เริ่มจาก ความนิยมต่อการแสดงออกถึงสถานภาพทางสังคม กล่าวคือ การบริโภคใช้สอยสิ่งต่างๆ มันจะสัมพันธ์ฐานะครอบครัว ความเป็นอยู่ ซึ่งเราจะเรียกคนที่มากด้วยวัตถุและสิทธิพิเศษเหล่านี้ว่าเป็น high power distance
ซึ่งในสังคมแบบ collective คือ อิงกลุ่ม หรืออย่างบ้านเราเนี่ย มักจะยอมรับ power distance ของคนร่ำรวย คนมีอำนาจ สื่ออย่างโฆษณาทางทีวีซีจะมีอำนาจชักจูงได้มาก สินค้าไฮโซบางประเภทคนก็จะเชื่อถือในคุณภาพตั้งแต่ยังไม่เคยได้ใช้ด้วยซ้ำ ขณะที่อเมริกันออกแนวทุกคนต่างก็มี power distance ของตัวเอง ดังนั้นจะเห็นวิธีโฆษณาของเขาหลากหลายกว่าบ้านเรา เพราะบ้านเราเนี่ยดูทีวีก็เชื่อแล้ว
Concept of culture The totality of socially transmitted behavior patterns, arts, beliefs, institutions, and all other products of human work and thought. 1. Culture is a comprehensive concept 2. Culture is acquired. 3. Culture seldom provide detailed prescriptions for appropriate behavior. 4. We are seldom aware of cultural influences.
Cultural Values Cultural values are widely held beliefs that affirm what is desirable. 1. Other-oriented values. 2. Environment-oriented values. 3. Self-oriented values.
Other-Oriented Values Society’s view of the appropriate relationships between individual and groups within that society. These relationships have a major influence on marketing practice.
Individual/ Collective Individualism is accomplished, the free from obligatory ties and responsibilities to other people or to institutions. Collective A collective is a group of entities that share or are motivated by at least one common issue or interest, work together and make decisions on a consensus - driven.
Nothing to wear to work .. because I couldn't find anything I wanted to wear .
Youth/ Age Youth: Focus on the needs of youth. Youth have a right to participate in decisions and actions which will affect on marketing practice. Age: Such as Asian cultures traditionally valued the wisdom that come with age, thus, Adult more powerful than youth.
Extended/ Limited family The family is really a system of contact rather than purely an emotional unit. Cleary, marketers need to understand the role of families is the cultures they serve and adapt accordingly. ://Culture/ cultural values/ other oriented
Masculine/ Feminine Basically, we live in a masculine-oriented world but nowadays the role of woman are changing and expanding throughout much of the world. It’s important to remember that traditional segment and values certainly do still remain and that marketer must adapt not only across but within cultures.
Competitive/ Cooperate Cultures with more masculine and individualistic orientations tend to value competitiveness and demonstrate it openly. Collectivist cultures even if high in masculinity tend to find openly competitive gestures offensive as they cause others to “ lose face ”.
Diversity/ Uniformity A cultures values diversity not only will accept a wide array of personal behaviors and attitude but is also likely to welcome variety in term of food, dress, and other products and services. In contrast, a society valuing uniformity is unlikely to accept a wide array of tastes and product preferences.
Cleanliness In many poorer countries, cleanliness in not valued at a level sufficient to produce a healthy environment. While cleanliness is next to godliness for developed countries.
Global Cultures It is the collection of knowledge that comes from our awareness of the fact that our own cultures don't exist in isolation anymore. Its evolution accelerated by modern technologies and social trends that have catapulted a massive number of people out of their places of origin. Environment-Oriented Values A society’s relationship to its economic and technical as well as its physical environment and taking care of the social environment .
Performance/ Status Performance/ status is closely related to the concept of “power distance”, which refers to the degree to which people accept inequality in power, authority, status and wealth as natural or inherent in society. Expert sources in ads have a greater impact in a high-power distance country than in a low one.
Traditional/ Change Tradition values is reflex of reservation thought, decision and behavior. Change is modernness, focusing on technology, fashion, and leisure are used more often.
Risk taking/ Security This values relates to tolerant for ambiguity and uncertainty avoidance. It has a strong influence on entrepreneurship and economic development as well as new-product acceptance.
Problem solving/ Fatalistic Fatalists tend to feel they don’t have control over the outcome of event. Problem solving is react to obstacles and disaster as challenges to be overcome.
Nature This value tend to protects the environment Most northern European countries place a high value on the environment. In turn, Americans and Canadians appear to place a higher value on the environment, though this may reflected variations in financial ability to act on this values rather than the value itself.
Self-Oriented Values Self-Oriented values are reflect the objectives and approaches to life that the individual members of society find desirable.
Active/ Passive Physical active and to take an action-oriented approach to problem are values of active socials such as America, Canada, whereas opposite of active is passive and so much more in Asia’s socials, only just stand there don’t do anything.
Sensual gratification/ Abstinence Sensual gratification ads is not appropriate in cultures that place a high value on abstinence such as in Muslim cultures, Asian cultures, different form openly mind in west culture.
Material/ Nonmaterial There are two types of materialism. Instrumental materialism is the acquisition of things to enable one to do something. Terminal materialism is the acquisition of items for the sake of owning the item itself.
Hard work/ Leisure Work has traditionally been viewed as a necessary evil in many countries, this value has important consequences for lifestyle and demand for leisure activities.
Postponed gratification Immediate gratification Postponed gratification: Save for rainy day.> long-term orientations. Immediate gratification: live for today.> short-term orientations.
Religious/ Secular cultures are religiously oriented, daily activities determined by religious doctrine. Some cultures relatively secular such as the United States.
Subcultures A subculture is a group of people with a culture (whether distinct or hidden) which differentiates them from the larger culture to which they belong, for example, if a particular subculture is characterized by a systematic opposition to the dominant culture, it may be described as a counterculture .
Rap music is a sub culture that originated in the United States during the mid 1970s and became integrated into modern pop culture in the 1980s . Rap came from an oppressed African American youth as a form of cultural expression in New York City . 1990s gangsta rap became a major part of American music .
Cross-Cultural Marketing a c r o s s c u l t u r a l boundaries is a difficult and challenging task. Cultures may differ in demographics, language, nonverbal communications and values. The success of global marketers depends on how well they understand and adapt to these differences.
Global Cultures It is the collection of knowledge that comes from our awareness of the fact that our own cultures don't exist in isolation anymore. Its evolution accelerated by modern technologies and social trends that have catapulted a massive number of people out of their places of origin.
Pop Cultures is the totality of ideas, perspectives, attitudes, memes, images and other phenomena that are deemed preferred per an informal consensus within the mainstream of a given culture .