Introduction To Cmm1


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  • Introduction To Cmm1

    2. 2. Course Objectives <ul><li>Understand terms such as process, capability, and maturity </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the 18 key process areas in the CMM </li></ul><ul><li>Interpret the CMM and the key practices in the different contexts </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the fundamental concepts of the CMM </li></ul><ul><li>Explain and use the structure of the CMM </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>Bad requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent changes to requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Wrong interpretation of requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Inaccurate estimation </li></ul><ul><li>Inaccurate or bad planning </li></ul><ul><li>Risks which materialized </li></ul><ul><li>Attrition </li></ul><ul><li>Bad implementation </li></ul><ul><li>No reviews i.E., Inputs from relevant people/ groups </li></ul><ul><li>Mismatched resource skill levels </li></ul><ul><li>Miscommunication between groups </li></ul><ul><li>No defined method for implementing a project </li></ul><ul><li>No checks and balances </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate testing </li></ul><ul><li>Incorrect source base and so on </li></ul>What can go wrong in a project?
    4. 4. Do we need processes? <ul><ul><li>Do we need processes? Such discipline may stifle my creativity! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Discipline enables creativity by FREEING the most talented software professionals from the many CRISES that others have created. A disciplined process EMPOWERS the intellect...” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Watts Humphrey </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. What Is CMM ? <ul><li>A common sense application of process management and quality improvement concepts to software development and maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>A community-developed guide </li></ul><ul><li>A model for organizational improvement </li></ul>
    6. 6. Other Capability Maturity Models <ul><li>Focus areas include : </li></ul><ul><li>Software CMM </li></ul><ul><li>People CMM </li></ul><ul><li>CMMI - CMM integrated (new) </li></ul>
    7. 7. A Mature Process <ul><li>Consistent with the way work actually gets done - defined, documented, and continuously improving </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Living </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supported visibly by management and others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Well controlled </li></ul><ul><li>Constructive use of product and process measurements </li></ul><ul><li>Disciplined use of technology </li></ul>
    8. 8. Institutionalized Process <ul><li>“ That is the way we do things around here” </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational infrastructure contains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usable processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistently applied processes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organizational culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must convey the process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nurtured by management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is conveyed with role models and rewards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Institutionalized processes ENDURES </li></ul><ul><li>( Even after people who originally defined them have gone) </li></ul>
    9. 9. What CMM Does not address? <ul><li>The CMM does not address specific software process and quality improvement issues </li></ul><ul><li>Issues that are addressed only indirectly, or by implication, include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific tools, methods, and technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System engineering, marketing, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational behavior </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Structure of CMM
    11. 11. CMM Maturity Level <ul><li>Maturity level is </li></ul><ul><li>Well-defined stages of evolution on the path to becoming a mature software organization </li></ul><ul><li>Each level is a layer in the foundation for continuous process improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Achieving each level establishes a different component of the software process </li></ul>
    12. 12. CMM Maturity Level <ul><li>There are five maturity levels in CMM </li></ul>
    13. 13. Intent of the Initial Level -Level 1 <ul><li>Performance driven by the competence of the people doing the work </li></ul><ul><li>High quality and exceptional performance possible so long as the best people can be hired </li></ul><ul><li>The process is unpredictable - for good or bad </li></ul><ul><li>The major problems facing the software organization are managerial, not technical </li></ul>
    14. 14. Intent of the Repeatable Level - level 2 <ul><li>The predominant need is to establish effective software project management </li></ul><ul><li>Software project management processes are documented and followed </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational policies guide the projects in establishing management processes </li></ul><ul><li>Successful practices developed on earlier projects can be repeated </li></ul>
    15. 15. Intent of the Defined Level - Level 3 <ul><li>This level builds on the software project management foundation </li></ul><ul><li>To control a process, it must be defined, documented, and understood </li></ul><ul><li>The outputs of one task flow smoothly in to the inputs of the next task </li></ul><ul><li>At this level, the organization builds processes that empower the individuals doing the work </li></ul>
    16. 16. Intent of the Managed level - Level 4 <ul><li>Apply the principles of statistical process control </li></ul><ul><li>Address the special causes of process variation </li></ul>
    17. 17. Intent Of The Optimizing level - Level 5 <ul><li>Identify and eliminate chronic causes of poor performance </li></ul><ul><li>Continuously improve the software process </li></ul>
    18. 18. Key Process Area (KPAs) of Each Level Maturity levels are described in terms of 18 key process areas (KPAs)
    19. 19. Level 2 KPAs <ul><li>Software configuration management (SCM) </li></ul><ul><li>Software quality assurance (SQA) </li></ul><ul><li>Software subcontract management (SSCM) </li></ul><ul><li>Software project tracking and oversight (SPTO) </li></ul><ul><li>Software project planning (SPP) </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements management (RM) </li></ul>
    20. 20. Level 3 KPAs <ul><li>Organization process focus (OPF) </li></ul><ul><li>Organization process definition (OPD) </li></ul><ul><li>Peer reviews (PR) </li></ul><ul><li>Intergroup coordination (IGC) </li></ul><ul><li>Software product engineering (SPE) </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated software management (ISM) </li></ul><ul><li>Training program (TP) </li></ul>
    21. 21. Level 4 KPAs <ul><li>Software quality management (SQM) </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative process management (QPM) </li></ul>
    22. 22. Level 5 KPAs <ul><li>Process change management (PCM) </li></ul><ul><li>Technology change management (TCM) </li></ul><ul><li>Defect prevention (DP) </li></ul>
    23. 23. Maturity levels cannot be skipped <ul><li>Processes at higher maturity levels may be performed, although perhaps ineffectively, even by the organizations at the initial level </li></ul><ul><li>Process capability is built in stages, as some processes are ineffective when others are not stable </li></ul>
    24. 24. Maturity levels <ul><li>Well-defined evolutionary plateaus on the path to becoming a mature software organization </li></ul><ul><li>Each level is a layer in the foundation for continuous process improvement </li></ul><ul><li>There are five maturity levels in the CMM </li></ul><ul><li>Achieving each level establishes a different component of the software process </li></ul><ul><li>Maturity levels are described in terms of 18 key process areas </li></ul>
    25. 25. Goals <ul><li>Goals summarize the key practices of the key process areas </li></ul><ul><li>They are considered important for enhancing process capability for that level of maturity </li></ul><ul><li>They can be used to guide organizations and appraisal teams in assessing alternative ways to implement key process areas </li></ul><ul><li>Each key process maps to one or more goals </li></ul>
    26. 26. Common features <ul><li>Used to organize the key practices in each key process area </li></ul><ul><li>Common features are : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commitment to perform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to perform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activities performed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurement and analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verifying implementation </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Commitment to perform <ul><li>Describes the actions the organization must take to ensure that the process is established and will endure </li></ul><ul><li>Typically include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Ability to perform <ul><li>Describes the preconditions that must exist in the project or organization to implement the software process competently </li></ul><ul><li>Typically includes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delegation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orientation </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Activities performed <ul><li>Describes the roles and procedures necessary to implement a key process area </li></ul><ul><li>Typically includes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishing plans and procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performing the work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tracking it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taking corrective actions as necessary </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Measurement and analysis <ul><li>Describes the need to measure the process and analyze the measurements </li></ul><ul><li>Typically includes examples of the measurements that could be taken to determine the status and effectiveness of the activities performed common feature </li></ul>
    31. 31. Verifying implementation <ul><li>Describes the steps to ensure that the activities are performed in compliance with the process that has been established </li></ul><ul><li>Typically includes reviews and audits by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Senior management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software quality assurance </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Key Practices <ul><li>State the fundamental policies, procedures, and activities for a key process area </li></ul><ul><li>Describe “what” is to be done, but they should not be interpreted as mandating “how” </li></ul><ul><li>Are organized by common feature </li></ul><ul><li>316 key practices in CMM </li></ul>
    33. 33. End of Introduction to CMM