UNIT-IPART-A (2 MARKS)1. Define quality.Quality is the degree of goodness of a product or service or perceived by thecusto...
Product operationProduct revisionProduct transition9. Define Mccall’s quality criteria.UsabilityIntegrityEffic...
ObjectivityReliabilityValidityStandardizationComparabilityEconomyUsefulness17. How the metrics are classifie...
22. Define Availability?Availability is concerned with the proportion of elapsed time that a system isable to be used. The...
Project metrics describes the project characteristics and execution. Some of themetrics are no. of developers in the proje...
2. Explain the hierarchical model of Quality. (12)3. a) Plain in detail the GE Model. (06)b) Plain the Boehm model. (06)4....
4) Logical dialogue outlines1) Relational Data Analysis2) First-cut rules.3) Physical design control.4) Project Estimation...
14. Name the two metrics for DRE?Total defect containment Effectiveness (TDCE)Phase containment Effectiveness (PCE)TDC...
quality assurance?Too many technical niceties.Too much time spent stopping, rather than preventing defects.Efforts wasted....
Current project schedule.Report from other reviews.Reports of resources assigned to projectData on the software el...
Audit personnel.Organization involved in the audit.Date,time, place,agenda of session.35. What are the requirements ...
2. Explain in detail about the Documentation. (12)3. Explain the Procedural description template and Action items (12)4. E...
5. What is the use of scatter diagram?A scatter diagram vividly portrays the relationship of two interval variables.6. Def...
Defect rate observed during development process is positively correlated with thedefect rate.Same error injection rate...
26. Give the types of CASE tools. Front end or upper case tools Back end or Lower case tools Integrated case tools27. W...
work that can be used for projecting latent software defects when the developmentwork is complete .another strength of Ray...
The difference between testing defect density and field defect density is calledcompression factor.10. Write down the prin...
18. Write down the methods to gather data?Face to face interviewsTelephone interviewsMailed questionaries19. Define ...
Iceberg analogy describes the relationship between testing and field defect rates, thetip of the iceberg is the testing de...
Cyclomatic complexity is computed using a graph that describes the control flowof the program. The nodes of the graph corr...
7. a)Explain Syntactic constructs (6)b) Briefly explain structure metrics. (6)   8. Explain in detail the Customer satisfa...
industry world wide.11. What are the benefits that an international standard will provide toindustry?1. Software suppliers...
19. Who are the steps organizations has to take to improve their softwarecapabilities?1. Understand the current status2. D...
Institute (SEI) at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh.The Capability Maturity Model (CMM) is a way to develop and re...
1. Discuss in detail about the needs for standards (12)2. Explain the ISO9000 series standard (12)3. Explain the ISO9000-3...
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Sqm2mark

  1. 1. UNIT-IPART-A (2 MARKS)1. Define quality.Quality is the degree of goodness of a product or service or perceived by thecustomer.Quality concept is the way business organizations perform their business activitiesthat focuses on two things.2. Define software quality?SourceDefinitionOED, 1990Degree of excellenceCrosby, 1979 Zero defectsISO, 1986The totality of features and characteristics of a product or service thatbear on its ability to satisfy specified or implied needs.FruhaufQuality is when the customer comes back, not the product.3. Write down the different views of quality?The transcendent viewThe product based viewThe value based viewThe manufacturing viewThe user based view4. Write short notes on transcendent view? Quality is excellence It is impossible to quantity and difficult to apply in a meaningful sense to alarge software project5. Write short notes on users-based view? The aim is to check whether the software solution addresses the right problems User ideas have to be converted to technical requirements The quality match between user requirements and the design will determinethe quality of this view.6. What are the metrics associated with reliability? Accuracy Consistency Error tolerance Simplicity7. Mention few characteristics of functionality. Suitability Accurateness8. Describe the three areas addressed by Mccals model?
  2. 2. Product operationProduct revisionProduct transition9. Define Mccall’s quality criteria.UsabilityIntegrityEfficiencyCorrectnessReliabilityMaintainabilityFlexibilityTestabilityPortabilityReusabilityInteroperability10. How the quality criteria interrelated?InverseNeutralDirect11. Give the conditions that quality metrics should met?Be clearly linked to the quality criterion.Be sensitive to the different degrees of the criterion.Provide objective determination of criterion.12. Define Structuredness?Structuredness Modularity Lines of codeNumber of modules13. What are the two types of metrics? Predictive Metrics Descriptive Metrics14. Give the characteristics of quality of software? Quality is not absolute Quality is multidimensional. Quality is subject to constraints Quality is about acceptable compromises. Quality criteria are not independent.15. Why software is considered to be problematical? Software has no physical existence The lack of knowledge of client needs The change of client needs. The rapid change in hardware and software. High expectation of customers16. What are the seven criteria suggested by watts for a good metric?
  3. 3. ObjectivityReliabilityValidityStandardizationComparabilityEconomyUsefulness17. How the metrics are classified?Readability as a measure of usabilityError prediction as a measure of correctnessError detection as a measure of correctnessMTTF as a measure of reliabilityComplexity as a measure of reliability.Complexity as a measure of maintainabilityReadability of a code as a measure of maintainabilityModularity as a measure of maintainability.Testability as a measure of maintainability18. Write down the limitations of metrics?They cannot be validated.They are not generally objective.Quality is relative ,not an absolute quantity.They depend upon a small set of measurable properties.The do not measure the complete set of quality criteria.The metrics measure more than one criterion.19. What are the problem areas associated with implementation of the method?The method is different.The need for training and retraining.The need for effective management.The need to measure progress.Picking up errors earlier may cause frustration.20. Write down the gilb’s quality attributes?WorkabilityAvailabilityAdaptabilityUsability21. Define workability?Workability is defined as the raw ability of the system to do work. workabilitymay considered in terms ofProcess capacity-It’s the ability to process transactions within a given unit oftime.Storage capacity-It’s the ability of the syatem to store things such asinformation.Responsiveness-It’s the measure of the response to single event.
  4. 4. 22. Define Availability?Availability is concerned with the proportion of elapsed time that a system isable to be used. The sub attributes areReliabilityMaintainability.Integrity23. Define Adaptability?Adaptability may considered in terms of improvability,extendability,andportability.Improvability-the time taken to make minor changes to the system where the termsystem is taken to include items such as documentation.Extendability-It’s the ease of adding new functionality to system.Portability-It’s the ease of moving a system from one environment to another.24. Gilb’s approach become obselent.State reason.Use of a template rather than rigid model.Explicit recognition of constraints upon quality.Recognition of critical resourcesUse of locally defined measures.Close links with the development process.25. Write down the five methods suggested by waats for measuring quality?Simple Scoring.Weighted Scoring.Phased Weighting factor method.The Kepner-Tregoe method.The Cologne combination method.26. Define metric and indicator?Quality metric: A metric is a verifiable measure that captures performance interms of how something is being done relative to a standard, allows and encouragescomparison, supports business strategy. Quality indicator: An agreed-upon process or outcome measure that is used todetermine the level of quality achieved. A measurable variable (or characteristic) that can be used to determine thedegree of adherence to a standard or achievement of quality goals.27. List the classifications of a software metrics.The classifications of a software metrics are Product metrics Process metrics Project metrics28. What is product metrics?Product metrics describes the characteristics of a product such as size,Complexity, design features, performance and quality levels (e.g defect rate etc.)29. What is project metrics?
  5. 5. Project metrics describes the project characteristics and execution. Some of themetrics are no. of developers in the project, cost, schedule, staffing pattern over theSDLC.30. What is cocomo model?The COnstructive COst MOdel (COCOMO) is an algorithmic Software CostEstimation Model developed by Barry Boehm. The model uses a basic regressionformula, with parameters that are derived from historical project data and currentproject characteristics.31. What are the goals of software Quality management?To build quality into the software from the beginningTo make sure there is quality throughout the life cycle.32. What is a GOM model?A goal- driven method for developing and maintaining a meaningful metricsprogram that is based on three levels. Goals, Questions and Metrics. The Goal-Question-Metric(GOM)Approach is a paradigm for developing and maintaining ameaningful metrics program.33. Define Quality as defined by ISO?The totality of characteristics of an entity that bear on its ability to satisfy statedand implied needs.34. List any two Quality criteria.Must explicitly attend to both functional and non-functional requirements.Need to verify whether all customer’s requirements are met and from any stage ofthe SDLC, must be traceable back to requirements.35. What is a hierarchical model?A Hierarchical model of software quality is based upon a set of quality criteria,each of which has a set of measures or metrics associated with it.36. How are quality measured?Quality measurements are usually expressed in terms of metrics.37. What is software metric?Software metric is used to predict the about the software later in the life cycle.38. What are the resources attributes given by glib? Time Money People ToolsPART-B1. What are the views of quality? Explain in Detail the views of quality. (12)
  6. 6. 2. Explain the hierarchical model of Quality. (12)3. a) Plain in detail the GE Model. (06)b) Plain the Boehm model. (06)4. Explain how the software quality can be measured and the problems associated5. Explain the work of Gilb. (12) 6. Explain in detail GQM model. (12)UNIT-IIPART-A (2 MARKS)1. Define Methodology?A methodology may be defined as a frame work for the systematic organization of acollection of methods.2. Write down the features of methodology?It can be taught.It can be scheduled.It can be measured.In can be compared.It can be modified.3. Define SSADM.Write down the principle behind SSADM.SSADM-Structured System And Design Methodology.The aim of SSADM is toensure that user requirements are reflected in the design of the sysytem.The threeprinciple behind SSADM isUser Involvement.Quality Assurance.Seperation of logical and Physical design.4. What are the stages involved in SSADM?Analysis of current system.Requirement specification.Selection of technical options.Data design.Process design.Physical design.5. What are techniques used in SSADM?SSADM make use of a number of techniques, both diagrammatic and nondiagrammatic.Diagrammatic Techniques Non-Diagrammatic Techniques1) Data Flow Diagram2) Logical data structures3) Entity life histories
  7. 7. 4) Logical dialogue outlines1) Relational Data Analysis2) First-cut rules.3) Physical design control.4) Project Estimation.5) QA Reviews6. Write down the seven phases involved in IEM?Information Strategy Planning.Business Area Analysis.Business System Design.Technical Design.Construction.Transition and Production.7. Write down the advantages of IEM?It links system development to business needs.It covers the whole life cycle.It facilitates the use of a case tool.8. Define CASE tool?CASE-Computer Aided Software Engineering. CASE tools are computer based toolsto assist in the software engineering process. CASE tool is made up of set of tools.9. What are different types of CASE tools?Front end or upper case tools.Back end or lower case toolIntegrated case tools.10. Define QMS?The organisational structure,responsibilities,procedures,processes and resources forimplementing quality management.11. Write down the SPC techniques?Process flow chartTally chart.Histogram.Pareto Analysis.Cause-and Effect diagram.Scatter diagram.Control charts.12. Define Quality Control.A systematic method of economically providing products or services that met theuser’s requirements.13. Define DRE?DRE=Errors found by an inspection * 100%Total Errors in the product before Inspection
  8. 8. 14. Name the two metrics for DRE?Total defect containment Effectiveness (TDCE)Phase containment Effectiveness (PCE)TDCE= Number of pre release defectsNumber of prerelease defects + number of post release defectsPCE=Number of phase i errorsNumber of phase I errors + Number of phase I defects15. Write down the characteristics of DRE?There are only two phases of defect removal.The defect removal effectiveness for the two phases is same.16. Write down the five steps involved in Fagans Inspection method?OverviewPreparation.Inspection.Rework.Follow-up.17. Why we have to assess the reliability of a software product?It is important for two reasonAs an objective statement of the quality of the product.For resource planning for the software maintenance phase.18. How the reliability models are classified?Reliability models are classified into two types.Dynamic modelsStatic modelsA static models uses other attributes of the project or program modules to estimatenumber of defects in the software.A dynamic models usually based on statistical distributions, uses development defectpatterns to estimate end product reliability.19. What are five factors affecting software quality assurance? Size of the system Criticality of the system. The cost of correcting errors. Type of release. Relationship with user.20. Write down the guidelines for effective leadership? Trust your subordinates. Develop your vision. Keep u cool. Encourage risk Be an expert. Invite dissent. Simplify.21. Write down the five effective methods to ensure the failure of software
  9. 9. quality assurance?Too many technical niceties.Too much time spent stopping, rather than preventing defects.Efforts wasted.Management has a problem with the mathematical kid.Always complaining about the government ,but no one does anything.22. What is SRS?The software requirement specification document describes capabilities, states,functionality of all aspects of the system. This include major components,subcomponents of the software and internal interfaces of the software andmay include databases. It also include items specifically required by the user.23. What is SDD?The software Design Description describes major components and sub componentsof the software, including databases and internal interfaces. This process will becarried out according to the standard procedure. This procedure may include use of acomputerized design tool.24. What is Software Interfaces documentation?Software interfaces documentation describes capabilities and functionality of allinterfaces between any two or more components of the system.This include majorcomponents ,sub components and external systems.25. Write down the principles behind the review process?Establishing what reviews are needed by the project.What are contents of various review.What should be results o f the review.26. Write down the specification for reviews?Formal reviews occur at menaing ful points of the software schedule.Include affected groups within organization and customer or end userrepresentatives as appropriate.Review materials that the responsible software managers have reviewed andapproved.Check the commitments, plans and status of the software activities.Document the identification of significant issues.Address the software project risks.Define any refinements in the software development plan27. Write down the objectives of Management Review Process?Making activities progress according to planChanging project direction.Identify the need for alternative palnning.Maintaining the global control of the project.28. What are the inputs given to the management review process?Statement of objectivesList of issues to be addressed.
  10. 10. Current project schedule.Report from other reviews.Reports of resources assigned to projectData on the software elements completed.29. What are the procedures involved in the management review?PlanningOverviewPreparationExamination.ReworkExit criteria.Management review output.Auditability30. Write down the objective of Technical review ?Evaluation of a specific software elements.Identification of any discrepancies from specification and standards.Recommendations after the examination of alternatives.31. What are inputs given to the technical review process?Statement of objectives.Software elements being examined.Specifications for the software elements.Plans,standards or guidelines against which the software elements are to beexamined.32. Write down the procedures involved in auditing?PlanningOverviewPreparationExaminationReporting33. Write down the preparation that has to be made by the audit team?Understand the organizationUnderstand the products and processes.Understand the objective audit criteria.Prepare for the audit report.Detail the audit plan.34. Write down the contents included in the Auditing plan?Project processes to be examined.Software required to be examined.Reports shall be identified.Reports distribution.Required follow up activities.Requirements.Objective audit criteria.Audit procedures and checklists.
  11. 11. Audit personnel.Organization involved in the audit.Date,time, place,agenda of session.35. What are the requirements required for the document audit and verification?Acquisition of project documentation.Analysis of documents.Dissemination of information.36. When the auditing is said to be complete?WhenEach element within the scope has been examined.Findings have been presented to the auditing organization.Response to the draft audit have been received.Final findings have been formally presented.The audit report has been prepared and submitted.All follow-up actions by the auditing organization have been performed.37. Write down the contents of audit reports?Audit IdentificationScopeConclusions.SynopsisFollow-up.38. What is Auditing?An audit provides an objective compliance confirmation of products and processesto certify adherence to standards, guidelines, specifications and procedures. Audits areperformed in accordance with documented plans and procedures .The results of theaudit are documented and are submitted to the management of the auditedorganization, to the entity initiating the audit and to any external organizationsidentified in the audit plan.39. What is the purpose of performing Review and auditing?The purpose of performing review and audits are to ensure that the productsmeets all client needs and requirements and to find development anomalies as earlyand as inexpensively as possible.40) What are advantages of CASE Tools?Productivity.Consistency.Methodology Automation.Encourages Good Practice.Documentation.MaintenancePART-B1. Explain in detail the Quality tasks and responsibilities. (12)
  12. 12. 2. Explain in detail about the Documentation. (12)3. Explain the Procedural description template and Action items (12)4. Explain in detail the CMM Compatibility of Reviews and audits. (12)5. Explain the management review process. (12)6. Explain the technical review process. (12)7. Explain the types of reviews. (12)8. Explain the software inspection process. (12) 9. a) Explain walkthrough process. (6) b) Explain the Audit process. (6)10. a) Explain the Document verification and validation. (6)b) Explain the factors affecting the SQA effort. (6)UNIT-IIIPART-A (2 MARKS)1. What are Ishikawa’s seven basic tools for quality control?Check sheetPareto diagramHistogramScatter diagramRun chartControl chartCause and effect diagram.2. What is the purpose of using check sheet?A check sheet is a paper form with printed items to be checked. Its main purpose isto facilitate gathering data and to arrange data while collecting it so the data can beeasily used later.3. What is the use of pareto diagram?A pareto diagram is a frequency chart of bars in descending order. A paretodiagram can identify the few causes that account for the majority of defects. Itindicates which problem can be solved first in eliminating defects and improving theoperation. Pareto analysis can be referred to as 80-20% principle.4. What is the purpose of using Histogram?The histogram is a graphic representation of frequency counts of a sample or apopulation. The purpose of histogram is to show the distribution characteristics of aparameter.
  13. 13. 5. What is the use of scatter diagram?A scatter diagram vividly portrays the relationship of two interval variables.6. Define process capability?Cp= (USL-LSL)/67. Define process capability index?Cp = (USL-u)/38. Write down the assumptions made in the phases of defect removal activities?Those activities handled directly by the development team for large softwareprojects .The formal machine tests after code integration.9. How will u calculate the total defects for the life of the software?TD=MP+PTR+QTD=Total defects for the life of software.MP=Major problems found during review.Q =Number of defects in the released software.10. What are the two types of inspector phase defined by knight and Myers?Single Inspector Phase.Multi Inspector phase.11. What is single inspector phase?It’s a rigidly formatted process driven by a list of unambiguous checks, foreg, internal documentation, source code layout, source code readability.12. What is multi inspector phase?It’s designed to check for those properties of the software that cannot be capturedin a precise yes or no statement is called the multi inspector phase.13. What is the use of software reliability models?Software reliability models are used to assess a software products reliability or toestimate the number of latent defects when it is available to the customers.14. What is the need of assessing the software reliability?An estimate is important for two reasonsAs an objective statement of the quality of the productResource planning for software maintenance phase.15. Write down the classification of reliability models?The reliability models can be broadly classified into two categories. They areStatic modelsDynamic models16. What are the assumptions made in the rayleigh model curve to model thesoftware development activity?
  14. 14. Defect rate observed during development process is positively correlated with thedefect rate.Same error injection rate17. Define component?A component is a group of modules that perform specific functions such asspooling, printing, message handling, file handling, and so on.18. What is DUD?DUD is a derivative free algorithm for non linear least squares.It competes favorablywith even the best derivative based algorithm when evaluated on number of standardtest problems. One of the advantage behind this DUD method is its simplicity and itsefficiency.19. Define Predictive validity?Predictive validity refers to the accuracy of model estimates. To achieve thepredictive validity is to make sure that the input data are accurate and reliable.20. What is fish-bone diagram?The cause and effect diagram is sometimes called an Ishikawa diagram after itsinventor. It is also known as a fish bone diagram because of its shape. A cause andeffect diagram describes a relationship between variables.21. What is the use of a Z-chart?The Z-chart is a combination chart that shows three perspectives in a singlepicture . A run chart is called as Z-chart.22. What is the use of CASE tools?Computer-aided software engineering(CASE) is the use of software tools to assistin the development and maintenance of software. Tools used to assist in this way areknown as CASE Tools.23. Write a short note on UML?Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a standardized specification language forobject modeling. UML is a general-purpose modeling language that includes agraphical notation used to create an abstract model of a system, referred to as a UMLmodel.24. What is QVT?In the model-driven architecture, QVT (Queries/Views/Transformations) is astandard for model transformation defined by the Object Management Group25. What are the advantages of CASE tools? Productivity Consistency , Methodology automation, Encourage and good practice, Documentation.
  15. 15. 26. Give the types of CASE tools. Front end or upper case tools Back end or Lower case tools Integrated case tools27. Why is Rayleigh model used?The Rayleigh model is a parametric model in the sense that it is based on aspecific statistical distribution. Rayleigh model encompasses both defect preventionand early defect removal. Another strength of Rayleigh model is that it provides anexcellent framework for quality management.28. Define Errors, Bugs, and DefectsError: It is the Deviation from actual and the expected value.Bug: It is found in the development environment before the product is shipped to therespective customer.Defect: It is found in the product itself after it is shipped to the respective customer.29. Name any two tools for quality.There are many tools used for quality.They are:1. Check list or check sheet.2. Pareto Diagram.30)What is the use of cause and effect diagram?The cause and effect diagram is also known as fish bone diagram. It shows therelationship between the quality characteristics and factors that affect thecharacteristics. It identifies all casual factors of a quality characteristic in one chart.PART-B1. Explain in Detail about the Ishikawa’s basic tools in software development (12)2. a) Explain in detail about the CASE tools. (6)b) Explain the Defect Prevention Process. (6)3. Explain the Defect removal Effectiveness. (12)4. Explain the Reliability models. (12)5. Explain in detail about the Rayleigh model. (12) 6. Explain Reliability growth model for quality assessment (12)UNIT-IVPART-A (2 MARKS)1. What are the strengths of Rayleigh model?Compared to phase defect removal model, the rayleigh model is a formal parametric
  16. 16. work that can be used for projecting latent software defects when the developmentwork is complete .another strength of Rayleigh model is it provides an excellentframework for quality management.2. How the Reliability growth models are classified?Reliability growth models are classified into two major classes depending on thedependent variable of the model. They areTime between failure models.Fault count models.3. Write down the equation for Goel generalized non homogenous poissonprocess model?M(t) = a(1-e-btc)4. What are different types of Reliability growth models?J-M Model.Littlewood ModelGoel-Okumoto Imperfect Debugging Model.Goel-Okumoto Non Homogenous Poisson Process Model.The Delayed and Inflection S Model.5. What are assumptions made in J-M model?There are N unknown software faults at the start of testing.Failures occur randomly-times between failures are independent.All faults contribute equally to cause a failure.Fix time is negligible.Fix is perfect for each failure.6. What are the assumptions made in fault count model?Testing intervals are independent of each other.Testing during intervals is reasonably homogenous.Number of defects detected during non overlapping intervals are independent ofeach other.7. Write down the criteria’s involved in reliability models?Predictive validityCapabilityQuality of assumptions.8. Write down the procedures involved in modeling software reliability?Examine the data.Select a model or several models to fit the data.Estimate the parameters of the model.Obtain the fitted model by substituting the estimates of parameters into thechosen modelPerform a goodness –of-fit test and assess the reasonableness of the model.Make reliability predictions based on the fitted model.9. Define test compression factor?
  17. 17. The difference between testing defect density and field defect density is calledcompression factor.10. Write down the principles behind the quality management?The best scenario is to prevent errors being injected into the development process.When errors are introduced, improve the front end of the development process toremove as many of them as early as possible.If the project is beyond the design and code phases, unit tests and any additionaltests by the developers serve as gate keepers for defects to escape the front endprocess before the code is integrated into the configuration management system.11. What are the four types of scenarios?Best case scenarioGood scenario.Unsure scenarioWorst case scenario.12. What are the five activities involved in QIP?Blitz testingCustomer evaluationCode inspections.Design reviewsExtension of system tests.13. Write down the advantages of using reliability growth model?Comparisons can be made when the first data points become available. Ifunfavaorable signs are detected timely action s can be taken.To determine end date of testing.14. Write down the general formula to calculate the cyclomatic complexity?M=V(G)=e-n+2pWhere V(G)=cyclomatic number of GE=number of edges.N=number of nodes.P=number of unconnected parts of the grap15. Define Fan-in and Fan-out?Fan-in : A count of the modules that call a given module.Fan-out: A count of modules that are called by a given module.16. Define Structure complexity?Henry and Kafura’s structure complexity is defined asCp=(fan-in *fan-out)217. Define Complexity metrics and models?Complexity metrics and models are by small team metrics.They measure theinternal dynamics of design and code of the software,and the unit of analysis isusually atthe program module level.
  18. 18. 18. Write down the methods to gather data?Face to face interviewsTelephone interviewsMailed questionaries19. Define sampling methods?When the customer base is large ,its to costly to survey all customers.Estimating thesatisfaction level of the entire customer population through a representative sample ismore efficient.To obtain representative samples ,scientific probability sampling mustbe used.20. Write down the different types of sampling methods?Random sampling.Systematic sampling.Stratified sampling.Cluster sampling.21. Write down the product quality attributes?Technical solution.Support and service.MarketingAdministration.DeliveryCompany image.22. What is Quality Management?Quality Management includes all the activities that managers carry out inan effort to implement their quality policy. These activities include quality planning,quality control, quality assurance and quality improvement.23. Give the ISO definition on Quality management.ISO defines “Quality Management “ as “ what the organization does toensure that its products or services satisfy the customer’s quality requirements andcomply with any regulations applicable to those products or services.”24. What are the elements of Quality Management.1. Organizational Structure.2. Responsibilities.3. Procedures.4. Processes.5. Resources.25. Give the procedures in Quality Management.Contract view, Design control, Document control, purchasing, customersupplies, Traceability, Process control, Checking. Inspecting . Measuring and testing,Non conforming Product or services, Corrective action, Training, Protection ofquality, Statistical process control, Quality system audit.26. What is Iceberg analogy?
  19. 19. Iceberg analogy describes the relationship between testing and field defect rates, thetip of the iceberg is the testing defect rate and the submerged part is the field defectrate. The size of the iceberg is equivalent to the amount of error injection.27. What is Blitz testing?Blitz is a generic tool whose purpose is to maintain and execute test cases ofarbitrary complexity. Blitz can be used either as a command-line tool or as a full-featured graphical user interface. Artistic testing in stressful environments.28. List the common metrics for software. Order of growth Source lines of code Cyclomatic complexity Function per analysis Bugs per line of code Code coverage Number of lines of customer requirements Number of classes and interfaces Cohesion Robert Cecil Martin’s software package metrics Coupling29. What are the coverage criteria?Function coverage: Has each function in the program been executed?Statement coverage: Has each line of the source code been executed?Condition coverage: Has each evaluation point (such as a true/false decision) beenexecuted?Path coverage: Has every possible route through a given part of the code beenexecuted?Entry/exit coverage: Has every possible call and return of the function beenexecuted?30. What is cohesion?Cohesion is a measure of how strongly-related and focused the variousresponsibilities of a software module are. Cohesion is an ordinal type of measurementand is usually expressed as “high cohesion” or “low cohesion” when being discussed.Modules with high cohesion tend to be preferable because high cohesion isassociated with several desirable traits of software including robustness, reliability,reusability, and understandability whereas low cohesion is associated withundesirable traits such as being difficult to maintain, difficult to test, difficult to reuse,and even difficult to understand.31. What are the drawbacks of Halstead science metric? It depends on completed code. It has little or no use as a predictive estimating model. But McCabe’s model ismore suited to application at the design level.32. What is Cyclomatic complexity?
  20. 20. Cyclomatic complexity is computed using a graph that describes the control flowof the program. The nodes of the graph correspond to the commands of a program. Adirected edge connects two nodes if the second command might be executedimmediately after the first command.33. What are the five components of QMS as listed by ISO?The main five components of QMS are. Organizational structureResponsibilities ProceduresProcesses Resources34. What is QMS?QMS according to ISO is the organizational structure, responsibilities, procedures,processes and resources for implementing Quality management.35. Define Lines of code.Source lines of code (SLOC) are software metric used to measure the size of asoftware program by counting the number of lines in the text of the program’s sourcecode.36. Define Halstead’s software science.The software science developed by M.H, Halstead principally attempts to estimatethe programming effort.37. Define Cyclomatic Complexity.Cyclomatic complexity is software metric (measurement). It was developed byThomas McCabe and is used to measure the complexity of a program and indicate theprogram’s testability and understandability.38. What are the three ways to gather survey data for customer satisfactionanalysis? Face-to-face interviews Telephone interviews Mailed QuestionnairesPART- B1. Explain in detail the elements of QMS. (12)2. Explain the Rayleigh model framework. (12)3. Explain the Reliability Growth models. (12)4. Explain the complexity metrics and its models (12)5. Explain Lines of Code and Halstead’s Software Science. (12)6. Explain in detail the Cyclomatic Complexity (12)
  21. 21. 7. a)Explain Syntactic constructs (6)b) Briefly explain structure metrics. (6) 8. Explain in detail the Customer satisfaction surveys / analysis. (12)UNIT-VPART-A (2 MARKS)1. What are the management responsibilities regarding ISO 9001 requirements?Management commitment, Customer focus, Quality policy, Planning, Responsibility,Authority, Communication, and Management review.2. Define SPICE.SPICE (Software Process Improvement and Capability dEvelopement) standarddefines a set of requirements for software process assessment. The intent of thestandard is to assist organizations in developing an objective evaluation of theefficacy of any defined software process.3. What is MALCOLM BALDRGE award?MALCOLM BALDRIGE award is the most prestigious quality award in the UnitedStates. The award is given annually to recognize U.S companies that exceed in qualitymanagement and quality achievement.4. What are the ISO 9000 series of quality management standards?ISO 9000, ISO9001, ISO9002, ISO9003, ISO9003, ISO90045. Define CMM.The capability maturity model (CMM) for s/w is a widely accepted set of guidelinesfor developing high performance s/w organizations.6. What are the capability levels defined in SPICE?Level0: Not performed, 1: Performed informally, 2: Planned and tracked, 3: Welldefined, 4: Quantitatively controlled, 5: Continuously improving.7. What are the types of accreditation?First party, Second party, Third party.8. What are the components of the ISO 9000 series to which SPICE is related?ISO 9001, ISO 9000-3, ISO 9004-4., ISO DIS.9. What is and assessment instrument?An assessment instrument is a tool, or set of tools, used during the performance of anassessment to assist the assessor in obtaining reliable, consistent and repeatableresults.10. What are the goals of SPICE project?1. developing a working draft for a standard for software process assessment2. conducting industry trials of the emerging standards.3. promoting the technology transfer of software process assessment into the software
  22. 22. industry world wide.11. What are the benefits that an international standard will provide toindustry?1. Software suppliers will submit to just one process assessment scheme.2. Software development organizations will have a tool to initiate and sustain acontinuous process improvement3. Programme managers will have a means to ensure that their software developmentis aligned with, and supports, the business needs of the organization.12. What are the benefits of ISO 9000 verification?1. Provides know-how for establishing a quality management system.2. Certification has become the minimum requirement of quality for any tender.3. It is a status symbol for the organizations.4. Improves products and services.5. Improves employee morale.13. What are the events associated with quality management?Establishing, Documenting, Implementing, Maintaining, Continuously improving itseffectiveness.14. What are the documents required to implement quality management systemin an organization?1. Quality policy and quality objectives2. Quality manual3. Document to ensure the effective planning, operation and control of its processes4. Records.15. What are the pre-requisites for employees?Education, training, skill, experience16. What are the requirements of internal auditing?1. Set up an internal audit program2. Develop an internal audit procedure3. Plan internal audit procedure.4. Perform regular internal audits5. Take corrective action.17. What are the different organizations to which the Malcolm Balridge award isgiven?1. Manufacturing2. Service3. Small businesses18. What are the different process maturity levels?1. Initial2. Repeatable3. Defined4. Managed5. Optimizing
  23. 23. 19. Who are the steps organizations has to take to improve their softwarecapabilities?1. Understand the current status2. Develop a vision of the desired process3. Establish a list of process improvement actions.4. Produce a plan to accomplish the required actions.5. Commit the resources to execute the plans.20. What are the requirements of ISO 9001: 2000 standard?1. Demonstrate ability to consistently provide product that meets customer andapplicable regulatory requirements.2. Enhance customer satisfaction.21. What is the need for quality standards?It is important for a software product to asses its quality. Project the defects andthe mean time to next failure. It is also important for a software product to manage thequality when it its in the development state. This purpose is done by the qualitystandards available for software’s such as ISO. Six sigma etc.22. What are the levels of accreditation?There are three levels of accreditation encountered, First party-Internal monitoring Second party-External monitoring Third party-External Monitoring23. Give the requirements of ISO 9000.The document control of ISO 9000 has some requirements. Must be adequate for purpose Owner must be identified Properly approved before issue Version qualified Pages numbered and total pages indicated Properly destroyed when obsolete24. What are the advantages of the ISO standard?ISO often gives the following advantages Create a more efficient, effective operation Increase customer satisfaction and retention Reduce audits Enhance marketing Improve employee motivation, awareness, and morale Promote international trade Increases profit Reduce waste and increases productivity.25. What is CMM?The Capability Maturity Model (CMM), also known as the software CMM (SW-CMM. The CMM is a process model based on software best practices effective inlarge-scale, multi-person projects. CMM was developed by the Software Engineering
  24. 24. Institute (SEI) at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh.The Capability Maturity Model (CMM) is a way to develop and refine anorganization’s processes. The first CMM was for the purpose of developing andrefining software development professes. This model is questionnaire based. Thequestions are divided into Essential Highly desireable36. What is six sigma?Six sigma is a rigorous and disciplined methodology that uses data and statisticalanalysis to measure and improve a company’s operational performance by identifyingand eliminating “defects” in manufacturing and service-related processes.37. What are the level improvements of CMMI?CMMI Level 1to2: Pre-packaged methodology methodology documentation andactive mentoringCMMI Level 2to3: Process documentation, configuration& accelerated projectmanagementCMMI Level 3to4:Managed process through Metrics Capture in an XML processrepositoryCMMI Level 4to5:Process feedback loop.38. What is ISO 9000 and ISO 9001?ISO 9000 is a family of standards for quality management systems. ISO 9000 ismaintained by ISO, the International Organization for Standardization and isadministered by accreditation and certification bodies.ISO 9001 is the internationally recognized standard for the quality management ofbusinesses. It applies to the processes that create and control the products and servicesan organization supplies.39. What are capability level?A capability level is a well-defined evolutionary plateau describing theorganization’s capability relative to a process area. A capability level consists ofrelated specific and generic practices for a process area that can improve theorganization’s processes associated with that process area. Each level is a layer in thefoundation for continuous process improvement. Thus, capability levels arecumulative, i.e.. a higher capability level includes the attributed of the lower levels.40. Define quality standards.Quality standards were developed to assist companies control quality andmaintain a high standard of customer satisfaction. Quality standards can assist acompany with good management practices, reduce risk and increase profit margins.41. What are the types of metrics used in six sigma?The two major types of six sigma metrics are Classical measures of six sigma metrics Typical six sigma measures.
  25. 25. 1. Discuss in detail about the needs for standards (12)2. Explain the ISO9000 series standard (12)3. Explain the ISO9000-3 standard for software development. (12)4. Explain in detail the CMM Model (12)5. Explain the CMMI Model (12)6. Explain the Six Sigma Concepts. (12)

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