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Nutritional diseases in shrimps

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Nutritional diseases in shrimps

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Nutritional diseases in shrimps

  1. 1. Nutritional Diseases in Shrimp P.M Dunukearachchi (VS/08/124) S.Sukeerthan (VS/08/118) H.K.Isuru (VS/09/127)
  2. 2. Overview • Nutritional requirements of shrimp • Proteins and amino acids • Lipids (Fats, oils) • Carbohydrate • Ash and minerals • Vitamins • Nutritional diseases
  3. 3. Nutritional requirements Nutrients Proteins and amino acids Lipids (Fats,oils) Carbohydrate Ash and minerals Vitamins
  4. 4. Proteins and Amino acids  An expensive component of the shrimp feed  Need for formation of muscles, hormones and enzymes  Shrimp require 10 essential amino acids (EAA): 1. Arginine 2. Methionine 3. Valine 4. Threonine 5. Isoleucine 6. Lysine 7. Leucine 8. Histidine 9. Phenylalanine 10. Tryptophan first limiting amino acids of commercial shrimp feed formulae
  5. 5. Lipids  Essential for growth ,synthesis of cellular and subcellular membranes and metabolic energy (ATP) The dietary lipids required by penaeids can be categorized into 2 classes 1. neutral lipids – i. essential fatty acids - shrimp require 4 essential fatty acids (EFA) a. linoleic (18:2n–6, LOA) b. linolenic (18:3n–3, LNA) c. eicosapentaenoic (20:5n–3, EPA) d. docosahexaenoic (22:6n–3, DHA) ii. sterols iii. Phospholipids - Phospholipids (lecithin) have a growth-promoting effect in shrimp 2. Carotenoids -Eg. Astaxanthin (responsible for the colour) greater growth promoting effect
  6. 6. Carbohydrate provide metabolic energy (ATP) Important for synthesis of RNA and DNA, mucopolysaccharide shrimp utilize complex starches like cornstarch better than glucose Carbohydrates reduce (“spare”) the use of protein, allowing a lower optimal protein level Chitin - enhanced growth , formation of exoskeleton
  7. 7. Ash and Minerals  Important for  skeletal structures  Maintaining osmotic pressure  Conduction of nerve impulses and muscle contraction  Maintenance of acid-base equilibrium  Synthesis of enzymes, vitamins, hormones, respiratory pigments, cofactors in metabolism, catalysts and enzyme activators.  Shrimp can assimilate some of their minerals directly from the water. - Eg: Ca  Macronutrients for shrimp nutrition  Ca, P, Mg, K, Cl, S and Na  Phosphorus is the most expensive mineral supplement in aquatic feeds.  Unconsumed phosphorus leads to nutrient loading of culture systems and aquaculture effluents.  A high percentage of the P in feed grains forms phytic acid which is an antinutritional factor  Micronutrients for shrimp nutrition  Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Ni, Co, Mo, Se, Cr, I, Fl, Sn, si, As
  8. 8. Vitamins Water soluble Vitamins Fat soluble vitamins thiamine (B1) Riboflavin (B2) Niacin (B3) Pyridoxine (B6) Pantothenic acid (B5) Folate Cyanocobalamin (BI2) Biotin Choline myoinositol (inositol) vitamin C (ascorbic acid) Vitamin A Vitamin D Vitamin E (tocopherol) Vitamin K
  9. 9.  diets deficient in Vit C, biotin, folic acid, niacin, thiamine and a–tocopherol poor appetite and cause histopathological changes in shrimp digestive gland cells poor feed conversion efficiency result in reduced shrimp growth
  10. 10. Feeding methods Natural production formulated (compound) aquafeeds •Stimulating natural production in a pond through fertilization. •Low cost •A complete feed is formulated (pellet ) which provides all required nutrients in the proper proportions. •Consider of rapid weight gain, high feed efficiency and shrimp health and quality •High cost
  11. 11. Nutritional Diseases 1. Soft Shell Syndrome 2. Blue Disease/ Pigment Deficiency Syndrome 3. Red Disease 4. Cramp Tail Syndrome
  12. 12. 1)Soft Shell Syndrome Clinical signs • Shell is thin, persistently soft for several weeks • Dark and wrinkled • weakness • grow slowly, and eventually die. Causatve agents • Pesticide contamination • Poor pond water and soil condition • Use of rancid or low-quality feeds • Nutritional deficiency -lack of supplementary feeding in ponds with relatively high stocking densities (Ca and P)
  13. 13. Prevention and treatment Feed adequately and good-quality feeds. Flush ponds thoroughly Maintain the quality of pond water and soil Provide supplementary feed
  14. 14. 2)Blue Disease or Pigment Deficiency Syndrome(PDS) Also known as • sky blue shrimp disease • blue-shell syndrome Caused by low level of carotenoid astaxanthin in feed. Astaxanthin is the predominant carotenoid in penaeids Astaxanthin improves colouration, enhances biological functions and improves survival, growth and stress resistance in penaeid shrimp Treatment • Natural carotenoids sources -dried Spirulina , -carotenoid extracted from Dunaliella
  15. 15. 3)Red disease(Aflatoxin poisoning) Caused by aflatoxin poisoning Aspergillus sp. is a common contaminant in shrimp feeds and leads to aflatoxin in the food. This causes red disease or red discolouration. The condition leads to gradual mortalities and losses of up to 98% in three months. Gross signs - cession of feeding - dramatic slowing of growth - leading to lethargy and weakness. -The shrimp die rapidly if lifted out of the water. -Shrimp gather in shallow water at the pond periphery. -body color change into yellow and then to red, - The fecal matter will appear red. -Increased fluid in the cephalothorax ,
  16. 16. Prevention -Use fresh, recently manufactured feeds. -Store feeds properly in well-ventilated and cool rooms (preferably at 10–20 oC or lower)
  17. 17. 4)Cramp Tail Syndrome (CMS) • nutrition-related disease • also called as cramped–muscle syndrome (CMS). • CTS appears to be caused by one or more of the following conditions: • high temperature • Vibriosis • mineral imbalances • toxins in the water. reduced dietary and/or environmental potassium (relative to the cations Ca, Na and Mg)
  18. 18. • http://www.fao.org/fishery/affris/species-profiles/indian- white-prawn/nutritional-deficiencies/en/ References
  19. 19. Thank you…

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