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Biometrics For Security Systems


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Biometrics For Security Systems

  1. 1. Presented by SuhasDeshpande<br /> Dr. Druzgalski<br />EE 507<br />Advanced Topics in <br />Biomedical Systems<br />Fingerprint Identification Systems<br />
  2. 2. Overview<br />Biometrics- different types<br />Use of biometrics history<br />Fingerprints <br />Sensors<br />Algorithms<br />System on chip design<br />Real life products<br />US government Fingerprint programs<br />FingerChip Project<br />Companies <br />References<br />
  3. 3. Biometrics<br />“Biometrics refers to automatic identification of people based on their distinctive physiological and behavioral characteristics”<br />“Biometrics is enabling technology that will make our society safer, reduce fraud and lead to user convenience”<br />A typical biometric system is comprised of five components: A sensor, Signal processing algorithms,data storage component, A matching algorithm and a decision process.<br />1,3<br />
  4. 4. History<br />Babylonians (500B.C.) used clay tablets with fingerprints for business transactions<br />Handprints used as signatures in drawings found inside caves about 31000 yrs old<br />15thcentury:Chinesestarted using fingerprints to settle business transactions<br />1892: Classification system for fingerprints (Galton)<br />1896: Another classification system for fingerprints (Henry)<br />1903: NY state prison uses fingerprint identification<br />1963:A paper on Fingerprint automation published (Hughes)<br />1969: FBI goes for the Automated Fingerprint recognition<br />1975:FBI fund for minutiae ans sensor development for fingerprint identification<br />1994: IAFIS held Fingerprint identification competition<br />1999: FBI’s IAFIS components become operational<br />1,2,3<br />
  5. 5. Fingerprints<br />Finger skin is made of friction ridges which make different pattern in each individual<br />There are main features like Arch, Loop and Whorl<br />There are Minutiae like core,ridge ending, island, crossover, pore, bifurcation and delta<br />Biomedical signal and image processing/Najarian<br />
  6. 6. Acquiring Fingerprints<br />Rolled finger<br />Static sensing<br />Sweep reading<br />(3)<br />
  7. 7. Sensors<br />Optical sensors<br />Capacitive sensors<br />Electro optical readers<br />
  8. 8. Sensors<br />Thermal sensors<br />Tactile MEMS<br />Ultrasound<br />(7),(8)<br />
  9. 9. Fingerprint matching<br />Minutiae based algorithms detect different Minutiae like delta, pores etc. It is difficult to detect and hence match the minutiae with poor quality of image<br />Some algorithms use the shapes of the ridges after dividing the image in smaller cells. Ridge direction, phase and pitch are extracted<br />(3)<br />
  10. 10. Fingerprint matching<br />Correlation based algorithms follow the pattern o the ridges of the template to support or reject the fingerprint<br />Some algorithms imply features such as ridge count and distance<br />(3)<br /><br />
  11. 11. Problems !!!<br />Poor quality images<br />Some skin diseases like Psoriasis cause problems in fingerprint identification<br /> There are examples of people having no fingerprints<br />Livelihood or enforcement has to be checked <br />
  12. 12. System on Chip<br />With increase in number of application need for automation integrating the sensor and the algorithms<br />The silicon chip is designed with the microprocessor, on chip memory and software algorithms<br />(6)<br />
  13. 13. FingerChip Project<br />The project started by Dr. Mainguet(Thomson) in 1995<br />The Fingerchip sensor was rod shaped instead of shape of finger<br />It used the sweep sensing technology<br />It induced many aplications such as Laptops, USB drives, smart cards,<br />(3)<br />
  14. 14. US government Programs<br />US-VISIT's biometric procedures<br />NIST Special Publication 800-76<br />Integrated Automatic Fingerprint Identification System (IAFIS)<br />Fast Capture of Rolled-Equivalent Fingerprints and Palm Prints<br />1,3<br />
  15. 15. Companies<br />Atmel AT77C104B<br />Authentec AES2510<br />Validity Fingerprint sensor VFS301<br />Fujitsu MBF 200<br />Bio-Key biometrics solutions<br />Notebooks<br />Peripheral accessories USB drives<br />Safes<br />Time attendance<br />Cars<br />PDAs phone etc<br />
  16. 16. References<br />1)<br />2)<br />3) /fingerchip /biometrics /types/fingerprint.htm<br />4) A. Jain, "Biometrics: A grand challenge," Proceedings - International Conference on Pattern Recognition, vol. 2, pp. 935, 2004<br />5) S. Hiratsuka, “The intelligent fingerprint authentication system SecureFinger,” NEC RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT, vol. 43, pp. 11, 2002<br />6) J. Mainguet, "Fingerprint recognition based on silicon chips,” Future Generation Computer Systems” vol. 16, pp 403–415, (2000)<br />7) Ji-Song Han,“Thermal Analysis of Fingerprint Sensor Having a Microheater Array, ” Department of Micro System Engineering, Nagoya University<br />8) MitraDamghanian, “Analysis and design of a wide micro beam as a pressure gauge for high sensitivity MEMS fingerprint sensors” MicrosystTechnol, 2009<br />