.H.SIDE VIEW

R
FO

.
S.V

FO
R

F.
V.

X

Y

TOP VIEW

PICTORIAL PRESEN...
4

FOR T.V.

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS

FRONT VIEW

R
FO

.
S. V

FO
R

X

Y

F.
V.

TOP VIEW

PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GI...
FOR T.V.

5

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS

R
FO

FRONT VIEW

.
.V
S

FO
R

PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN
DRAW THREE VIEWS OF...
6
FOR T.V.
ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS

FRONT VIEW

R
FO

.
.V
S

FO
R

X

L.H.SIDE VIEW

Y

F.
V.

TOP VIEW

PICTORIAL PRESE...
7
FOR T.V.

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS
FRONT VIEW

FO
R
R
FO

.
.V
S

L.H.SIDE VIEW

F.
V.

X

PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIV...
STUDY
Z
ILLUSTRATIONS

8

FOR T.V.
ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS

FRONT VIEW
50

X

Y

20

FO
R

25

F.
V.
25

20

TOP VIEW

PI...
9
FOR T.V.

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS
FRONT VIEW

X

R
FO

.
S. V

FO
R

Y

F.
V.

PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN
DRAW THR...
ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS

FOR T.V.

FRONT VIEW

X

L.H.SIDE VIEW

Y

.
S.V
R
FO

R
FO
V.
F.

PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIV...
FOR T.V.
ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS
FRONT VIEW

FO
R

R
FO

X
F.
V.

L.H.SIDE VIEW

Y

.
.V
S

TOP VIEW

PICTORIAL PRESENTAT...
12

FOR T.V.

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS
FRONT VIEW

X

R
FO

.
S.V

FO
R

Y

F.
V.

PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN
DRAW TH...
13

STUDY
Z
ILLUSTRATIONS

FOR T.V.
ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS

35

FV

35
10

x

20

10

FO
R

O

F.
V.

PICTORIAL PRESENTA...
STUDY
Z
ILLUSTRATIONS

R
FO

14

FOR T.V.

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS
FV
30

10

30

SV

30
10
30

x

.
S. V

FO
R

y

F.
V....
OR

15

STUDY
Z
ILLUSTRATIONS

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS
FOR T.V.
ALL VIEWS IDENTICAL
FV

SV

y

x

10

.
S.V

FO
R

F.
V.
...
FOR T.V.

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS

16

ALL VIEWS IDENTICAL
FV

SV

y

x
10

R
FO

.
.V
S

FO
R

F.
V.

PICTORIAL PRESENTA...
17

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS

FRONT VIEW
40

L.H.SIDE VIEW
30 SQUARE
20

50

R
FO

FO
R

.
S. V

F. X
V.

20

10

O

PICTO...
FOR T.V.

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS

18

FV
40

X

O

10

Y

45

30 D

FO
R

O

10

50

80

TV

F.
V.

PICTORIAL PRESENTATI...
19

FOR T.V.

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS

40

FV

O

X

10

Y

100
10

FO
R

25

TV

10

30 R
20 D

30

10

25

O

F.
V.

PI...
PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN
DRAW FV AND TV OF THIS OBJECT
BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS

...
21

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS
10

25

15

25
40

10
25

R
FO

FO
R

.
S.V

O

F.
V.
O

25
80

F.V.

PICTORIAL PRESENTATION ...
FOR T.V.
ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS

450

30

FV

40

X

FO
R

Y
30 D

F.
V.
TV

40

O

PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN
DRAW...
23

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS
FO
R

R
FO

HEX PART

F.
V.

30

20

20

.
S.V

40

O

20
50

20

15

O

30
60

100

PICTORIA...
FOR T.V.

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS

24

40

20
FRONT VIEW

F.V.
30

10
X

Y

O

10

FO
R

30

F.
V.

10
30

O

PICTORIAL P...
25

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS
10

10

15

25

25

X

Y

O

50

FV

LSV

10

R
FO

.
.V
S

FO
R

PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS G...
PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN
DRAW FV AND SV OF THIS OBJECT
BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD

26

FO
R

ORTHOGRAPHIC PRO...
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Ortographic projection

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Ortographic projection

  1. 1. DRAWINGS: ( A Graphical Representation) The Fact about: If compared with Verbal or Written Description, Drawings offer far better idea about the Shape, Size & Appearance of any object or situation or location, that too in quite a less time. Hence it has become the Best Media of Communication not only in Engineering but in almost all Fields.
  2. 2. Drawings (Some Types) Botanical Drawings ( plants, flowers etc.) Nature Drawings ( landscape, Geographical scenery etc.) Drawings ( maps etc.) Building Related Drawings. Orthographic Projections (Fv,Tv & Sv.-Mech.Engg terms) (Plan, Elevation- Civil Engg.terms) (Working Drawings 2-D type) Portraits ( human faces, expressions etc.) Zoological Drawings (creatures, animals etc.) Engineering Drawings, (projections.) Machine component Drawings Isometric ( Mech.Engg.Term.) or Perspective(Civil Engg.Term) (Actual Object Drawing 3-D)
  3. 3. ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS : IT IS A TECHNICAL DRAWING IN WHICH DIFFERENT VIEWS OF AN OBJECT ARE PROJECTED ON DIFFERENT REFERENCE PLANES OBSERVING PERPENDICULAR TO RESPECTIVE REFERENCE PLANE Different Reference planes are Horizontal Plane (HP), Vertical Frontal Plane ( VP ) Side Or Profile Plane ( PP) And Different Views are Front View (FV), Top View (TV) and Side View (SV) FV is a view projected on VP. TV is a view projected on HP. SV is a view projected on PP. IMPORTANT TERMS OF ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS: 1 Planes. 2 Pattern of planes & Pattern of views 3 Methods of drawing Orthographic Projections
  4. 4. PLANES 1 PRINCIPAL PLANES HP AND VP AUXILIARY PLANES Auxiliary Vertical Plane (A.V.P.) غ A.V.P. ⊥ to Hp & ∠ to Vp Auxiliary Inclined Plane (A.I.P.) A.I .P. ⊥t o V p ∠ & to Hp θº Profile Plane ( P.P.)
  5. 5. PATTERN OF PLANES & VIEWS (First Angle Method) 2 THIS IS A PICTORIAL SET-UP OF ALL THREE PLANES. ARROW DIRECTION IS A NORMAL WAY OF OBSERVING THE OBJECT. BUT IN THIS DIRECTION ONLY VP AND A VIEW ON IT (FV) CAN BE SEEN. THE OTHER PLANES AND VIEWS ON THOSE CAN NOT BE SEEN. Y PROCEDURE TO SOLVE ABOVE PROBLEM:TO MAKE THOSE PLANES ALSO VISIBLE FROM THE ARROW DIRECTION, A) HP IS ROTATED 900 DOUNWARD B) PP, 900 IN RIGHT SIDE DIRECTION. THIS WAY BOTH PLANES ARE BROUGHT IN THE SAME PLANE CONTAINING VP. X Click to view Animation On clicking the button if a warning comes please click YES to continue, this program is safe for your pc. PP VP Y FV LSV Y X X TV HP HP IS ROTATED DOWNWARD 900 AND BROUGHT IN THE PLANE OF VP. PP IS ROTATED IN RIGHT SIDE 90 AND BROUGHT IN THE PLANE OF VP. 0 ACTUAL PATTERN OF PLANES & VIEWS OF ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS DRAWN IN FIRST ANGLE METHOD OF PROJECTIONS
  6. 6. 3 Methods of Drawing Orthographic Projections Third Angle Projections Method Here views are drawn by placing object First Angle Projections Method Here views are drawn by placing object in 3rd Quadrant. in 1st Quadrant ( Fv above X-y, Tv below X-y ) ( SYMBOLIC PRESENTATION OF BOTH METHODS WITH AN OBJECT STANDING ON HP ( GROUND) ON IT’S BASE. FV X Y Tv above X-y, Fv below X-y ) TV NOTE:HP term is used in 1 Angle method & For the same Ground term is used in 3rd Angle method of projections X st TV Y FV G L
  7. 7. FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION FOR T.V. IN THIS METHOD, HE OBJECT IS ASSUMED TO BE SITUATED IN FIRST QUADRANT MEANS ABOVE HP & INFRONT OF VP. OBJECT IS INBETWEEN OBSERVER & PLANE. PP VP FV LSV Y X TV HP ACTUAL PATTERN OF PLANES & VIEWS IN FIRST ANGLE METHOD OF PROJECTIONS R FO . .V S FO R F. V.
  8. 8. THIRD ANGLE PROJECTION FOR T.V. IN THIS METHOD, THE OBJECT IS ASSUMED TO BE SITUATED IN THIRD QUADRANT ( BELOW HP & BEHIND OF VP. ) PLANES BEING TRANSPERENT AND INBETWEEN OBSERVER & OBJECT. TV X Y LSV FV ACTUAL PATTERN OF PLANES & VIEWS OF THIRD ANGLE PROJECTIONS OR F . S.V FO R F. V.
  9. 9. ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS { MACHINE ELEMENTS } OBJECT IS OBSERVED IN THREE DIRECTIONS. THE DIRECTIONS SHOULD BE NORMAL TO THE RESPECTIVE PLANES. AND NOW PROJECT THREE DIFFERENT VIEWS ON THOSE PLANES. THESE VEWS ARE FRONT VIEW , TOP VIEW AND SIDE VIEW. FRONT VIEW IS A VIEW PROJECTED ON VERTICAL PLANE ( VP ) TOP VIEW IS A VIEW PROJECTED ON HORIZONTAL PLANE ( HP ) SIDE VIEW IS A VIEW PROJECTED ON PROFILE PLANE ( PP ) FIRST STUDY THE CONCEPT OF 1 ST AND 3 RD ANGLE PROJECTION METHODS ND THEN STUDY NEXT 26 ILLUSTRATED CASES CAREFULL RY TO RECOGNIZE SURFACES ERPENDICULAR TO THE ARROW DIRECTIONS
  10. 10. FOR T.V. 1 ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS R FO . S.V FO R FRONT VIEW L.H.SIDE VIEW F. V. x PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN DRAW THREE VIEWS OF THIS OBJECT BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD y TOP VIEW
  11. 11. FOR T.V. 2 ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS FRONT VIEW R FO . .V S FO R X Y F. V. TOP VIEW PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN DRAW THREE VIEWS OF THIS OBJECT BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD L.H.SIDE VIEW
  12. 12. FOR T.V. 3 ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS FRONT VIEW L.H.SIDE VIEW R FO . S.V FO R F. V. X Y TOP VIEW PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN DRAW THREE VIEWS OF THIS OBJECT BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD
  13. 13. 4 FOR T.V. ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS FRONT VIEW R FO . S. V FO R X Y F. V. TOP VIEW PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN DRAW THREE VIEWS OF THIS OBJECT BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD L.H.SIDE VIEW
  14. 14. FOR T.V. 5 ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS R FO FRONT VIEW . .V S FO R PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN DRAW THREE VIEWS OF THIS OBJECT BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD F. V. X L.H.SIDE VIEW Y TOP VIEW
  15. 15. 6 FOR T.V. ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS FRONT VIEW R FO . .V S FO R X L.H.SIDE VIEW Y F. V. TOP VIEW PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN DRAW THREE VIEWS OF THIS OBJECT BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD
  16. 16. 7 FOR T.V. ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS FRONT VIEW FO R R FO . .V S L.H.SIDE VIEW F. V. X PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN DRAW THREE VIEWS OF THIS OBJECT BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD Y TOP VIEW
  17. 17. STUDY Z ILLUSTRATIONS 8 FOR T.V. ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS FRONT VIEW 50 X Y 20 FO R 25 F. V. 25 20 TOP VIEW PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN DRAW THREE VIEWS OF THIS OBJECT BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD
  18. 18. 9 FOR T.V. ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS FRONT VIEW X R FO . S. V FO R Y F. V. PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN DRAW THREE VIEWS OF THIS OBJECT BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD L.H.SIDE VIEW TOP VIEW
  19. 19. ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS FOR T.V. FRONT VIEW X L.H.SIDE VIEW Y . S.V R FO R FO V. F. PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN DRAW THREE VIEWS OF THIS OBJECT BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD 10 TOP VIEW
  20. 20. FOR T.V. ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS FRONT VIEW FO R R FO X F. V. L.H.SIDE VIEW Y . .V S TOP VIEW PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN DRAW THREE VIEWS OF THIS OBJECT BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD 11
  21. 21. 12 FOR T.V. ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS FRONT VIEW X R FO . S.V FO R Y F. V. PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN DRAW THREE VIEWS OF THIS OBJECT BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD L.H.SIDE VIEW TOP VIEW
  22. 22. 13 STUDY Z ILLUSTRATIONS FOR T.V. ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS 35 FV 35 10 x 20 10 FO R O F. V. PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN DRAW FV AND TV OF THIS OBJECT BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD 40 70 TV 30 y
  23. 23. STUDY Z ILLUSTRATIONS R FO 14 FOR T.V. ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS FV 30 10 30 SV 30 10 30 x . S. V FO R y F. V. PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN DRAW THREE VIEWS OF THIS OBJECT BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD TV ALL VIEWS IDENTICAL
  24. 24. OR 15 STUDY Z ILLUSTRATIONS ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS FOR T.V. ALL VIEWS IDENTICAL FV SV y x 10 . S.V FO R F. V. PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN DRAW THREE VIEWS OF THIS OBJECT BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD 40 40 60 60 TV
  25. 25. FOR T.V. ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS 16 ALL VIEWS IDENTICAL FV SV y x 10 R FO . .V S FO R F. V. PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN DRAW THREE VIEWS OF THIS OBJECT BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD 40 40 60 60 TOP VIEW
  26. 26. 17 ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS FRONT VIEW 40 L.H.SIDE VIEW 30 SQUARE 20 50 R FO FO R . S. V F. X V. 20 10 O PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN DRAW FV AND SV OF THIS OBJECT BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD Y 30 F.V. 60 S.V.
  27. 27. FOR T.V. ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS 18 FV 40 X O 10 Y 45 30 D FO R O 10 50 80 TV F. V. PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN DRAW FV AND TV OF THIS OBJECT BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD
  28. 28. 19 FOR T.V. ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS 40 FV O X 10 Y 100 10 FO R 25 TV 10 30 R 20 D 30 10 25 O F. V. PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN DRAW FV AND TV OF THIS OBJECT BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD
  29. 29. PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN DRAW FV AND TV OF THIS OBJECT BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS 30 FOR T.V. FV RECT. SLOT 10 50 35 10 X 20 D FO R F. V. TV 60 D 30 D TOP VIEW O Y 20
  30. 30. 21 ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS 10 25 15 25 40 10 25 R FO FO R . S.V O F. V. O 25 80 F.V. PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN DRAW FV AND SV OF THIS OBJECT BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD 25 S.V.
  31. 31. FOR T.V. ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS 450 30 FV 40 X FO R Y 30 D F. V. TV 40 O PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN DRAW FV AND TV OF THIS OBJECT BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD 40 15 22
  32. 32. 23 ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS FO R R FO HEX PART F. V. 30 20 20 . S.V 40 O 20 50 20 15 O 30 60 100 PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN DRAW FV ABD SV OF THIS OBJECT BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD FRONT VIEW L.H.SIDE VIEW
  33. 33. FOR T.V. ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS 24 40 20 FRONT VIEW F.V. 30 10 X Y O 10 FO R 30 F. V. 10 30 O PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN DRAW FV AND TV OF THIS OBJECT BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD 80 T.V. TOP VIEW
  34. 34. 25 ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS 10 10 15 25 25 X Y O 50 FV LSV 10 R FO . .V S FO R PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN DRAW FV AND LSV OF THIS OBJECT BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD F. V.
  35. 35. PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN DRAW FV AND SV OF THIS OBJECT BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD 26 FO R ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS F. V. 30 10 20 20 15 10 R FO . .V S 15 O 30 15 X 15 Y 50 F.V. LEFT S.V.

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