Cell bio3


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Cell bio3

  1. 1. Advanced Cell Biology 2014 1nd Semester Department of Animal Science Chungbuk National University 3rd Lecture
  2. 2. 1st week : Introduction 3rd week :Research Strategies For Cell Biology 5nd week : Nucleus, Transcription and Splicing 7nd week : Membrane and Channel 9nd week : Membrane Trafficking 11nd week : Cell Signaling 13nd week : Cytoskeleton 15nd week : Cell Cycle
  3. 3. Central Dogma of Molecular Biology In Eucaryotic Cell, DNA Replication, Transcription and Splicing happen at Nucleus
  4. 4. Structure of Nucleus
  5. 5. Cajal Bodies : snRNA/snoRNP assembly Nucleolus : rRNA transcription / Processing / Preribosomal assembly PML Bodies, Speckles
  6. 6. The Nucleolus: The Most Prominent Nuclear Subdomain
  7. 7. rRNA transcription : by RNA Polymerase I 50% of RNA transcription is the cell is rRNA Nucleuos in Oocyte
  8. 8. Nuclear Membrane and Nuclear Pore Complex : Gateways between Nucleus and Cytoplasm
  9. 9. Nuclear Membrane: two concentric membranes separating the perinuclear space. Outer nuclear membrane is continuous with and functionally part of the endoplasmic reticulum. Inner nuclear membrane has many novel transmembrane and peripheral proteins that anchor the nuclear lamina and interact with chromatin. Lipid bilayers of the two membranes are connected around the nuclear pore complexes.
  10. 10. Lamina : a protein meshwork lining the inner surface of the inner nuclear membrane.
  11. 11. Disassembly of the nuclear envelope is a critical aspect of mitosis (and meiosis) in higher eukaryotes It is also called as ‘GVBD’ (Germinal Vesicle Breakdown) in Oocyte..
  12. 12. Traffic between Nuclues and Cytoplasm
  13. 13. Nuclear Pore Complex : Gateway betweeen Cytoplasm and Nucleus
  14. 14. Nuclear Localization Signal (NLS) : Tickets for the Nucleus Localization PKKKRKV KRPAATKKAGQAKKKK Highly Positive Charged Residues
  15. 15. nuclear export sequence (NES) The human immunodeficiency virus I Rev protein provides one example of a leucine-rich sequence (LQLPPLERLTL) that is recognized by the carrier CRM1.
  16. 16. Importin + NLS Negative Positiv
  17. 17. Ran GDP & GTP Transition RanGDP GDP RanGTP GTP
  18. 18. Importin beta-RanGTP
  19. 19. Mitotic chromosome
  20. 20. One DNA Molecule Per chromosome
  21. 21. Chromosome DNA Packaging : The Nucleosome
  22. 22. E.coli Genome Size :4.6Mbp Human Genome Size :3100Mbp Protein Coding Gene :20000-25000 Protein Coding Gene : 4288 S.cerevisiae Genome Size : 13.8Mbp Protein Coding Gene : 6604 Drosophila Genome Size : 140Mbp Protein Coding Gene : 13525 900X time of genome size 5X times of proteins?
  23. 23. Transposon : Junk DNA? Make up much of genome of higher eucaryote -Retrotransposon : transcribe as RNA -> Convert RNA into DNA-> inserted back to genome - LINE(long interspered nuclear elements) - SINES (short interspersed nuclear elements) - Is ‘junk DNA’ really junk? - Junk is not a Trash!
  24. 24. Centromeres : the region where the chromosome becomes attached to the mitotic spindle
  25. 25. Histone Tail and Histone Code
  26. 26. Second Level of Chromosomal DNA Packaging
  27. 27. Euchromatin : contains almost all of the genes, both actively transcribed and quiescent Heterochromatin : tranascriptionally inert, generally more condensed than the euchromatin
  28. 28. Imprinting
  29. 29. Kinetochore - Button-like structure located in the surface of the centromeric hetrochromatin
  30. 30. Link between DNA and Microtuble at mitotic spindle