International branding Classical Brand Management
For global branding Against global branding(standardization, global) (customization, local) Consistent brand identity Constraints on brand identity (Avoidance of confusion) elaboration Targeting of emerging Different characteristics of transnational segments markets and brand images Media spillover Media is overwhelmingly local Economies of scale Abandonment of strong local (standardization → lower brands, loss of brand equity expenses and central control) Cost of adaptation, incl. Lowest Common-Denominator and Not- Clout in attracting talent Invented-Here syndromes Globalization of distribution Differences in local distributionHigh perceived quality of global Persistence of nationalism, brands backlash against global brands
“Classical” Corporate Brand Brand Management ManagementFocus on: Consumer (?) Multiple stakeholders Marketing and communi- Managerial and organizationalMain tools: cation of brand promises process uniting companyResponsi- Marketing and commu- All functions led by the CEO bilty of: nications function Branding as corporate Brand architecture Typical strategy. Strategic vision, Brand identity systemsconcerns company culture & Brand positioning stakeholder images
David A. Aaker in Building Strong Brands, 1996”Knowledge of the brand image (howcustomers and others perceive thebrand) provides useful and evennecessary background information.”
David A. Aaker in Building Strong Brands, 1996”In the brand image trap, however, thepatience, resources or expertise to gobeyond the brand image is lacking....””An insidious problem caused by thebrand image trap is that it lets thecustomer dictate what you are.”
Kevin Lane Keller in Harvard Business Review, 2000”Ultimately, the power of a brand lies inthe minds of consumers or customers,in what they have experienced andlearned about the brand over time.Customer knowledge is really at theheart of brand equity. This realizationhas important managerial implications.”
Perceptions Consumer Knowledge Behavior Beliefs MotivationAwareness Loyalty Image Value Value proposition Delivery Identity Execution Brand
However, conventional brand management theory tells us very little about the actual thoughts, feelings and lifeworlds of real consumers...
Paradigm shifts in branding according to Fournier Differentiation, logos,Brand identification names to distinguish one brand from another. Personality, creating the Brand identity brand essence articulating it throughout marketing mix Bringing brands intoBrand relationship peoples’ lives to institute partnerships with individuals
Fournier’s approach to Consumer- Brand Relationships Brand image/identity Brand meaning Relationship mgmt. Relationship mgmt. (B-to-B) (B-to-C)Interactive and addres- General application sible communicationsBrand loyalty as simple Brand relationship construct quality and dynamics
Brand Relationship Quality and its effects Meaning Brand Expressions creation relationship and process quality effects •Love/passion •AccommodationBrand behaviors •Self-connection •Tolerance/forgiveness •Commitment •Biased partner •Interdependence •perceptions Consumer •Intimacy •Devaluation of behaviors •Brand partner •alternatives •quality •Attribution biases Relationship stability/durability
Holt on the dialectics of branding and consumer culture Modern consumer Modern branding culture PostmodernPostmodern branding consumer culture Post postmodern Post postmodern branding consumer culture
Techniques of co-optation Apple advertisments featuring Mahatma Gandhi and labor activist Cesar Chavez, both heros of the counterculture thatturned against Western dominance, corporate power and consumerism in the 60s.
New branding techniques (Holt) Technique Description Examples Distancing branding Diesel advertisments, Ironic, reflexive from overt persuasion. Sprite reflexive and ironic brand persona Friendly, funny or with knowing wink. ”Image is nothing” ads Associate brand with ”Ghetto cool” of Adidas, Coattailing on places and people creating FUBU and Tommy Hilfiger,cultural epicenters new expressive cultures. Fashion brand extensions Becoming part of sub/culture (Armani Jeans, Versace rather than parasite to it. Carpets e.g.). Sponsorships. Lifeworld Anchoring brands in Cultivating heritage of spontaneous, ’authentic’, brands (Levi’s). emplacement Lifeworld experiences and Working with brand expressions. community (Harley). Seeking alternative Product placement, use ofStealth branding channels for brand street promoters or ‘snitches’ communication. Escaping critical radars. Ambient advertising
International Corporate branding branding Consumer- Anti-brand brand movement relationship