Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

language

language

  • Be the first to comment

language

  1. 1. GE Submitted to :- Submitted by:- Mr. Ajay grover Sukhtej sethi XI (Non-med.) (29).
  2. 2. KEY POINTS  Definition of language  Origin of language  Design features of language  Functions of language
  3. 3. DEFINITION OF LANGUAGE  Language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols used for human communication.  Language is a system--------- elements in it are not arranged and combined randomly, but according to some rules and principles.  Language is arbitrary---------- there is no intrinsic connection between the word and the thing.  Language is vocal--------- the primary medium for all languages is sound.  Language is used for human communication--------- it is human specific.
  4. 4. ORIGIN OF LANGUAGE  Plato-------- there was a “perfect” language, which all human beings ere striving to rediscover.  God said: Let there be language.  socrates-------- imitation of natural sounds was the basis for the origin of language.  some others-------- man’s instinctive response to certain external stimuli was the basis for the birth of language.
  5. 5.  German scholar m. muller---------- a mystic connection between sound and meaning: Human speech developed from primitive man giving vocal expression to the objects he encountered--------Ding-Dong Theory.  JesPerson--------- language developed from primitive ritual songs of praise------- the “Sing- Song Theory”.  l. h. Gray’s-------- traced language back to interjections, which express the speaker’s emotions---------- “Exclamatoin” or “Interjectional”.  noire--------- explained the origin of speech in terms of the cries uttered------- “Yo-He-Ho Theory”.  r. PaGet-------- from the combination of certain gestures and tongue movements------- “Ta-Ta Theory”
  6. 6. DESIGN FEATURES OF LANGUAGE All human languages have certain characteristics in common and linguists have identified these characteristics as defining features of human language, which set human languages apart from animal cry systems, these features are called design features.
  7. 7. AMERICAN LINGUIST C. FS. HOCKETT Arbitrariness Duality Productivity Interchangeability Displacement Specialization Cultural transmission
  8. 8. ARBITRARINESS There is no logical or intrinsic connection between a particular sound and the meaning it is associated with.
  9. 9. DUALITY At one level are elements which have no meaning in themselves but which combine to form units at another level which do have meaning.  Each phoneme is normally meaningless in isolation, d, g, f, o, mean nothing separately.
  10. 10. PRODUCTIVITY (Creativity) Man’s linguistic ability which enables him to produce and understand an infinitely large number of sentences in our native language, including the sentences which ere never heard before.
  11. 11. INTERCHANGEABI LITY Man can both produce and receive messages, and his roles as a speaker and a hearer can be exchanged at ease.
  12. 12. DISPLACEMENT Enabling people to talk about things remote either in space or in time. Human beings can communicate about things that re absent as easily as about things that are present. Man can talk about events, locations, and objects which are far removed from the present time and context.
  13. 13. ON Man does not have a total physical involvement in the act of communication. We use it in a detached manner.
  14. 14. CULTURAL TRANSMISSION Language is culturally transmitted. It cannot be transmitted through heredity. Animals transmit their cries through heredity. What language the baby is going to speak is determined by the culture he is born into.
  15. 15. FUNCTIONS OF LANGUAGE  Phatic function  Directive function  Informative function  Interrogative function  Expressive function  Evocative function  Performative function
  16. 16. FUNCTIONS OF LANGUAGE  PhATIC FUNCTION------- language is used to establish an atmosphere or maintain social contact between the speaker and the hearer. Greetings, farewells, and comments on the weather serve this function.  DIrECTIvE FUNCTION------ language is used to get the hearer to do sth.  INFOrmATIvE FUNCTION: language is used to tell sth., to give information, or to reason things out.
  17. 17.  INTErrOGATIvE FUNCTION------ language is used to ask for information from others.  ExPrESSIvE FUNCTION-------- language is used to reveal the speaker’s attitudes and feelings.  EvOCATIvE FUNCTION------- language is used to create certain feelings in the hearers.  PErFOrmATIvE FUNCTION------language is used to do things or to perform acts.

×