Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

International professional psychology of service


Published on

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

International professional psychology of service

  1. 1. A Global Call to Service for Western Psychologists Susan E. Hawes, PhD Professor of Clinical Psychology Antioch University New England
  2. 2. <ul><li>Biological & Psychosocial Risks </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger </li></ul><ul><li>Achieve universal primary education </li></ul><ul><li>Promote gender equality and empower women </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce child mortality </li></ul><ul><li>Improve maternal health </li></ul><ul><li>Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases </li></ul>
  4. 4. Children Growing Up Poor in South African Cities
  5. 8. <ul><li>Growing research support for successful treatments to improve children’s developmental trajectories in some of the poorest regions of the world </li></ul>
  6. 9. <ul><li>Integration of health, nutrition, education, social, and economic development, and collaboration between government agencies and civil society </li></ul><ul><li>A focus on disadvantaged children </li></ul><ul><li>Sufficient intensity and duration and include direct contact with children beginning early in life </li></ul><ul><li>Parents and families as partners with teachers or caregivers in supporting children’s development </li></ul>
  7. 10. <ul><li>Provide opportunities for children to initiate and investigate their own learning and exploration of their surroundings with age-appropriate activities </li></ul><ul><li>Blend traditional child-rearing practices and cultural beliefs with evidence-based approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Provide early child development staff with systematic in-service training, supportive and continuous supervision, observational methods to monitor children’s development, practice, and good theoretical and learning material support </li></ul>
  8. 16. <ul><li>UNAIDS definition of orphan: a child under 15 whose mother or both parents have died from AIDS </li></ul><ul><li>Vulnerability can be defined as “severe chronic illness of a parent or caregiver, poverty, hunger, lack of access to services, inadequate clothing or shelter, overcrowding, deficient caretakers, and factors specific to the child, including disability, direct experience of physical or sexual violence, or severe chronic illness” (Skinner, et al., 2006). </li></ul>
  9. 17. HIV Infection Increasingly serious illnesses Economic problems Children may become caregivers Children withdraw from school Psychosocial distress Reduced access to health services Deaths of parents Problems with shelter and material needs Inadequate Food Problems with inheritance Children without adequate care Discrimination Exploitive child labor Increased vulnerability to HIV infections Sexual Exploitation Life on the streets Source: A cited in Richter (2003), Williams, 2000.
  10. 18. <ul><li>Education for boys valued more highly (they are considered to be potentially more economically productive), so girls are often the ones to leave school or work to care for the sick or younger children; </li></ul><ul><li>Female-headed households are poorer than those headed by men; </li></ul><ul><li>Female-headed households tend to allocate more of the family’s resources to children’s healthcare and education than do male heads; </li></ul>This ill HIV+ Granny cares for her two HIV+ grandchildren in their new one-room shack donated by Cotlands
  11. 19. <ul><li>Infants and toddlers are most vulnerable to effects of AIDS and health risks; </li></ul><ul><li>Preschoolers are vulnerable to malnourishment, abuse and neglect, poor stimulation, and lack of opportunities for schooling; </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescents are vulnerable to school drop-out, sexual exploitation, and overwork; </li></ul><ul><li>All children are vulnerable to the emotional consequences of multiple losses, including parents, and to being separated from their homes and communities. </li></ul>
  12. 20. <ul><li>Rural households are typically poorer and have fewer employed adults than urban households; </li></ul><ul><li>Children are expected to contribute substantially to subsistence activities </li></ul><ul><li>Social networks in informal urban areas are less developed and less supportive; </li></ul><ul><li>Caregivers often leave their children alone because of their “livelihood activities.” </li></ul>Workers from Zimbabwe returning home from South Africa with food for their families.
  13. 21. <ul><li>People uncertain about their HIV status </li></ul><ul><li>People living with the infection </li></ul><ul><li>Families and caregivers of people with HIV/AIDS </li></ul><ul><li>Children and adolescents orphaned by AIDS </li></ul><ul><li>People caring for AIDS orphans, </li></ul><ul><li>People who fit into more than one of the previous categories </li></ul>HIV+ child cared for in her community by her granny.
  14. 22. <ul><li>Internalizing problems (hence depression and anxiety) </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms of post-traumatic stress </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral problems </li></ul><ul><li>Delinquency </li></ul>Two health, HIV+ children living in NGO orphanage
  15. 23. HIV positive orphans cared for at home by their Grannies & Cotlands Home-based Care Program
  16. 24. <ul><li>From NCSPP Competenies </li></ul>
  17. 25. <ul><li>Humility </li></ul><ul><li>Compassion </li></ul><ul><li>Openness & Acceptance </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Curiosity </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding of the Effects of History </li></ul><ul><li>Reflexivity </li></ul><ul><li>Advocacy </li></ul><ul><li>Empowerment </li></ul>
  18. 26. <ul><li>Provide Staff training or workshops </li></ul><ul><li>Support staff professional development </li></ul><ul><li>Bridging communities & organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Interdisciplinary collaboration (primary health—education—mental health) </li></ul><ul><li>Participatory Action Research (see Research/Evaluation below) </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborate with locals on designing programs that incorporate psycho-social needs </li></ul><ul><li>Help compile information resources for community knowledge banks </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling dialogic practices for conflict resolution and group empowerment </li></ul>
  19. 27. <ul><li>Develop methods of ethical, locally-sensitive, globally useful assessment of development, cognitive processes, learning processes and outcomes, psychopathology </li></ul><ul><li>Insure that assessments can inform actions and interventions in relevant settings in the best interests of the child without hegemonic effects </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborate with local psychologists in holistic approaches to assessment to adapt or replace western tests </li></ul><ul><li>Provide assessment services for health clinics and NGO’s providing HIV/AIDS and ECD services in poor communities. </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborate with local psychologists in holistic approaches to assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Help compile information resources for community knowledge banks </li></ul>
  20. 28. <ul><li>Participatory action research to support learning communities and empower staff, clients, and their communities </li></ul><ul><li>Help NGOs and other local service delivery organizations to meet global accountability goals by designing program evaluations or consulting on methods of program evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborate with local academics on local research programs </li></ul><ul><li>Create or work in evaluation networks to share & support evaluation in the interest of community development </li></ul><ul><li>Help compile information resources for community knowledge banks </li></ul>
  21. 29. <ul><li>Beginning to Integrate Global Psychology into Our Programs </li></ul>
  22. 30. <ul><li>Offer Global Psychology courses in the elective curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Provide for-credit opportunities for short volunteering placements in countries of interest to students and/or faculty (with appropriate guidance & NGO affiliations) </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule regular colloquia on global issues and practices by international psychologists. </li></ul>
  23. 32. <ul><li>Boris, Neil W., Thurman, Tonya R., Snider, Leslie, Spencer, Erin, & Brown, Lisanne (2006). Infants and young children living in youth-headed households in Rwanda: Implications of emerging data. Infant Mental Health Journal , 27(6), 584-602. </li></ul><ul><li>Cluver, Lucie & Gardner, Frances (2007). The mental health of children orphaned by AIDS: A review of international and southern African research. Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health , 19(1), 1-17. </li></ul><ul><li>Cluver, Lucie, Gardner, Frances, & Operario, Don (2007). Psychological distress amongst AIDS-orphaned children in urban South Africa. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry , 48(8), 755-763. </li></ul><ul><li>Engle, Patrice L., Black, Maureen M., Behrman, Jere R., Cabral de Mello, Meena, Gertler, Paul J., Kapiriri, Lydia, Martorell, Reynaldo, Young, Mary Eming, and the International Child Development Steering Group (2007). Strategies to avoid the loss of developmental potential in more than 200 million children in the developing world. The Lancet , 369, 229-42. </li></ul><ul><li>Evans, Judith L., Matola, Chalizamudzi Elizabeth, & Nyeko, Jolly P. T. (2008). Parenting Challenges for the Changing African Family. In Garcia, Marito, Pence, Alan, & Evans, Judith L. (Eds.) Africa’s Future, Africa’s Challenge: Early Childhood Care and Development in Sub-Saharan Africa . </li></ul><ul><li>Farmer, Paul (2001) Infections and inequalities: The modern plagues. Berkeley: University of California Press. </li></ul>
  24. 33. <ul><li>Grantham-McGregor, Sally, Cheung, Yin Bun, Cueto, Santiago, Glenwwe, Paul, Richter, Linda, Strupp, Barbara, and the International Child Development Steering Group, (2007). Developmental potential in the first 5 years for children in developing countries. The Lancet , 369, 60-70. </li></ul><ul><li>Griffin, K., & McKinley, T. (1994) Implementing a Human development strategy , London, Macmillan—retrieved from , 4/8/2008. </li></ul><ul><li>Hunter, Susan (2003). Black death : AIDS in Africa. New York: Palgrave. </li></ul><ul><li>International HIV/AIDS ALLIANCE (2006). Young Children and HIV: Strengthening Family and Community Support (Building Blocks: Africa-wide briefing notes. </li></ul><ul><li>Irwin, Lori G., Siddiqi, Arjumand & Hertzman, Clyde (2007). Early childhood development: A powerful equalizer. Final Report for the World Health Organization’s Commission on the Social Determinants of Health. Retrieved August 5, 2008.. </li></ul><ul><li>Jolly, Richard (2007). Early childhood development: The global challenge, The Lancet , 369, 8-9. </li></ul><ul><li>National Scientific Council on the Developing Child (2007). The Timing and Quality of Early Experiences Combine to Shape Brain Architecture: Working Paper #5 . . Retrieved August 31, 2008. </li></ul><ul><li>Richter, L.M. (2003). Poverty, underdevelopment and infant mental. Journal of Paediatric Child Health, 39, 243-248. </li></ul><ul><li>Richter, Linda, Manegold, Julie, & Pather, Riashnee (2004). Family and Community Interventions for Children Affected by AIDS. Research Monograph commissioned by the Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS and Health Research Programme. </li></ul>
  25. 34. <ul><li>Rochat, T. & Hough, A. (2007 ). Enhancing Resilience in Children Affected by AIDS: Children’s Views and Experiences of Resilience Enhancing Family and Community Practices (published by the Human Sciences Research Council in South Africa) </li></ul><ul><li>Singhal, Arvind & Howard, W. Stephen (Eds.) (2003). The children of Africa confront AIDS: From vulnerability to possibility . Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Research in International Studies, Africa Series No. 80. </li></ul><ul><li>Skinner, Donald, Tsheko, N., Mtero-Munyati, S., Segwabe, M., Chibtamonto, P., Mfecane, S., Chandiwana, B., Nkomo, N., Tlou, S., & Chitiyo, G. (2006). Towards a definition of orphaned and vulnerable children. AIDS Behaviour , 10, 619-626. </li></ul><ul><li>Smart, R. A. (2003). Policies for orphans and vulnerable children: A framework for moving ahead. Washington: Policy project, US-AID. </li></ul><ul><li>Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS and Health Research Programme of the Human Sciences Research Council (2003). Mental Health and HIV/AIDS: Report on a round-table discussion, March 2003.Cape Town: HSRC Publishers. </li></ul><ul><li>South African Children’s Amendment Bill (2006), Chapter 6, Early Childhood Development , #94. </li></ul><ul><li>The Rights of Children : South African Bill of Rights, Section 28, “Children” </li></ul><ul><li>UNICEF. (2004). Factsheet: Children without primary caregivers and in institutions. Geneva: UNICEF. </li></ul><ul><li>United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (2006). Strong foundations: Early childhood care and education, EFA Global Monitoring Report, 5th Edition . Paris, France </li></ul>
  26. 35. <ul><li>Walker, Susan P., Wachs, Theodore D., Gardener, Julie Meeks, Lozoff, Betsy, Wasserman, Gail A., Pollitt, Ernesto, Carter, Julie A., and the International Child Development Steering Group (2007). Child development risk factors for adverse outcomes in developing countries . The Lancet , 369, 145-57. </li></ul><ul><li>World Bank. (2003). Operational guidelines for supporting early child development (ECD) in multi-sectoral HIV/AIDS programs in Africa, 2003. Retrieved on 2/19/09. </li></ul>