• Nutritional requirements of shrimp
• Proteins and amino acids
• Lipids (Fats, oils)
• Ash and minerals
• Nutritional diseases
Proteins and amino acids
Proteins and Amino acids
An expensive component of the shrimp feed
Need for formation of muscles, hormones and
Shrimp require 10 essential amino acids (EAA):
Essential for growth ,synthesis of cellular and subcellular
membranes and metabolic energy (ATP)
The dietary lipids required by penaeids can be categorized into 2
1. neutral lipids –
i. essential fatty acids - shrimp require 4 essential fatty acids (EFA)
a. linoleic (18:2n–6, LOA)
b. linolenic (18:3n–3, LNA)
c. eicosapentaenoic (20:5n–3, EPA)
d. docosahexaenoic (22:6n–3, DHA)
iii. Phospholipids - Phospholipids (lecithin) have a growth-promoting effect
-Eg. Astaxanthin (responsible for the colour)
greater growth promoting effect
provide metabolic energy (ATP)
Important for synthesis of RNA and DNA, mucopolysaccharide
shrimp utilize complex starches like cornstarch better than glucose
Carbohydrates reduce (“spare”) the use of protein, allowing a lower
optimal protein level
Chitin - enhanced growth , formation of exoskeleton
Ash and Minerals
Maintaining osmotic pressure
Conduction of nerve impulses and muscle contraction
Maintenance of acid-base equilibrium
Synthesis of enzymes, vitamins, hormones, respiratory pigments, cofactors in
metabolism, catalysts and enzyme activators.
Shrimp can assimilate some of their minerals directly from the water.
- Eg: Ca
Macronutrients for shrimp nutrition
Ca, P, Mg, K, Cl, S and Na
Phosphorus is the most expensive mineral supplement in aquatic feeds.
Unconsumed phosphorus leads to nutrient loading of culture systems and
A high percentage of the P in feed grains forms phytic acid which is an
Micronutrients for shrimp nutrition
Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Ni, Co, Mo, Se, Cr, I, Fl, Sn, si, As
Water soluble Vitamins Fat soluble vitamins
Pantothenic acid (B5)
vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
Vitamin E (tocopherol)
diets deficient in Vit C, biotin, folic acid, niacin, thiamine and
poor appetite and cause histopathological changes in shrimp
digestive gland cells
poor feed conversion efficiency
result in reduced shrimp growth
Natural production formulated (compound)
production in a pond through
•A complete feed is
formulated (pellet ) which
provides all required nutrients
in the proper proportions.
•Consider of rapid weight gain,
high feed efficiency and
shrimp health and quality
1. Soft Shell Syndrome
2. Blue Disease/ Pigment Deficiency Syndrome
3. Red Disease
4. Cramp Tail Syndrome
1)Soft Shell Syndrome
• Shell is thin, persistently soft for several weeks
• Dark and wrinkled
• grow slowly, and eventually die.
• Pesticide contamination
• Poor pond water and soil condition
• Use of rancid or low-quality feeds
• Nutritional deficiency
-lack of supplementary feeding in ponds with relatively
high stocking densities (Ca and P)
Prevention and treatment
Feed adequately and good-quality feeds.
Flush ponds thoroughly
Maintain the quality of pond water and soil
Provide supplementary feed
2)Blue Disease or Pigment
Also known as
• sky blue shrimp disease
• blue-shell syndrome
Caused by low level of carotenoid astaxanthin in feed.
Astaxanthin is the predominant carotenoid in penaeids
Astaxanthin improves colouration, enhances biological functions
and improves survival, growth and stress resistance in penaeid
• Natural carotenoids sources -dried Spirulina ,
-carotenoid extracted from Dunaliella
3)Red disease(Aflatoxin poisoning)
Caused by aflatoxin poisoning
Aspergillus sp. is a common contaminant in shrimp feeds and leads
to aflatoxin in the food.
This causes red disease or red discolouration.
The condition leads to gradual mortalities and losses of up to 98% in
Gross signs - cession of feeding
- dramatic slowing of growth
- leading to lethargy and weakness.
-The shrimp die rapidly if lifted out of the water.
-Shrimp gather in shallow water at the pond periphery.
-body color change into yellow and then to red,
- The fecal matter will appear red.
-Increased fluid in the cephalothorax ,
-Use fresh, recently manufactured feeds.
-Store feeds properly in well-ventilated and cool rooms (preferably
at 10–20 oC or lower)
4)Cramp Tail Syndrome (CMS)
• nutrition-related disease
• also called as cramped–muscle syndrome (CMS).
• CTS appears to be caused by one or
more of the following conditions:
• high temperature
• mineral imbalances
• toxins in the water.
reduced dietary and/or environmental
potassium (relative to the cations Ca, Na