Kenya: International cooperation to achieve the education for all


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Presentation made in Hong Kong University. October 2013, Chaired by Mark Bray.

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  • CurriculumThe development of DRR curriculum involves the Ministry of Education and Kenya Institute of Education in incorporating the disaster-related issues into the existing subjects, such as natural disasters, health and nutrition-related risks, hygiene malpractice, accidents and safe commuting, violence at home and school, and armed conflicts and insecurity. It aims to build disaster awareness, preparedness and mitigation skills for the learners – both teachers and students. CFS:Safety / Management: The school management is responsible for ensuring that schools are safe by developing and implementing the DRR mitigation plan (i.e. school contingency plan, evacuation plan, early warning system, etc) against a wide range of school-related disasters which include landslides, lightening, strong wind, floods, drought, fire, and poisonous chemical emissions. In addition, teachers and students can be trained by conducting regular emergency drills – which should be appropriate to both sudden-onset disasters and early warning situations. CFS: Action research: Action research helps teachers to better understand the nature of the school issue. It helps them to assess school needs, plan and make informed decisions to implement possible means of dealing with the risks, reflect the result of the action, and document the steps. It involves teachers, students, support stuff, administrators, and parents. Peace education is an integrated approach that encompasses a component of life skills trainings and awareness-raising activities which enable learners and communities to positively change their behaviours and attitudes to promote peace and prevent conflict. The introduction of peace education in school is intended to instil a sense of peace among the children and youth and embed peaceful and non-violence culture in their communities, no matter their circumstances, gender, location, religion, language, ethnicity or socio-economic background.Emergency Preparedness and Response Plan (EPRP)EPRP has a clear guide to promote preparedness, response and recovery, and create and maintain a safe learning environment, and protect access to education during emergency. It also encourages community- and school-level activities to enhance the overall awareness and capacity to withstand disasters. In addition, EPRP is a central component of DRR in education, which is one of the government priorities to address the chronic vulnerability to disasters. EPRP is therefore a critical framework to strengthen preparedness and risk mitigation, and integrate education in emergencies in the line Ministries.Cluster coordination The emergency cluster approach plays a key role in enhancing the promptness and effectiveness of collective response in the humanitarian context by ensuring greater coverage, accountability and partnership. It is a coordinated effort by the international humanitarian agencies to reach more beneficiaries, with more comprehensive needs-based relief and protection, in a more effective and timely manner.
  • Kenya: International cooperation to achieve the education for all

    1. 1. International Cooperation to Achieve the Education for All Goals October 8th, 2013 Suguru Mizunoya Assistant Professor, Faculty of Social Science, CUHK 1 - Strategies and Challenges for UNICEF and its Partners in Kenya -
    2. 2. Topics 1. Introduction: • EFA goals and Education Situation in Kenya 2. Partnership: • How we work together • Corruption and SWAP 3. Who is left behind 4. Approach: Are projects right answers? What should be done under human rights approach 5. What I did not know about education development 6. What should we do? Post 2015 agenda 2
    3. 3. Located in Eastern Africa. Bordered with Somalia, Ethiopia, South Sudan, Uganda and Tanzania. Population: 42.7 million GDP Per Capita: US1,776 (PPP) 1. Introduction 3 Arid and Semi-Arid Land (ASAL)
    4. 4. EFA Goals • Goal 1: Universal access to learning • Goal 2: A focus on equity; • Goal 3: Emphasis on learning outcomes; • Goal 4: Broadening the means and the scope of basic education. • Goal 5: Enhancing the environment for learning • Goal 6: Strengthening partnerships by 2000 •  ECDE & Primary education, Learning outcomes, Equity, Youth, and Partnership 4
    5. 5. 2. How Education Development Policies are implemented: Partnership Structure at Edu Sector Level 5 EDPCG UNESCO JICA CIDA DFID WB, NGO, etc MOE Emergency Cluster GPE
    6. 6. Strategic Arrangement • Constitution of Kenya 2010 • Government Strategic Paper – VISION 2030 • Education related Acts – Basic Education Act 2013 – University Act 2013 – Teacher Service Commission Act 2013 – Sports Act 2013 – Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development Act 2013 • Education Policies – Nomadic Education Policy – Alternative Provision of Basic Education Policy – Gender and Education Policy – Special Needs Education Policy • Sessional Paper (policy paper) • Strategic Plan: Kenya Education Sector Support Plan (KESSEP 2013-2017) • Programs, activities, monitoring 6 Sector Level Matters SWAP
    7. 7. SWAP, Politics, and Education • GoK – Pressure groups: MPs, Civil Society, People, sometimes DPs – Deal with DPs, embassies (Israel), companies (PCs, milk - innovation or mare business?) • DPs – Multilateral – some are driven by HQ – Bilateral – driven by the politics of home country. e.g., DFID spends money for Non-public actors, Impact evaluation. • In order to access to FTI money, the former education sector plan KESSIP was developed by the WB. – Free Primary Education was the most critical political commitment of National Rainbow Coalition which won the Presidential Election in 2002 – Joint Financial Agreement (WB, DFID, CIDA and UNICEF). – “Corruption” in 2008 (46 million USD). – Joint WB, CIDA, DFID vs MOE (UNICEF was floating around quietly). – Relationship has not been fully recovered. DPs are seen as enemy by the MOE officials (c.f., UNESCO, UNICEF, USAID). • GPE changed its philosophy from FIT. – Fund implementation plan – Inclusive discussion – “Seed” Money 7
    8. 8. 3. Who is left behind? • Abolition of School Fee: – Free Primary School Policy in 2003. – Free Day Secondary School Policy 2007. – Provision of capitation to Pre-schools, partially started in 2012. • ECDE National Policy – Education, Health, Nutrition • Nomadic Education Policy • Alternative Provision of Basic Education • Gender in Education Policy • Special Needs Education Policy • Refugee Education Policy (on-going) • Sports Act (Talent Academy) • But who is really left out? – ECDE – Nomadic Populations – Children with disabilities 8
    9. 9. ECDE and Devolution 9 • NER of ECDE is 42% in 2009. Why so low? • Became a part of compulsory basic education under Basic Education Act 2013. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% • ECDE and Youth Polythec were devolved in 2012. • Issues: Capacity, finance, guideline, coordination
    10. 10. Nomadic Education 10 • Huge Regional Disparity, masked by national average • Mobile School • Low Cost Boarding School • County Level SWAP • NoKET • NACONEC • Partners :DFID & CIDA (over 11 million USD in 3 years)
    11. 11. …and children with disability • There is a policy: SNE policy • Constitutional commitment: Disability representatives at county and national levels • Organizational commitment (AusAID, UNICEF, DFID, GPE, WB etc etc) • The 2012 4W (who, what, where, when) of EDPCG has no organization implementing any disability related program. • Assuming 3% of children have disabilities, and 50% of them are out-of school, 1.5% of school-going age children are not attending school. • Negligible? 96% NER=4% of OOSC. 1.5/4=38% of OOSC have disability? • OOSCI: Only 1 report have in-depth analysis of disability • Why systematically neglected? – Least developing countries? – Countries like Kenya? • Critical issue: DATA!! ( 109X(13)70016-0/fulltext) 11
    12. 12. 12 4. Human Rights and Education: Issues of program Approach Rights stipulated in the CRC/COK Not OK OK OK Not OK Programme/Investments Education Sector Related Rights - Are all the rights monitored regularly? - Do we know the situation at county level? - Are the set of indicators that monitor rights agreed among stakeholders? - Are we consistent in measuring rights over years? Sector Review Priority Programme approach has a limitation in terms of monitoring all the rights
    13. 13. UNICEF and MOE’s efforts towards establishing Rights Based Monitoring System 13 Meriting Tool Establishment of Education Standards and Quality Assurance Council (ESQAC) NIEMIS/SMS systems Standards Setting Data collection Accountability Meriting Tool + Changes the education sector into Child-Friendly Education System ESQAC + Data Collection =
    14. 14. CoK Education Act 2013 Policies •ECDE policy •Nomadic education policy •APBE policy •SNE policy •Etc MOE implementation of policies (NESSP) Family tree of human rights in education sector in Kenya 14 Convention of the Right of the Child Meriting Tool Annual CRC report National and County Level Analysis to make informed decisions
    15. 15. • Chinese Philosopher • Human nature has an innate tendency towards goodness, but moral rightness cannot be instructed down to the last detail. This is why merely external controls always fail in improving society. 15 Mèng Zǐ (B.C.372-298) BC: Hindu, Babylonian Code, the Bible, Quran, great philosophers BC. 0 1945: End of WWII. Establishment of UN 1989: Convention of the Rights of the Child 2010: Constitution of Kenya 2013: Education Act Today English Bill of Rights (1689)  It took a few thousands years to establish human rights as a modern legal system.  Human being had to go through Colonization, the World Wars to establish the rights-based international organization.  It is only 1989 when Convention of Rights of the Child developed and ratified.  It is only last 3 years, Kenya promulgated CoK and enacted the Basic Education Bill.  It is, to my best knowledge, the first time in the human history that Education Sector is (will be) equipped with the tool and the national systems to monitor all the human rights to actualize all the rights for children.  I call it a true innovation in the scale of human history.
    16. 16. The Key Partner: Head Teacher’s Association: KEPSHA • Highly recommended, please visit these sites. •!home/mainPage • Pzso 16
    17. 17. 5. What I did not know before I went to Kenya • Development is a second name of Peace • Emergency is a part of daily life in Kenya. – 2008 Post Election Violence – 2011 Horn of Africa Drought – 2012-13 Inter-community conflicts – Election – Periodical floods and Droughts – Frequent Terror attackS • Imagine how much education is disrupted. 17
    18. 18. Disaster Risk Reduction Structure of UNICEF KCO DRR in Education Strategy DRR and Education School Level Curriculum Child Friendly School Peace Education National and Sub- national Level Emergency Preparedness and Response Plan (EPRP) Education Cluster Capacity Development Youth life skills and livelihood 18 UNICEF Trained all the curriculum developers of Kenya Institute of Education in 2012
    19. 19. DRR is essential for… 19 Development Communities Humanitarian Communities Development Communities Humanitarian Communities DRR For Sustainable Development
    20. 20. My Recommendation for Post 2015 Agenda • Disability • DRR • Peace – Nomadic education – Second chance in education – Youth vocational training – Life skills • Mainstreaming human rights in the education system (standards, accountability, capacity) 20
    21. 21. ASANTE SANA! (Thank you!) 21
    22. 22. Quality • Massive increase in number of children in primary school during last decade. • The children are attending school but very little learning is taking place. • only three out 10 children in Class Three can read a Class Two story [in English], while slightly more than half of them can read a paragraph (UWEZO). • content/uploads/2012/10/KE_2012_AnnualAsses sMentReport_PolicyBrief.pdf 22