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 Relational algebra is a procedural query language.
 It uses operations to perform queries.
 It gives a step by step process to obtain the result of the query.
Types of Relational operation
 Select operator selects tuples(rohs) that satisfy a given predicate.
 It‘s an denoted by sigma (σ).
 Notatin in σ p(r)
Where.,
σ is used for selection prediction.
r is ised to relation.
p is used as a propositional logic formula which may be use connection like:AND
OR and NOT.
These relational can use as relational operators like=, ≠, ≥,<,>, ≤
NAME AGE WEIGHT
Harry 34 80
Saily 26 64
George 29 70
Helena 54 54
Peter 34 80
NAME AGE WEIGHTH
Harry 34 80
Helena 54 54
Peter 34 80
σ age≥34(PERSON)
Name Age Weighth
Helena 54 54
Σ age=weight(PERSON)
 This operation shows the list of those attributes that we wish to appear in the
result.
 Rest of the attributes are eliminated from the table.
 It’s denoted by (π).
Where..,
 A1,A2,A3 is used as an attribute of relation r.
NAME STREET CITY
jones Main Harrison
Smith North Rye
Hays Main Harrison
Curry North Rye
Brooks Senator Brooklyn
Johnson Aima Brooklyn
Input:
πNAME, CITY(CUSTOMER)
Output:
NAME CITY
Johns Harrizon
Smith Rye
Hays Harrison
Curry Rye
Brooke Brooklyn
Johnson Brooklyn
 Union operation combines values in R,Sby removing duplicate ones.
 This operation does not need the two tables being operated on to be union
compatible.
 It elimimates the duplicate tuples.
 It’ denoted by U.
Notation:
R U S
a union operation must hold the following condition.
1. R.and S must have the attribute of the. Same number.
2. Dupicte tuples are eliminted automatically.
Customer_Na
me
Account_no
Johnson A-101
Smith A-121
Mayes A-321
Turner A-176
Johnson A-273
Johns A-472
Lindsay A-284
BORROW RELATION:-
Customer_na
me
Loan_no
Jones L -17
Smith L -23
Hayes L -15
Jackson L -14
Curry L -93
Smith L -11
Williams L -17
INPUT:
π CUSTOMER_NAME(BORROW)u π customer_name(DEPOSITER
CUSTOMER_NAME
johnson
Smith
Hayes
Jones
Turner
Lindsay
Jackson
Curry
Williams
Mayes
OUTPUT:-
 Suppose there are two TUPLES R and S. The set intersection operation contains all TUPLES
that are in both R & S.
 It is denoted by intersection ∩.
Notation: R ∩ S
EXAMPLE: Using the above DEPOSITOR table and BORROW table
INPUT: ∏ CUSTOMER_NAME (BORROW) ∩ ∏ CUSTOMER_NAME (DEPOSITOR)
OUTPUT:
 Suppose there are two tuples R and S. The set intersection operation contains all tuples that are
in R but not in S.
 It is denoted by intersection minus (-).
Notation: R - S
EXAMPLE: Using the above DEPOSITOR table and BORROW table
INPUT:
∏ CUSTOMER_NAME (BORROW)-∏ CUSTOMER_NAME (DEPOSITOR)
OUTPUT:
 The Cartesian product is used to combine each row in one table with each row in the other
table. It is also known as a cross product.
 It is denoted by X.
Notation: E X D
EXAMPLE:
INPUT:
EMPLOYEE X DEPARTMENT
 The rename operation is used to rename the output relation. It is denoted by rho (ρ).
EXAMPLE:
We can use the rename operator to rename STUDENT relation to STUDENT1.
ρ(STUDENT1, STUDENT)

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Relational algebra.pptx

  • 1.
  • 2.  Relational algebra is a procedural query language.  It uses operations to perform queries.  It gives a step by step process to obtain the result of the query.
  • 4.  Select operator selects tuples(rohs) that satisfy a given predicate.  It‘s an denoted by sigma (σ).  Notatin in σ p(r) Where., σ is used for selection prediction. r is ised to relation. p is used as a propositional logic formula which may be use connection like:AND OR and NOT. These relational can use as relational operators like=, ≠, ≥,<,>, ≤
  • 5. NAME AGE WEIGHT Harry 34 80 Saily 26 64 George 29 70 Helena 54 54 Peter 34 80 NAME AGE WEIGHTH Harry 34 80 Helena 54 54 Peter 34 80 σ age≥34(PERSON) Name Age Weighth Helena 54 54 Σ age=weight(PERSON)
  • 6.  This operation shows the list of those attributes that we wish to appear in the result.  Rest of the attributes are eliminated from the table.  It’s denoted by (π). Where..,  A1,A2,A3 is used as an attribute of relation r.
  • 7. NAME STREET CITY jones Main Harrison Smith North Rye Hays Main Harrison Curry North Rye Brooks Senator Brooklyn Johnson Aima Brooklyn Input: πNAME, CITY(CUSTOMER) Output: NAME CITY Johns Harrizon Smith Rye Hays Harrison Curry Rye Brooke Brooklyn Johnson Brooklyn
  • 8.  Union operation combines values in R,Sby removing duplicate ones.  This operation does not need the two tables being operated on to be union compatible.  It elimimates the duplicate tuples.  It’ denoted by U. Notation: R U S a union operation must hold the following condition. 1. R.and S must have the attribute of the. Same number. 2. Dupicte tuples are eliminted automatically.
  • 9. Customer_Na me Account_no Johnson A-101 Smith A-121 Mayes A-321 Turner A-176 Johnson A-273 Johns A-472 Lindsay A-284 BORROW RELATION:- Customer_na me Loan_no Jones L -17 Smith L -23 Hayes L -15 Jackson L -14 Curry L -93 Smith L -11 Williams L -17
  • 10. INPUT: π CUSTOMER_NAME(BORROW)u π customer_name(DEPOSITER CUSTOMER_NAME johnson Smith Hayes Jones Turner Lindsay Jackson Curry Williams Mayes OUTPUT:-
  • 11.  Suppose there are two TUPLES R and S. The set intersection operation contains all TUPLES that are in both R & S.  It is denoted by intersection ∩. Notation: R ∩ S EXAMPLE: Using the above DEPOSITOR table and BORROW table INPUT: ∏ CUSTOMER_NAME (BORROW) ∩ ∏ CUSTOMER_NAME (DEPOSITOR) OUTPUT:
  • 12.  Suppose there are two tuples R and S. The set intersection operation contains all tuples that are in R but not in S.  It is denoted by intersection minus (-). Notation: R - S EXAMPLE: Using the above DEPOSITOR table and BORROW table INPUT: ∏ CUSTOMER_NAME (BORROW)-∏ CUSTOMER_NAME (DEPOSITOR) OUTPUT:
  • 13.  The Cartesian product is used to combine each row in one table with each row in the other table. It is also known as a cross product.  It is denoted by X. Notation: E X D EXAMPLE:
  • 15.
  • 16.  The rename operation is used to rename the output relation. It is denoted by rho (ρ). EXAMPLE: We can use the rename operator to rename STUDENT relation to STUDENT1. ρ(STUDENT1, STUDENT)