Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Grid Presentation

About Grid Computing, tools and parallel programming

  • Login to see the comments

Grid Presentation

  1. 1. GRID COMPUTING María del Carmen Cabrera Loayza Marielisa Peralta Valarezo
  2. 2. <ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Grid Computing Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Tool: Globus Toolkit 4.0.1 </li></ul><ul><li>Parallel Programmin: MPI </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Provide the basics knowledges about the technology Grid . </li></ul><ul><li>Give to know the necessary tools for the implementation of this technology. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the languages and libraries OpenSource that exist for the implementation of applications. </li></ul>Objectives:
  4. 4. <ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Grid Computing Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Tool: Globus Toolkit 4.0.1 </li></ul><ul><li>Parallel Programmin: MPI </li></ul>
  5. 5. Introduction <ul><ul><li>Grid Computing is a framed inside of the technology computation including concepts as distributed operative systems, programming multiprocessor, nets of computers, parallel computation, security, database, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grid Computing is not only to share cycles of CPU to make complex calculations rather search the creation of a distributed infrastructure. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Share computational competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of processing cycles </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Expensives </li></ul><ul><li>Owners </li></ul><ul><li>They have an only flaw point </li></ul><ul><li>They are not broadly available </li></ul><ul><li>They suffer of scalability problems, in terms of number of processors and capacity of memory </li></ul>Introduction: Supercomputer (2)
  7. 7. Introduction: Grid (3) <ul><li>They provide capacity equivalent computational to the opposing one in powerful and expensive traditional parallel supercomputers. </li></ul><ul><li>They use components of low cost and broadly available ( commodities ) </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Grid Computing Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Tool: Globus Toolkit 4.0.1 </li></ul><ul><li>Parallel Programmin: MPI </li></ul>
  9. 9. Grid Computing Technology <ul><li>A grid is a resource computational to great scale conformed to each other by a group of very similar computers connected by means of some technology of high-speed net, configured in way coordinated to give the illusion of an only resource. </li></ul><ul><li>A grid has as inherent characteristic the share of resources: cycles of CPU, memory, data and services. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Grid Characteristics GRID COMPUTING dependable pervasive inexpensive consistent
  11. 11. What is it and for what reason serve the Grid Computing? <ul><li>A Grid Computing is a hardware and software infrastructure that gives to the one that uses it: </li></ul><ul><li>Secure access at all the levels: computation capacity, integrity of data, access security, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>The service should be consistent , based in standard and this way the access and the operations on the Grid will be defined by this standards avoiding the heterogeneity. </li></ul><ul><li>The penetration idea is not so much the possibility to consent to any resource of the Grid but rather once connected from any point it can extract of this all the power that requires. </li></ul><ul><li>Lastly the access and the use of the Grid should have and economic cost that makes it attractive so that its use is universalized. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Grid Computing Architecture <ul><li>The proposed architecture is an architecture of protocols that define the basics mechanisms that allow to the users and the resources to negotiate, to settle down, and to exploit the sharing of resources. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the level of infrastructure is when found the computing resources, as are the computers, the clusters, the supercomputers, the storage systems in net, the databases, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The connecting level includes the communication protocols and security that allow to the resources of computers to communicate. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Grid Computing Architecture … <ul><li>The last level is that of application where they are the protocols that allow to the applications the access to the infrastructure of the Grid through the different layers. </li></ul><ul><li>The resource level is centered in the administration of an only resource and it allows to have information and control on the same one. </li></ul><ul><li>The layer of resources includes all the services that allow to negotiate a group of resources. They are the services of directory, the distributed schedulers; the monitoring and diagnosis; the accounting, the access to distributed data, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>The last level is that of application where they are the protocols that allow to the applications the access to the infrastructure of the Grid through the different layers. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Grid Computing Benefits <ul><li>The characteristics of this architecture would be: </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity of balance of systems: There would not be necessity to calculate the capacity of the systems in function of the work picks, since the capacity can reallocate herself from the farm of resources to where it is needed. </li></ul><ul><li>High availability: With the new functionality, if a server fail, the services are reallocated in the remaining servers </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction of costs: With this architecture the services are negotiated by “farms of resources”. It is no longer necessary to have big servers and we will be able to make use of components of low cost. Each system can be configured following the same pattern. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Grid Computing Benefits <ul><li>The principal benefits are: </li></ul><ul><li>Offer flexibility to fill the changing necessities of the business. </li></ul><ul><li>Offer high quality at smaller cost. </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate computation power / price very cheap </li></ul><ul><li>Offer the power of a supercomputer. </li></ul><ul><li>Use gratuitous software and use opened code source. </li></ul><ul><li>Not specify additional hardware, facilitate the increment of the computation power. </li></ul><ul><li>Offer transparency for the user that participates in the Grid. </li></ul>
  18. 19. Application Fields <ul><li>Distributed Supercomputing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simulations; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tools of numeric calculation; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Processes of analysis of data; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extraction of knowledge of warehouses of data, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Distributed Systems in Real Time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Medicine (image treatment for artificial vision) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Process Intensive of Data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distributed agents of databases </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Punctual Services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This type of applications is those that allow to consent to specific hardware for the realization of works at distance. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Virtual Environments of Collaboration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teleimmersion </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Grid Computing Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Tool: Globus Toolkit 4.0.1 </li></ul><ul><li>Parallel Programming: MPI </li></ul>
  20. 21. GLOBUS Alliance <ul><li>GLOBUS Alliance , o Globus Project, is an investigation program on GRID technologies sustained by several investigation centers, universities and companies of the sector (IBM and HP among other) . </li></ul><ul><li>The main tool generated by Globus Alliance is the Globus Toolkit is a collection of software components that they offer the necessary infrastructure for the creation and execution of distributed applications, as well as for the construction of Grids. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Globus Toolkit (2) <ul><li>Globus Toolkit, an environment of open code, represents the implementations more broadly used to build services Grid. It provides the necessary elements of security, administration of resources, index of resources, administration of data and communication functions. </li></ul><ul><li>At the moment, Globus has become the factor standard for the computation in Grid. </li></ul>
  22. 23. Globus Toolkit Components <ul><li>Globus consists in four fundamentals components: </li></ul><ul><li>Grid Resource Allocation Management (GRAM) </li></ul><ul><li>Services of information (MDS) </li></ul><ul><li>Management of data (GridFTP) </li></ul><ul><li>GSI protocol of security for the communication and authentication. </li></ul>
  23. 24. Globus Structure <ul><li>The components of the actual version of the G lobusToolkit can group in two areas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The nucleus, constituted for: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The base: the implementation of OGSI (Open Grid Services Infrastructure) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Security infrastructure GSI (Grid Security Infrastructure) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The services to system level (System-level Services) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The container of de Grid Services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Auxiliaries components, are: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Base services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Defined services by the user </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Grid Computing Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Tool: Globus Toolkit 4.0.1 </li></ul><ul><li>Parallel Programmin: MPI </li></ul>
  25. 26. Parallel Programming <ul><li>It makes using separate processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Intercommunicate exchanging information. </li></ul><ul><li>Diverse types of parallel computation exist. All use different data in each process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parallelism in the data (“data-parallel”): Same operations in different data. SIMD (Single Instruction Multiple Data) . Vectorial machines. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SPMD: Same program, different data. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MIMD: Programs and different data. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SPMD y MIMD are essentially the same thing because any program MIMD can be implemented as SPMD. </li></ul><ul><li>MPI is used mainly for SPMD/MIMD. </li></ul><ul><li>HPF (High Performance Fortran) is a example of a program interface of SIMD. </li></ul>
  26. 27. MPI (Message Passing Interface) <ul><li>It is a standard library for parallel programming under the paradigm of communication of processes by means of step of messages. </li></ul><ul><li>It is good so much for big computers with memory shared, as for clusters or nets of heterogeneous computers (included the grid computing). </li></ul><ul><li>Defined for C, C++ y FORTRAN </li></ul>
  27. 28. <ul><li>The important thing is to give the programmer a collection of functions so that this designs their application, without it necessarily has to know the concrete hardware on which will execute, neither the form in that the functions have been implemented which uses. </li></ul>Application MPI SW. Step of messages HW.
  28. 29. MPI Characteristics <ul><li>General: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The communicates combines context and groups to provide security to the messages. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Thread safe”. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Comunications point-to-point: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structured buffers and types of derived data. Heterogeneity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modes: normal (blockade y no-blockade), synchronous, ready (it allows to consent to quick protocols), buffered. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Collective communications: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defaulted collective operations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defaulted collective operations by the user. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great number of routines of movement of data. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defined subgroups directly or using the topologies. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. MPI Characteristics (2) <ul><li>Topologies of processes guided to applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support incorporate for topologies of type mesh and graphos (it uses groups). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Profiling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The users can intercept the calls MPI (using hooks) to use their own tools profiling. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control de errors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There is not dynamic creation of processes </li></ul>
  30. 31. MPI Utilities <ul><li>So that you can use MPI: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parallel programs “portables”. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parallel libraries. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Programs with relationships among irregular or dynamic data that are not adjusted a model of parallelism in the data. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When to not use MPI: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you can use HPF or a parallel program Fortran 90. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If libraries of higher level can be used (that have been write using MPI). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If one doesn’t really need the parallelism. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. Conclusions: <ul><li>A Grid offers the capacity for the administration of the organization, and to see this way a scenario of more priority to be able to react changing the use of the resource more quickly, priorities and political. </li></ul><ul><li>The Globus possesses the necessary basic components to administer the functions of Grid in the organizations, making the mensurations, repairs and purifications of applications that are required. </li></ul><ul><li>Although many Mini-Grid’s exists for the development of investigations it is not distant the day in that all the computers of the world a World Grid forms by way of gigantic system of electric distribution where the users are connected and have access to the computation capacity and of storage that they specify without worrying where they are generated. </li></ul>
  32. 33. Questions ?
  33. 34. Thanks… Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja Departamento Bioinformática – UPSI María del Carmen Cabrera [email_address] Marielisa Peralta Valarezo [email_address]