Secure Web Transactions

Sridhar Iyer
K R School of Information Technology
IIT Bombay
sri@it.iitb.ernet.in
http://www.it.i...
Overview
 Electronic Commerce
 Underlying Technologies

– Cryptography
– Network Security Protocols

 Electronic Paymen...
Commerce





Commerce: Exchange of Goods / Services
Contracting parties: Buyer and Seller
Fundamental principles: Tru...
E-Commerce
 Automation of commercial transactions using
computer and communication technologies
 Facilitated by Internet...
E-Commerce Steps
 Attract prospects to your site
– Positive online experience
– Value over traditional retail

 Convert ...
E-Commerce Participants
E-Commerce Problems
Snooper

Unknown
customer
Unreliable
Merchant
E-Commerce risks

 Customer's risks

– Stolen credentials or password
– Dishonest merchant
– Disputes over transaction
– ...
Why is the Internet insecure?
S

C

 Host security
– Client
– Server (multi-user)

 Transmission
security
– Passive snif...
E-Commerce Security
 Authorization, Access Control:
– protect intranet from hordes: Firewalls

 Confidentiality, Data In...
Encryption (shared key)
m: message
k: shared key

- Sender and receiver agree on a key K
- No one else knows K
- K is used...
Public key encryption
m: message
sk: private secret key
pk: public key

· Separate public key pk and private key sk
· Priv...
Digital signature

Sign: sign(sk,m) = Dsk(m)
Verify: Epk(sign(sk,m)) = m
Sign on small hash function to reduce cost
Signed and secret messages
pk2
m

pk1
Verify-sign
Encrypt(pk1)

sign(sk1, m)
Encrypt(pk2)

Epk2(Dsk1(m)
)

Decrypt(sk2)

F...
Digital certificates
How to establish authenticity of public key?

Register
public key

Download
public key
Certification authority
Electronic payments: Issues
Secure transfer across internet
High reliability: no single failure point
Atomic transactions
...
E-Payments: Secure transfer
 SSL: Secure socket layer
– below application layer

 S-HTTP: Secure HTTP:
– On top of http
SSL: Secure Socket Layer
 Application protocol independent
 Provides connection security as:
– Connection is private: En...
SSL Handshake Protocol
 1. Client "Hello": challenge data, cipher specs
 2. Server "Hello": connection ID, public key ce...
S-HTTP: Secure HTTP
 Application level security (HTTP specific)
 "Content-Privacy-Domain" header:
– Allows use of digita...
Secure end to end protocols
E-Payments: Atomicity
 Money atomicity: no creation/destruction of
money when transferred
 Goods atomicity: no payment w...
Anonymity of purchaser
Payment system types
 Credit card-based methods
– Credit card over SSL

 Electronic Cheques
– - NetCheque

 Anonymous p...
Encrypted credit card payment

 Set secure communication channel between
buyer and seller
 Send credit card number to me...
First virtual
Customer assigned virtual PIN by phone
Customer uses PIN to make purchases
Merchant contacts First virtual
F...
Cybercash
 Customer opens account with cybercash,
gives credit card number and gets a PIN
 Special software on customer ...
SET:Secure Electronic Transactions
 Merge of STT, SEPP, iKP
 Secure credit card based protocol
 Common structure:
– Cus...
Electronic Cheques
 Leverages the check payments system, a core
competency of the banking industry.
 Fits within current...
How does echeck work?
 Exactly same way as paper
 Check writer "writes" the echeck using one of
many types of electronic...
Anonymous payments
5. Deposit token at bank.
If double spent reveal
identity and notify police

1. Withdraw money:
cyrpogr...
Problems with the protocol
 Not money atomic: if crash after 3, money lost
– if money actually sent to merchant: returnin...
Micropayments on hyperlinks

 HTML extended to have pricing details with each
link: displayed when user around the link
...
Micropayments: NetBill
 Customer & merchant have account with NetBill server
 Protocol:
– Customer request quote from me...
Recent micropayment systems
Company
Compaq
IBM
France
Telecom

Payment
system
Millicent

Unique
code
mcent

IBM payment
sy...
Smartcards
 8-bit micro, < 5MHz, < 2k RAM, 20k ROM
 Download electronic money on a card: wallet on a
card
 Efficient, s...
Mondex
 Smart card based sales and card to card
transfers
 Money is secured through a password and
transactions are logg...
Summary
 Various protocols and software infrastructure
for ecommerce
 Today: credit card over SSL or S-HTTP
 Getting th...
References
 State of the art in electronic payment systems, IEEE
COMPUTER 30/9 (1997) 28-35
 Internet privacy - The ques...
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Secnet

  1. 1. Secure Web Transactions Sridhar Iyer K R School of Information Technology IIT Bombay sri@it.iitb.ernet.in http://www.it.iitb.ernet.in/~sri
  2. 2. Overview  Electronic Commerce  Underlying Technologies – Cryptography – Network Security Protocols  Electronic Payment Systems – Credit card-based methods – Electronic Cheques – Anonymous payment – Micropayments – SmartCards
  3. 3. Commerce     Commerce: Exchange of Goods / Services Contracting parties: Buyer and Seller Fundamental principles: Trust and Security Intermediaries: • Direct (Distributors, Retailers) • Indirect (Banks, Regulators)  Money is a medium to facilitate transactions  Attributes of money: – Acceptability, Portability, Divisibility – Security, Anonymity – Durability, Interoperability
  4. 4. E-Commerce  Automation of commercial transactions using computer and communication technologies  Facilitated by Internet and WWW  Business-to-Business: EDI  Business-to-Consumer: WWW retailing  Some features: – Easy, global access, 24 hour availability – Customized products and services – Back Office integration – Additional revenue stream
  5. 5. E-Commerce Steps  Attract prospects to your site – Positive online experience – Value over traditional retail  Convert prospect to customer – Provide customized services – Online ordering, billing and payment  Keep them coming back – Online customer service – Offer more products and conveniences Maximize revenue per sale
  6. 6. E-Commerce Participants
  7. 7. E-Commerce Problems Snooper Unknown customer Unreliable Merchant
  8. 8. E-Commerce risks  Customer's risks – Stolen credentials or password – Dishonest merchant – Disputes over transaction – Inappropriate use of transaction details  Merchant’s risk – Forged or copied instruments – Disputed charges – Insufficient funds in customer’s account – Unauthorized redistribution of purchased items  Main issue: Secure payment scheme
  9. 9. Why is the Internet insecure? S C  Host security – Client – Server (multi-user)  Transmission security – Passive sniffing – Active spoofing and masquerading – Denial of service  Active content – Java, Javascript, ActiveX, DCOM S S C Denial of service Eavesdropping A B A C A C Interception B C Replay/fabrication B A B C
  10. 10. E-Commerce Security  Authorization, Access Control: – protect intranet from hordes: Firewalls  Confidentiality, Data Integrity: – protect contents against snoopers: Encryption  Authentication: – both parties prove identity before starting transaction: Digital certificates  Non-repudiation: – proof that the document originated by you & you only: Digital signature
  11. 11. Encryption (shared key) m: message k: shared key - Sender and receiver agree on a key K - No one else knows K - K is used to derive encryption key EK & decryption key DK - Sender computes and sends EK(Message) - Receiver computes DK(EK(Message)) - Example: DES: Data Encryption Standard
  12. 12. Public key encryption m: message sk: private secret key pk: public key · Separate public key pk and private key sk · Private key is kept secret by receiver · Dsk(Epk(mesg)) = mesg and vice versa · Knowing Ke gives no clue about Kd
  13. 13. Digital signature Sign: sign(sk,m) = Dsk(m) Verify: Epk(sign(sk,m)) = m Sign on small hash function to reduce cost
  14. 14. Signed and secret messages pk2 m pk1 Verify-sign Encrypt(pk1) sign(sk1, m) Encrypt(pk2) Epk2(Dsk1(m) ) Decrypt(sk2) First sign, then encrypt: order is important.
  15. 15. Digital certificates How to establish authenticity of public key? Register public key Download public key
  16. 16. Certification authority
  17. 17. Electronic payments: Issues Secure transfer across internet High reliability: no single failure point Atomic transactions Anonymity of buyer Economic and computational efficiency: allow micropayments  Flexiblility: across different methods  Scalability in number of servers and users     
  18. 18. E-Payments: Secure transfer  SSL: Secure socket layer – below application layer  S-HTTP: Secure HTTP: – On top of http
  19. 19. SSL: Secure Socket Layer  Application protocol independent  Provides connection security as: – Connection is private: Encryption is used after an initial handshake to define secret (symmetric) key – Peer's identity can be authenticated using public (asymmetric) key – Connection is reliable: Message transport includes a message integrity check (hash)  SSL Handshake protocol: – Allows server and client to authenticate each other and negotiate a encryption key
  20. 20. SSL Handshake Protocol  1. Client "Hello": challenge data, cipher specs  2. Server "Hello": connection ID, public key certificate, cipher specs  3. Client "session-key": encrypted with server's public key  4. Client "finish": connection ID signed with client's private key  5. Server "verify": client's challenge data signed with server's private key  6. Server "finish": session ID signed with server's private key  Session IDs and encryption options cached to avoid renegotiation for reconnection
  21. 21. S-HTTP: Secure HTTP  Application level security (HTTP specific)  "Content-Privacy-Domain" header: – Allows use of digital signatures &/ encryption – Various encryption options  Server-Browser negotiate – Property: cryptographic scheme to be used – Value: specific algorithm to be used – Direction: One way/Two way security
  22. 22. Secure end to end protocols
  23. 23. E-Payments: Atomicity  Money atomicity: no creation/destruction of money when transferred  Goods atomicity: no payment w/o goods and viceversa. – Eg: pay on delivery of parcel  Certified delivery: the goods delivered is what was promised: – Open the parcel in front of a trusted 3rd party
  24. 24. Anonymity of purchaser
  25. 25. Payment system types  Credit card-based methods – Credit card over SSL  Electronic Cheques – - NetCheque  Anonymous payments – - Digicash - CAFE  Micropayments  SmartCards - First Virtual -SET
  26. 26. Encrypted credit card payment  Set secure communication channel between buyer and seller  Send credit card number to merchant encrypted using merchant’s public key  Problems: merchant fraud, no customer signature  Ensures money but no goods atomicity  Not suitable for microtransactions
  27. 27. First virtual Customer assigned virtual PIN by phone Customer uses PIN to make purchases Merchant contacts First virtual First virtual send email to customer If customer confirms, payment made to merchant Not goods atomic since customer can refuse to pay  Not suitable for small transactions  Flood customer’s mailbox, delay merchant      
  28. 28. Cybercash  Customer opens account with cybercash, gives credit card number and gets a PIN  Special software on customer side sends PIN, signature, transaction amount to merchant  Merchant forwards to cybercash server that completes credit card transaction  Pros: credit card # not shown to server, fast  Cons: not for microtransactions
  29. 29. SET:Secure Electronic Transactions  Merge of STT, SEPP, iKP  Secure credit card based protocol  Common structure: – Customer digitally signs a purchase along with price and encrypts in bank’s public key – Merchant submits a sales request with price to bank. – Bank compares purchase and sales request. If price match, bank authorizes sales  Avoids merchant fraud, ensures money but no goods atomicity
  30. 30. Electronic Cheques  Leverages the check payments system, a core competency of the banking industry.  Fits within current business practices  Works like a paper check does but in pure electronic form, with fewer manual steps.  Can be used by all bank customers who have checking accounts  Different from Electronic fund transfers
  31. 31. How does echeck work?  Exactly same way as paper  Check writer "writes" the echeck using one of many types of electronic devices  ”Gives" the echeck to the payee electronically.  Payee "deposits" echeck, receives credit,  Payee's bank "clears" the echeck to the paying bank.  Paying bank validates the echeck and "charges" the check writer's account for the check.
  32. 32. Anonymous payments 5. Deposit token at bank. If double spent reveal identity and notify police 1. Withdraw money: cyrpographically encoded tokens merchant customer 3. Send token after adding merchant’s identity 4. Check validity and send goods 2. Transform so merchant can check validity but identity hidden
  33. 33. Problems with the protocol  Not money atomic: if crash after 3, money lost – if money actually sent to merchant: returning to bank will alert police – if money not sent: not sending will lead to loss  High cost of cryptographic transformations: not suitable for micropayments  Examples: Digicash
  34. 34. Micropayments on hyperlinks  HTML extended to have pricing details with each link: displayed when user around the link  On clicking, browser talks to E-Wallet that initiates payment to webserver of the source site  Payment for content providers  Attempt to reduce overhead per transaction
  35. 35. Micropayments: NetBill  Customer & merchant have account with NetBill server  Protocol: – Customer request quote from merchant, gets quote and accepts – Merchant sends goods encrypted by key K – Customer prepares & signs Electronic Purchase Order having <price, crypto-checksum of goods> – Merchant countersigns EPO, signs K and sends both to NetBill server – NetBill verifies signatures and transfers funds, stores K and crypto-checksum and – NetBill sends receipt to merchant and K to customer
  36. 36. Recent micropayment systems Company Compaq IBM France Telecom Payment system Millicent Unique code mcent IBM payment system Micrommerce mpay microm
  37. 37. Smartcards  8-bit micro, < 5MHz, < 2k RAM, 20k ROM  Download electronic money on a card: wallet on a card  Efficient, secure, paperless, intuitive and speedy  Real and virtual stores accept them  Less susceptible to net attacks since disconnected  Has other uses spanning many industries, from banking to health care
  38. 38. Mondex  Smart card based sales and card to card transfers  Money is secured through a password and transactions are logged on the card  Other operation and features similar to traditional debit cards  Card signs transaction: so no anonymity  Need card reader everywhere  Available only in prototypes
  39. 39. Summary  Various protocols and software infrastructure for ecommerce  Today: credit card over SSL or S-HTTP  Getting there: – smart cards, – digital certificates  Need: – legal base for the entire ecommerce business – global market place for ecommerce
  40. 40. References  State of the art in electronic payment systems, IEEE COMPUTER 30/9 (1997) 28-35  Internet privacy - The quest for anonymity, Communications of the ACM 42/2 (1999) 28-60.  Hyper links: – http://www.javasoft.com/products/commerce/ – http://www.semper.org/ – http://www.echeck.org/ – http://nii-server.isi.edu/info/NetCheque/ – http://www.ec-europe.org/Welcome.html/ – http://www.zdnet.com/icom/e-business/

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