Chapter 2: Reconstructing the past


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Chapter 2: Reconstructing the past

  1. 1. Chapter Two Reconstructing History Chapter 2 Slide 1
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>How do we find out about the past? </li></ul><ul><li>What are sources? </li></ul><ul><li>How do historians ensure that their sources are reliable? </li></ul><ul><li>How is time measured in the study of History? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is the study of History dynamic? </li></ul>Chapter 2 Slide 2
  3. 3. What kinds of questions did you have when you saw the photograph above? How do we find answers to our questions? Chapter 2 Slide 3
  4. 4. What Are Sources? <ul><li> Sources are collections of evidence or proof. </li></ul><ul><li> Historians study various sources to help them reconstruct or put together an accurate picture of the past. </li></ul><ul><li> Sources can be divided into two groups. </li></ul>Chapter 2 Slide 4
  5. 5. <ul><li> Primary sources are information provided by people who were involved in historical events or who witnessed the events. </li></ul><ul><li> Secondary sources are the records of people who did not participate directly in or witness the events they described . These records are the study and investigation of primary sources. </li></ul>Chapter 2 Slide 5
  6. 6. <ul><li> Sources can be further divided into four groups: </li></ul><ul><li>Written evidence — official records, newspapers, personal letters, folk stories, messages carved in stone </li></ul><ul><li>Pictorial evidence — paintings, posters, photographs, maps </li></ul>Chapter 2 Slide6
  7. 7. <ul><li>Oral evidence — spoken words of eyewitnesses, usually recorded on tape and put in writing </li></ul><ul><li>Artefacts — items used by people of the past, e.g. tools and jewellery </li></ul>Chapter 2 Slide 7 A war survivor showing television crew his torture wounds Students participating in a archaelogical dig at Fort Tanjong Katong
  8. 8. RECAP!! <ul><li>What is the difference between primary and secondary sources? </li></ul><ul><li>Give some examples of primary and secondary sources. </li></ul>Chapter 2 Slide 8
  9. 9. Reliability of Sources <ul><li> Question: How do historians make sure that their sources can be trusted to be true and not biased ? </li></ul><ul><li> Three 3Cs test </li></ul><ul><li>-Credibility </li></ul><ul><li>-Consistency </li></ul><ul><li>-Corroboration </li></ul>Chapter 2 Slide 9
  10. 10. <ul><li> Fact — information that is true </li></ul><ul><li>Opinion — what a person believes to be true, which others may not agree with </li></ul><ul><li> Propaganda — ideas and news meant to influence the way people think and behave </li></ul><ul><li> Even if the evidence is not a fact, historians can make use of them to show how people in the past thought </li></ul>Chapter 2 Slide 10
  11. 11. The Language of Time B efore C ommon E ra C ommon E ra Periods – different blocks of time Dynasties – i. line of rulers who belong to the same family Century – 100 years Mauryan period (c. 323–185 BCE) Golden Age (c. 320–550 CE) Circa – c., ‘around’ – ii. refers to the years when a region is continuously ruled by members of the same family Chapter 2 Slide 11 5th century CE 4th century BCE 3rd century BCE 2nd century BCE 1st century CE 2nd century CE 3rd century CE 4th century CE 1st century BCE
  12. 12. Learning Outcomes <ul><li>Historians reconstruct the past by using… </li></ul><ul><li>Sources are… </li></ul><ul><li>Historians ensure that their sources are reliable by… </li></ul>Chapter 2 Slide 12
  13. 13. Learning Outcomes <ul><li>The terms we use to refer to time in the study of History are… </li></ul><ul><li>Our views of the past can change constantly when… </li></ul>Chapter 2 Slide 13