Andhra Pradesh e-GovernanceThe eGovernance system in Andhra Pradesh is an outstanding attempt toovercome the poverty, illiteracy and corruption endemic in India by using Internettechnology to empower citizens in their everyday dealings with the StateGovernment.Andhra Pradesh has a multi-ethnic population of 76 million. Five languages arespoken, but only 8% have completed high school education, and 48% areilliterate. Some 70% earn their living from the land. The average annualhousehold income is $600, with 20% of the population below the poverty line of$49 per year. Some 50% of homes have no electricity, and 69% do not havepiped water.Under the forward-looking leadership of Nara Chandrababu Naidu, theGovernment of Andhra Pradesh employed McKinsey & Co. to produce a twenty-year plan for the States agriculture, healthcare, education and industrydevelopment. TheirVision 2020 advocated:1. A radical change of mindset.2. Simple, moral, accountable, responsive and transparent government.3. A shift from institution-centered to citizen-centered objectives.4. Provision of sustainable and affordable IT infrastructure.5. Software development to center on health, agriculture, education andbusiness.6. Recruiting recent ICT graduates, while training existing staff.7. Implementing initiatives created in the late 1990s.The benefits to State Government included:1. Higher employee productivity.2. Better use and re-use of information by Government departments.3. Reduced maintenance and training costs by adopting common systems andprocesses.The C-6 Model envisaged:
1. Content. Develop existing software to desired ends.2. Competencies. Train existing staff rather than recruit new.3. Connectivity. Encourage private operators to lay fiber-optic cable throughoutthe state.4. Cyberlaws. APs Information Technology Act 2000 to cover data privacy,integrity, access control, non-repudiation and audit of electronic transactions.5. Citizen Interface Options. Connect citizen service centers, Internet kiosks,home PCs, etc.6. Capital. Financing by public private partnership.Each eSeva center (seva means service in Sanskrit) would run on:Sun E250 servers, Compaq ML 530 database servers.Oracle 9iAS, application server running on Sun Solaris.Oracle 8i R3 database server running on Microsoft Windows 2000.Firewall server.Network monitoring system running on Cisco.10 KVA UPS with one-hour backup and 5 KVA UPS for all servers in thedatacenter. 10 client machines and 10 printers at each eSeva Center.Seva centers (outsourced to private companies) would run 8 a.m. to 8 p.m., 7days week over the Internet through www.esevaonline.com. Centers would have24-44 staff members. Citizens would not be charged for the service, except forutilities, which would be billed Rs.5 per transaction.ImplementationImplementation was staggered, with various services appearing as need andcircumstances permitted. The computer-aided Administration of RegistrationDepartment (CARD), for example, was one of the first eGovernance initiativesimplemented, with 2.8 million land records dating from 1983 digitized andaccessible from 387 offices around the state. The pilot study conducted in 1996cost $55,000, and the full project, launched in 1998, cost $6 million. Six monthsafter implementation, some 80% of all land registration transactions were carriedout electronically. Land registration can now be completed in one hour instead of7-15 days of the previous system. Title searches over the past 20 years can be
done in 15 minutes rather than the 3 days. Certified copies of documents areobtainable in 30 minutes rather than the 3 days of the conventional system.Old habit died hard, however. Some 90% rural and 80% urban land registrantsattended a CARD office with a document writer or a middleman. The averagebribe paid was an additional 7.95% (2.85% urban and 25.81% rural) of the actualfees due. Some 83% (60% urban and 94% rural) of citizens thought theregistration officer was corrupt, and 85% (64% urban and 96% rural) thought theLand Department itself was corrupt.Services for the Hyderabad Metropolitan Water Supply & Sewage Board wererolled out early, and quickly paid for themselves. Prior to April 2002, the averagenumber of customers who paid was roughly 60,000 across all districts. FromAugust 2001, thanks to TV-, print-, computer- and word-of-mouth-advertising, thenumber of paying customers rose to 100,000, an increase of 66%. Customerservice improved, and complaint waiting times were generally halved.The original Andhra Pradesh State Electricity Board was unbundled into severalcompanies, and similar improvements achieved.Services Payable at Seva CentersElectricity Transfer of vehicle ownershipWater and sewerage Issue of driving licensesTelephone bills Renewal of driving licenses (non-transport vehicles)Property tax Registration of new vehiclesCST returns Quarterly tax payments of autosA2 returns of APGST Quarterly tax payments of goods vehiclesAA9 returns of APGST Lifetime tax payments of new vehiclesExamination fee Registration of birthIT returns of Salaried class Registration of deathPrepaid parking tickets Issue of birth certificatesRenewal of Trade licenses Issue of death certificatesChange of vehicle owner address Internet-enabled electronic paymentsTransfer of vehicle ownership Download of forms and Government Orders
Issue of driving licenses Reservation of APSRTC bus ticketsRenewal of driving licenses (non-transport vehicles) Reservation of water tankerRegistration of new vehicles Filing of passport applicationsQuarterly tax payments of autos Sale of non-judicial stampsQuarterly tax payments of goods vehicles Sale of trade license applicationsLifetime tax payments of new vehicles Sale of National Games TicketsRegistration of birth Sale of entry tickets for WTAElectricity Sale of EAMCET applicationsWater and sewerage Collection of telephone bill paymentsTelephone bills Sale of new AirTel Prepaid Phone cardsProperty tax Top up/recharge of AirTel Magic cardsCST returns Sale of entry tickets for Tollywood Star cricketA2 returns of APGST Sale of entry tickets for Cricket match (RWSO)AA9 returns of APGST Filing of Reliance CDMA Mobile Phone connectionsExamination feeChange of vehicle owner addressServices Subsequently Payable at Seva Centers General insuranceRailway reservation Reservation of tourist accommodationSale of movie tickets Reservation of tourist bus ticketsPayment of traffic-related offenses Call centerPayment of degree examination fees of O.U. Indian Airlines ticket reservationSale of I-CET applications Life insurance premium paymentOnline reservation of Tirupati Temple Tickets Issue of caste certificatesCollection of bill payments of Idea Cellular Sale of Indira Vikas Patra ATM servicesCollection of bill payments of HUTCH Collection of bill payments of Air TelIssue of encumbrance Renewal of drug licensesCertificate Market value assistance Issue of bus passes Collection of trade licenses of Labor departmentRural Services
Advice and information on:Crop selection DiseasesFarm practices Tele-veterinary servicesPest control Agricultural market prices EmploymentOverall SuccessesThe system has been a well-publicized success. Notable features:1. 7.02 million transactions have been accomplished since inception in August2001 and Rs.19.6 billion collected.2. 45 services became accessible, with each transaction designed to take nomore than 90 seconds.3. Time saved was the greatest boon: particularly by middle class citizens.4. 78% of users were educated, and 97% were literate.5. Utility payment was the most used: electricity 93%, telephone 77% and 72%for water bills.6. Investment was drawn from Andhra Pradesh , Indian and overseas sources,including the World Bank and the UKs Department of International Development.7. The PPP approach is working, with increased opportunities for privatecompanies to employ and train staff.8. A gradual improvement in the quality of life is being observed.