Prior to 1920... Historians thought that the Aryans (1700 BCE) were the first Indian civilisation. Excavations in 1920 led to the finding of Mohenjo-daro. In the 1950s, Harappa was found. Information about the Indus Valley Civilisations are based purely on archaeological findings.
Origins Began around 3000 BCE, ended around 1900 BCE Dravidians settled in the Indus plains. Built cities e.g. Harappa and Mohenjo-daro A map showing the extent of the Indus Valley Civilisation
Architecture The Great Bath The college The granary?
Sophisticated drainage systems and sanitary facilities
Economic activities Agriculture Trade Production of pottery, copper etc.
Occupations Farmers, craftsmen and traders King-priests who conducted religious ceremonies
Government Theocratic Worshipped a “Priest King”
Religion Worship of fertility goddesses Worship of sacred animals
Writing Indus seals – probably used by traders for identifying goods Not deciphered yet
Why did the Indus Valley Civilisation decline? Probable causes: Severe floods killed many and forced others to leave Invasion by another people – the Aryans Overpopulation
The Aryans Nomads, came from the Western part of Asia. Entered India in small groups, fought with Dravidians but settled down Gradually moved eastwards into Ganges valley Cultures of Dravidians and Aryans gradually mixed, as seen in Hinduism Movement of Aryans into Ganges Valley