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  1. 1. Blood Circulation and Transport
  2. 2. What organ need to pumps blood to the whole body??? heart
  3. 3. 2.1 Transport System in Humans • The human circulatory system consists of: 1. The heart 2. Blood vessels 3. Blood
  4. 4. Structure of the heart
  5. 5. HEART • Most powerful organ in the circulatory system. • Cone-shaped organ. • Weight about 300g. • Location: in the thoracic cavity, between the lungs. • A muscular organ made up of cardiac muscles connective tissues and blood vessels.
  6. 6. • The heart pumps blood to the whole body. • The human heart consists of four chambers: a) right atrium b) left atrium c) right ventricle d) left ventricle • The heart is connected to four main blood vessels i) vena cava ii) pulmonary vein iii) pulmonary artery iv) aorta • The valves separate the atria/ atrium from the ventricles. To ensure that the blood flows only in one direction.
  7. 7. • right side of the heart contains deoxygenated blood • left side of the heart contains oxygenated blood (blood rich in oxygen).
  8. 8. • Function the parts in the heart: Parts Function Superior vena cava Blood from the upper portion of the body flows into the heart. Aorta Blood from the heart is pumped to the whole body. Pulmonary vein Blood from the lungs is pumped into the heart Right atrium Cavity where blood flow from vena cava into the heart Tricuspid valve Prevents backflow of blood into the right atrium
  9. 9. Inferior vena cava Blood from the lower portions of the body flows into the heart Pulmonary artery Blood is pumped into the lungs from the right ventricle. Left atrium Cavity where blood flows from the pulmonary vein into the heart Bicuspid valve Prevent backflow of blood into the left atrium Aortic valve Prevent backflow of blood into the left ventricle Left ventricle Cavity where blood flow into from the left atrium through the bicuspid valve Right ventricle Cavity where blood flow into from the right atrium through the tricuspid valve
  10. 10. • Function of the heart: 1. pumps blood to the whole body. 2. The right side of the heart contains deoxygenated blood. 3. Left side of the heart contains oxygenated blood. 4. When the heart contracts, it forces the blood out of the heart into the arteries. 5. When it relaxes, it receives blood from the veins.
  11. 11. • Blood circulatory system
  12. 12. 6. When the right atrium is filled with blood it contracts. This pushes the blood into the right ventricle through the tricuspid valve. This valve prevents blood from flowing back into the right atrium.
  13. 13. 7. The right ventricle contracts and pushed the blood into the pulmonary artery. 8. The pulmonary artery then transports the blood to the lungs. 9. The blood receives oxygen in the lungs. Oxygenated blood is carried back to the left atrium by the pulmonary vein. 10. The left atrium contracts and pushes the blood into the left ventricle. 11. The left ventricle contracts and pushes the blood into the aorta. 12. The aorta branches into the arteries. These arteries transport oxygenated blood to all parts of the body except the lungs.
  14. 14. Blood vessels and their functions • When the heart pumps the blood flows around the body in a system tubes called blood vessels. • There are three types of blood vessels 1. Arteries / artery -blood vessels which transport blood away from the heart. 2. Veins/ vein -blood vessels which transport blood towards the heart. 3. Capillaries/ capillary -consist of network of fine, microscopic blood vessels.
  15. 15. 1. Characteristics and function of arteries Artery
  16. 16. • In the arteries blood flows quickly and at the high pressure: 1. When the heart contracts,blood is forced at a high pressure into the arteries. 2. The thick,elastic walls prevent the arteries from bursting. 3. All arteries except the pulmonary artery transport oxygenated blood to body tissues.
  17. 17. 2. Characteristics and function of the capillary capillary
  18. 18. • Capillaries are found very close to the cells of the body.They join to form bigger tubes called veins.They connect the arteries to the veins. • Blood flows slowly in the capillaries and at a higher pressure compared to the flows of blood in the veins. • Capillaries transport oxygenated blood to the body cells.They transport deoxygenated blood from the cells. • The thin walls of the capillaries allow the exchange of substances between the blood and body cells. • Substances such as oxygen,carbon dioxide,nutrients and excretory products are exchange between the blood and body cells.
  19. 19. 3. Characteristics and function of the veins veins
  20. 20. Comparison between artery, vein and capillary
  21. 21. COMPARISON ARTERY VEIN CAPILLARY Cross section Lumen Narrow Wide Very narrow Function Transport blood from the heart Transport blood into the heart Transport blood from artery to vein
  22. 22. Type of blood carried Oxygenated blood (except pulmonary artery) Deoxygenated blood (except pulmonary vein) Oxygenated and deoxygenated blood Blood pressure high low Very low Rate blood flow fast slow Very slow Structure of the wall Thick, elastic, muscular Thinner, less elastic and muscular One-cell thick
  23. 23. Presence of valve absent present absent
  24. 24. • The veins have thinner muscular walls compare to the arteries. • Veins have valves. These valves ensure that blood flows in only one direction, that is towards the heart. • As the blood passes through the organ, it loses much of it pressure. By the time the blood enters the veins, the blood pressure is relatively low. • This explain why veins have thinner walls compare to the arteries.
  25. 25. Compare oxygenated blood and deoxygenated blood Characteristics Oxygenated blood Deoxygenated blood Content of oxygen Colour Gas Rich Poor Bright red Dark red Oxygen Carbon dioxide
  26. 26. Path of blood flow in circulatory system. • Humans have a double circulatory system. • This means blood passes through the heart twice for one complete circulation in the body. • The human circulatory system is divided into two sections: 1. The pulmonary circulation 2. The systemic circulation
  27. 27. Human circulatory system The pulmonary circulation The systemic circulation Arterial • Oxygenated blood from the heart to other part of the body venous • deoxygenated blood from the heart to other part of the body
  28. 28. Role of blood in transport • Transport oxygen -Oxygen is transported from the respiratory organ (lung) to the body tissues. -The red blood cells transport oxygen to the body tissues where oxygen is used in cell respiration to release energy. • Transport carbon dioxide -Carbon dioxide from respiring cells dissolves in the blood plasma. It is released into the alveoli and is excreted by the lungs.
  29. 29. • Transport digested food -Digested food such as glucose and amino acids diffuses into the capillaries and carried to the body cells. • Remove excretory products and waste products -Excretory products such as carbon dioxide,urea,water are transported to specific organ for removal.
  30. 30. • Transport hormones -Hormones which are secreted by the endocrine glands are transported to where they are needed. • Distributes heat -Heat produced locally is distributed to the whole body. -This also helps maintain body temperature.
  31. 31. • 4) Distributes heat
  32. 32. Importance of a healthy heart Why it is important to maintain a healthy heart?????•An unhealthy heart may causes various health problems which may lead to death.
  33. 33. Heart attack: 1.The heart will stop pumping blood. 2.Blood will not reach critical organ like the brain and the heart itself. 3.If the heart muscles do not receives enough blood within in a few minutes the cell in the area will die. This is fatal. 4.If the brain does not receive oxygenated blood, critical brain cells may die.This may cause coma or brain damage. 5.Toxic waste will quickly build up when blood stop flowing.
  34. 34. HEART ATTACKS • Occur when the blood flow to a part of the heart is blocked, usually by a blood clot. • If this clot cuts off the blood flow completely, the part of the heart muscle supplied by that artery begins to die.
  35. 35. b) STROKE and TIA (“mini-stroke”) • happen when a blood vessel that feeds the brain gets clogged or bursts. • Then that part of the brain can’t work and neither can the part of the body it controls.
  36. 36. 1.List the importance to maintain a healthy heart. 2.List the risk factors that can trigger the heart attack. 3.List the ways to maintain a healthy heart.
  37. 37. • The importance to maintain a healthy heart.
  38. 38. Risk factors that can trigger the heart attack • smoking • high blood pressure • too much fat in your diet/ obesity • diabetes • age,male • hereditary • poor blood cholesterol level.
  39. 39. The ways to maintain a healthy heart. 1. Avoid smoking 2. Reduce the intake of fatty foods. 3. Maintain a moderate body weight 4. Avoid drinking alcohol 5. Reduce mental and emotional stress.
  40. 40. Exercise 2.1 1. Name the four chambers of the human heart and the blood vessel connected to each chamber. 2. State the difference in function between the vena cava and the pulmonary vein. • the right atrium connected to the vena cava. •The left atrium connected to the pulmonary vein •The right ventricle connected to pulmonary artery •The left ventricle connected to the aorta The pulmonary vein transports oxygenated blood from the lungs to the right atrium whereas the vena cava transport deoxygenated blood from the body tissues to the right atrium.
  41. 41. 3. List four substances which are transported by blood. 4. State four ways that can prevent heart disease. 1. Digested food 2. Excretory products 3. Respiratory gases 4. Hormones 1. Avoid smoking 2. Reducing the intake of fatty food. 3. Maintaining a moderate body weight 4. Avoid drinking alcohol
  42. 42. 2.2 Human blood • An adult human has about 5 litres of blood which is about 9% of his body weight. • Blood is the main carrier of the body transport system.
  43. 43. • Carries nutrient and oxygen to the body cells. • Transport carbon dioxide and waste products away from the cells. • Fight diseases • Helps to maintain a constant body temperature.
  44. 44. Blood constituents Red blood cells White blood cells PlasmaPlatelets Forms about 55% of the volume of bloodForms about 45% of the volume of blood
  45. 45. Functions of blood constituents
  46. 46. 1. Plasma plasma • a) It is light yellow in colour. • b) 90% water and 10% dissolved substances.
  47. 47. c) Dissolved substances in plasma include • mineral salts • excretory products • oxygen • carbon dioxide. • nutrients
  48. 48. d) Function i) Medium for transport nutrient and oxygen ii) Transport excretory products iii) Transport other substances such as enzymes, hormones and antibodies.
  49. 49. iv) Helps to maintain the body temperature. v) Fibrinogen is the plasma protein responsible for the clotting blood.
  50. 50. 2. Red blood cells (erythrocytes) • a) Colour: red • b) Shape: biconcave • c) No nucleus • d) Contains haemoglobin (red pigment) Red blood cells
  51. 51. • e) Function: Transport oxygen from the lung to the body cells. • f) Produced in the bone marrow. • g) Have a lifespan of about 4 months. • h) Old red blood cells not function normally. These are destroyed in the liver and spleen.
  52. 52. 3. White blood cells (leucocytes) • a) Larger than a red blood cells. • b) There are about 600 to 700 red blood cells to one white blood cells. • c) Has no definite shape. • d) Has a nucleus,colourless,not contain haemoglobin. White blood cell
  53. 53. • e) Produced in the bone marrow, lymph nodes and spleen. • f) These cells have lifespan of about few days. • g) Old white blood cells are destroyed in the liver and spleen.
  54. 54. h) Function: 1.Protect the body against diseases. 2.Digest bacteria 3.Produce antibodies 4.Produce antitoxins to neutralise poisonous substances.
  55. 55. 4. Platelets • a) Fragment of cell produced in the bone marrow. • b) A platelets does not have any nucleus. • c) Does not have a definite shape.
  56. 56. • d) Platelets play an important role in the clotting of blood. • e) They prevent excessive bleeding and initiate healing or repairing of the injury.
  57. 57. Blood group and compatibility • Human blood can be classified into four main groups which are O,A,B and AB. • Every individual belongs to a particular blood group.
  58. 58. • Blood transfusion is the transfer of blood from a donor to a recipient. • In blood transfusions, the recipient’s blood must be compatible with the donor’s. • If they are incompatible, blood cells will agglutinate. This may lead to death.
  59. 59. • A person with blood type O is known as a universal donor. • This blood group is compatible with all other blood groups. • It does not cause agglutination of the blood cells inside the blood vessels.
  60. 60. • A person with AB blood group is known as a universal recipient. • He can receive blood from all the blood group, however he can only donate blood to people of blood group AB.
  61. 61. Compatibility blood transfusions between the four blood groups: Blood group Can donate to Can receive from A A, AB O, A B B, AB O, B AB AB O, A, B, AB O O, A, B, AB O
  62. 62. The importance of blood donation • Blood donation does not bring us any ill effects nor does it endanger our health. • Our body produces and replaces blood very quickly. • Therefore we should adopt a positive attitude towards blood donation.
  63. 63. Blood is needed in the following situation: 1.For major and minor surgeries 2.To replace blood lost due to accidents. 3.To make blood constituents like red blood cells, plasma and platelets. 4.For children suffering from thalassaemia (bleeding disorders).
  64. 64. 5. For mother who encounter complications during childbirth. 6. For patient suffering from anaemia and leukaemia. 7. For victims who suffer burns on their body. 8. To help controls blood clots.
  65. 65. Storage and handling of donated blood
  66. 66. a) The donor is interviewed and given medical counseling. b) The donated blood is tested for Hepatitis B, C and HIV.
  67. 67. • c) The blood sent to the hospitals where they are stored in blood bank at 4°C.
  68. 68. • 4. Before the blood is used for transfusion, the bags are taken out and left at room temperature for two hours
  69. 69. 5. There are two types of blood in the blood banks: a) Fresh blood which can last for 24 hours. b) Stored blood at 4°C which can last for about 40 days
  70. 70. Exercise 2.2 1. What is meant by blood? 2. State three functions of blood. Blood is a tissue which consist of cells suspended in a liquid medium called plasma. 1. Transported digested food 2. Transported excretory product 3. Protects the body against diseases
  71. 71. 3. How do white blood cells react to an attack by bacteria? 4. Complete the following table to show compatible blood transfusions. The white blood cells will digest the bacteria and produce antitoxin to neutralise the toxins produced by bacteria. Blood group Can donate blood to blood group Can receive blood from blood group O A O, A, B, AB O A, AB O, A
  72. 72. How the leaves at the top of a tall tree obtain water necessary for photosynthesis???
  73. 73. 2.3 Transport system in Plants
  74. 74. Transport tissues in plant • 1. The transport system in plant helps transport substances to all part of the plant. • 2. The transport system in plant consists of thin tubes called vascular bundles.
  75. 75. • 3. Vascular bundles found in the roots, stems and leaves. • 4. Vascular bundles are made up of the phloem, xylem and cambium.
  76. 76. • 5) Xylem and phloem are two types of tissues that involve in the transport system of plant.
  77. 77. a) Xylem • i) transport water and dissolved minerals from the roots to the stems and leaves. • ii) Long tubes. • iii) Have a thick and strong walls which support the plant.
  78. 78. b) Phloem • transport food from the leaves to the stems and roots
  79. 79. • 5. There are two types of tissues that are involved in the transport system of plant. • 6. These are xylem and phloem. • 7. Both of xylem and phloem tissues present in roots, stems and leaves.
  80. 80. Tissues involved in the transport system of plant: Xylem • transport water and dissolved minerals from the roots to the steams and leaves. •Long tubes. •Have a thick and strong walls which support the plant. •Xylem walls contain lignin. Water cannot go through lignin because it is not permeable to water. This allow the xylem vessels to transport water efficiently. Phloem • transport food from the leaves to the steams and roots
  81. 81. STEM ROOT
  82. 82. In the morning In the afternoon What differences do you notice??
  83. 83. • The plant wilts. • When a plant wilts there is not enough water inside the plant because it is losing more water than it is absorbing.
  84. 84. What are the process which a plant loses water??? Transpiration
  85. 85. Transpiration • 1. Transpiration is the process by which a plant loses water in the form of water vapour from leaves to the environment. • 2. The water vapour passes out of the leaf through tiny pores called stomata in the epidermis.
  86. 86. • 3. A stoma is a tiny pore surrounded by a pair of cells known as a guard cells. • 4. The opening and closing of the stomata are controlled by the guard cells. • 5. More stomata are found on the lower side of the leaf compared to the upper side.
  87. 87. An open stoma: • the stomata of plants are normally open during the day to allow the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen. •Takes place during photosynthesis. •Loss of water by transpiration. A closed stoma: • occurs at night. •Photosynthesis does not take place. •Slows down water loss. Guard cells
  88. 88. Factors that affect the rate of transpiration • A potometer is used to measure the rate of transpiration. • The rate of transpiration depends on the: Factors ` Rate of transpiration Reason Humidity Increases with lower humidity On dry days,there is less water vapour in the air. Temperature Increase with an increase in temperature. Rate of evaporation increases. Light intensity Increases with greater light intensity Evaporation of water through the open stomata increases. Air movement Increases on windy days Moving air removes water vapour from the surface of the leaves.
  89. 89. The role of transpiration 1. Absorption and transport of water 2. Absorption and transport of mineral salts from the soil. 3. Removal of excess water. 4. Cooling of plant 5. Exchange of gases
  90. 90. 1. Absorption and transport of water • Enable water to be transported from the root and steam to the leaves. • This enables all cells in the plant to be active and to remain in a state of turgidity. • This flow of water is continuous and is called the transpirational stream.
  91. 91. 2. Absorption and transport of mineral salts from the soil. • Water in the soil contains dissolved minerals salts. • During transpiration,the minerals salts present in the soil are absorbed by the roots and transported up the stems and to the leaves.
  92. 92. 3. Removal of excess water. • Transpiration thus helps to get rid of the excess water from the plant. 4. Cooling of plant • Transpiration has a cooling effect on plants. • As the water from the transpiration evaporates, heat from the plant is used up.This cools the plant.
  93. 93. 5. Exchange of gases • Carbon dioxide is needed for photosynthesis.During transpiration,the opening of stomata allows carbon dioxide from athmosphere to diffuse inside the leaf. • Oxygen which is produced during photosynthesis diffuses out into the athmosphere through the stomata.
  94. 94. Exercise 2.3 1. Name the structure P and Q.State one function of P and Q. PQ P is guard cells which controls the size of the stoma. Q is stoma which allow water vapour from the leaf to escape to the athmosphere during transpiration.
  95. 95. 2. What is the meaning of transpiration. 3. Give two reason why transpiration is important to plant. 4. State four factors which affect the rate of transpiration. Transpiration is the process by which plant lose water in the form of water vapour from its leaves to the environment • helps the plant to absorb water containing dissolved minerals. • get rid of excess water from the plant. 1. Humidity 2. Temperature 3. Light intensity 4. Movement of air