Cell bio8


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Cell bio8

  1. 1. Advanced Cell Biology 2014 1nd Semester Department of Animal Science Chungbuk National University 8th Lecture
  2. 2. 1st week : Introduction 3rd week :Research Strategies For Cell Biology 5nd week : Nucleus, Transcription and Splicing 7nd week : Membrane and Channel 9nd week : Membrane Trafficking 11nd week : Cell Signaling 13nd week : Cytoskeleton 15nd week : Cell Cycle
  3. 3. Cell Cycle
  4. 4. G1: originally described as a gap between mitosis and DNA replication; now appreciated to be the time when cells grow and check for DNA damage and sample the environment to make the pivotal decision to replicate their genomes and progress through the cell cycle. S: phase when the genome is replicated. G2: originally described as a gap between DNA replication and mitosis; now appreciated to be the time when cells check for completion of DNA replication before entering mitosis. M: Mitosis and cytokinesis separate the replicated genome into two daughter cells. G0: Most differentiated cells in higher eukaryotes withdraw from the cell cycle into this stage.
  5. 5. G1 restriction point: Monitors cell size, environmental conditions, and interactions with neighbors and matrix. G1/S DNA damage checkpoint: Stops the cell cycle if DNA damage is detected. G2/M DNA damage checkpoint: A protein kinase cascade stops the cell cycle until all DNA is replicated. Metaphase spindle assembly checkpoint: Delays separation of daughter chromatids until all are attached to the mitotic spindle. Checkpoints control transitions between the cell cycle phases
  6. 6. Cyclin and Cyclin Dependent Protein Kinase
  7. 7. Discovery of Cyclin and Regulators - Temperature Sensitive Yeast mutant defective in Cell Cycle - Isolations of cdc mutants
  8. 8. Xenopus embryo as model system for Cell Cycle Research
  9. 9. Xenopus egg extract as in vitro model for Cell Cycle Research
  10. 10. Maturation Promoting Factor (MPF) Some protein(?) factors inducing Nuclear Membrane Breakdown and spindle Formation
  11. 11. Purification of MPF reveals the identity of MPF.
  12. 12. MPF = Cyclin B + CDK1
  13. 13. Cdc2 Mitotic entry (Cell Division) Mitotic Delay (Cell Growth)
  14. 14. No division Infinite growth Premature division Inactive MPFHyperactive MPF
  15. 15. Role of Protein Destruction in Cell-Cycle Control
  16. 16. Role of APC/C in Cell Cycle Control
  17. 17. G1 Phase Divide or not? That is question
  18. 18. Growth Control Cell should be reached at the specific size to divide Uncontrolled division leads cancer
  19. 19. Integrity of Cellular DNA Monitored by a G1 Checkpoint
  20. 20. S-Phase and DNA Replication
  21. 21. Metaphase
  22. 22. Spindle Checkpoint If there is unattached kinetocore, stop cell cycle progress