Introduction to Psychology


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Introduction to Psychology

  1. 1. Introduction to Psychology By Sulekha Rani R
  2. 2. Life Before Psychology Predict what will happen Systematically observe events Do events support predictions René Descartes (1596-1650) <ul><li>Philosophy asks questions about the mind: </li></ul><ul><li>Does perception accurately reflect reality? </li></ul><ul><li>How is sensation turned into perception? </li></ul>Problem - No “scientific” way of studying problems Physiology asks similar questions about the mind SCIENTIFIC METHOD
  3. 3. Psychology Is Born Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) First Experimental Psych Lab (1879) Focuses on the scientific study of the mind. WW insists that Psych methods be as rigorous as the methods of chemistry & physics. University of Leipzig Harvard University Yale University Columbia University Catholic University Univ of Pennsylvania Cornell University Stanford University Wundt’s students start labs across USA (1880-1900)
  4. 4. Women of Psychology Mary Calkins - student of William James at Harvard but was not awarded a Ph.D. Founded psych lab at Wellesley College (1891) Maragaret Washburn - first woman to receive Ph.D. in Psychology. Wrote The Animal Mind, which helped begin the Behaviorist movement. Leta Hollingworth - Debunked popular theories that suggested women were inferior to men. Did pioneering work on adolescent development, mental retardation & “gifted” children.
  5. 5. Psychology (pre-1920) William James (1842-1910) Philosopher & Psychologist Formed  at Harvard Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) Physiologist & Perceptual Psychologist Founder of Psychology as a Science Experiments Edward Titchner (1867-1927) Student of Wundt Formed  at Cornell Introspection Psychology Understanding Mental Processes
  6. 6. Behaviorism Scientific Psychology should focus on observable behavior . John Watson (1878-1958) Ivan Pavlov Stimulus Response Psychology Mental Processes cannot be studied directly Psych the Science of Behavior
  7. 7. Psychology (1920s-1960s) John B. Watson (1878-1958) Behavior without Reference to Thought The RAT & S-R Psychology B. F. Skinner (1904-1990) Behaviorism with a Twist The PIDGEON & The Skinner Box Psychology Science of Observable Behavior Behaviorism
  8. 8. Structuralism vs Functionalism William James (1842-1910) Analyze consciousness into basic elements and study how they are related Introspection - self-observation of one’s own conscious experiences Investigate the function, or purpose of consciousness rather than its structure Leaned toward applied work (natural surroundings) Structuralism Functionalism Wilhelm Wundt
  9. 9. Gestalt Psychology Max Wertheimer (1880-1943) “ The whole is different than the sum of its parts.” Phi Phenomenon Illusion of movement created by presenting visual stimuli in rapid succession. A reaction against Structuralism An attempt to focus attention back onto conscious experience (i.e., the mind ) WHY?
  10. 10. Freud & Psychoanalysis Unconscious expressed in dreams & “slips of the tongue ” Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Proposes the idea of the UNCONSCIOUS Thoughts, memories & desires exist below conscious awareness and exert an influence on our behavior Psychoanalytic Theory attempts to explain personality, mental disorders & motivation in terms of unconscious determinants of behavior
  11. 11. Cognitive Psychology Noam Chomsky “ Language” Advent of computers (late 1950s) provides a new model for thinking about the mind Cognitive Psychologists return to the study of learning, memory, perception, language, development & problem solving Cognition the mental processes involved in acquiring, processing, storing & using information
  12. 12. Psychology (1960s-1990s) Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) The Dynamic Unconscious Mind Psychoanalysis Computers as Metaphor for Mind Study Mind through Inferences Drawn From Observable Behavior Psychology Science of Behavior & Mental Processes Cognitive 
  13. 13. Different Perspectives in Psychology Biological Psychology Behavioral/Clinical Psychology Cognitive Psychology Social-Cultural Psychology
  14. 14. Biological Perspective Focus How the body and brain create emotions, memories, and sensory experiences. <ul><li>Sample Issues </li></ul><ul><li>How do evolution and heredity influence behavior? </li></ul><ul><li>How are messages transmitted within the body? </li></ul><ul><li>How is blood chemistry linked with moods and motives? </li></ul>
  15. 15. Behavioral/Clinical Perspective Focus How we learn from observable responses. How to best study, assess and treat troubled people. <ul><li>Sample Issues </li></ul><ul><li>How do we learn to fear particular objects or situations? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the most effective way to alter certain behaviors? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the underlying causes of: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anxiety Disorders </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phobic Disorders </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Cognitive Perspective Focus How we process, store and retrieve information. <ul><li>Sample Issues </li></ul><ul><li>How do we use info in remembering and reasoning? </li></ul><ul><li>How do our senses govern the nature of perception? </li></ul><ul><li>(Is what you see really what you get?) </li></ul><ul><li>How much do infants “know” when they are born? </li></ul>
  17. 17. Social-Cultural Perspective Focus How behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures. <ul><li>Sample Issues </li></ul><ul><li>How are we, as members of different races and </li></ul><ul><li>nationalities, alike as members of one human family? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we differ, as products of different social contexts? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do people sometimes act differently in groups than </li></ul><ul><li>when alone? </li></ul>
  18. 18. One night two young men from Egulac went down to the river to hunt seals, and while they were there it became foggy and calm. Then they heard war cries, and they thought: “Maybe this is a war party.” They escaped to the shore, and hid behind a log. Now canoes came up, and they heard the noise of paddles, and saw one canoe coming up to them. There were five men in the canoe, and they said: “ What do you think? We wish to take you along. We are going up the river to make war on the people.” One of the young men said, “I have no arrows.” “ Arrows are in the canoe”, they said. “ I will not go along. I might be killed. My relatives do not know where I have gone. But you,” he said turning to the other, “may go with them.” So one of the young men went but the other returned home. And the warriors went on up the river to a town on the other side of Kalama. The people came down to the water, and they began to fight, and many were killed. But presently the young man heard one of the warriors say, “Quick, let us go home, that indian has been hit.” Now he thought, “Oh, they are ghosts.” He did not feel sick, but they said he had been shot. So the canoes went back to Egulac, and the young man went ashore to his house and made a fire. And he told everybody and said, “Behold I accompanied the ghosts, and we went to fight. Many of our fellows were killed, and many of those who attacked us were killed. They said I was hit and I did not feel sick.” He told it all, and then became quiet. When the sun rose he fell down. Something black came out of his mouth. His face became contorted. The people jumped up and cried. He was dead. The War of the Ghosts
  19. 19. Psychology is Empirical Psych conclusions based on research NOT tradition or common sense Knowledge acquired through observation Psychologists must be skeptical and think critically What is the evidence? How was it collected?
  20. 20. Psych Is Theoretically Diverse Theory Dreams Biological Psychology Perspective Clinical Psychoanalytic Perspective A system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations
  21. 21. Psych & Sociohistorical Context Trends & Issues In Society Advances In Psychology Psychology develops in both a social & historical context Early Psychology Affected by physics & physiology Society Today Affected by psychological testing (IQ, SAT, GRE)
  22. 22. What Causes Behavior? Behavior
  23. 23. Behavior is Shaped by Culture Personal Space Value of Education Punctuality Social Norms
  24. 24. Influence of Heredity & Environment Nature versus Nurture
  25. 25. Perception Is Subjective Internal Information Prior Expectations Current Mental State Experience External Information Actual Words/Actions Image Reflected from Objects “ Sound” Waves Both Determine Our Experience of the World
  26. 26. Work In Psychology (?) Universities & Colleges 27.2% Elementary/ Secondary Schools 4.2% Hospitals, Counseling, Clinics, etc. 22.3% Business, Government or Consulting 12.1% Independent Practice 33.1%
  27. 27. Specialties In Psychology Clinical, Community & Counseling 51.1% General/Quantitative 3.6% Cognitive/Physio 5.2% I/O 5.7% Social/ Developmental 6.4% Other 8.6% Ed & School 19.4%