Histologic structure of endocrine system

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Histologic structure of endocrine system

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Histologic structure of endocrine system

  1. 1. HISTOLOGIC STRUCTURE OF ENDOCRINE SYSTEM DR. I WAYAN SUGIRITAMA,M.Kes HISTOLOGY DEPARTMENT MEDICAL FACULTY OF UDAYANA UNIVERSITY www.sugiritama.blogspot.com [email_address]
  2. 2. <ul><li>HORMONE : organic chemical that liberate by endocrine cells into vascular system </li></ul><ul><li>TARGET ORGAN : tissue/organ on which the hormones act </li></ul><ul><li>ENDOCRINE GLANDS : Contain cell that produce hormone ( Pituitary, Adrenal, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Islet Langerhan,s, and Pineal) </li></ul>
  3. 3. ENDOCRINE <ul><li>GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS </li></ul><ul><li>COMMONLY SAID THAT THEY HAVE NO DUCTS </li></ul><ul><li>RICH SUPPLY OF BLOOD VESSELS </li></ul><ul><li>EACH GLAND SECRETE ONE/MORE HORMONE  SPECIFIC EFFECT UPON ANOTHER TISSUE/ORGAN </li></ul>
  4. 4. PITUTIARY/ HYPOPHYSIS GLAND <ul><li>Develop from different embryonic : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adenohypophysis : evagination oral ectoderm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neurohypophysis : neural ectoderm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Connected to the brain by neural pathways </li></ul><ul><li>Hormone secretion controlled by Hypothalamus </li></ul>
  5. 5. SUBDIVISION OF HYPOPHYSIS <ul><li>Adenohypophysis (anterior pitutiary) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pars distalis (anterior) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pars intermedia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pars tuberalis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neurohypophysis (posterior pitutiary) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Median eminence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infundibulum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pars Nervosa </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. ADENOHYPOPHYSIS (Pars Distalis ) <ul><li>Chromophils (have an affinity for histological dyes) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acidhophil (granules stain orange-red with eosin) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Somatotrophs  somatotropin (GH) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mammotrophs  Prolactin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basophil (granule stain blue with basic dyes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Corticotrophs  ACTH </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thyrothrops  TSH </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gonadothrops  LH and FSH </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Chromophobes (do not take up stain) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Degranulated chromophils </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. ADENOHYPOPHYSIS(Pars Intermedia and Pars Tuberalis) <ul><li>PARS INTERMEDIA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Between pars distalis-nervosa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cuboidal cell line, colloid containing cysts (Rathke,s cysts) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Houses cord of basophils along networl of capillaries  POMC  α -MSH,corticotropin, β -lipoprotein,and β -endorphine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PARS TUBERALIS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surround hypophyseal stalk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly vascularized by arteries and hypophseal portal system along which longitudinal cords of cuboidal-low columnar epith. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells contain secretory granule (FSH?, LH?) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. HYPOTHALAMOHYPOPHYSEAL TRACT <ul><li>Unmyelinated axon (cell bodies in supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of hypothalamus), enter the posterior pitutiary  terminate in vicinity of capillaries </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclei sythezise  ADH and oxytocin , and also neurohypophysin </li></ul>
  9. 9. NEUROHYPOPHYSIS <ul><li>Pars nervosa technically is not endocrine gland </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothalamohypophyseal tract end in the pars nervosa and store the neurosecretions that are produce by cells bodies (hypothalamus) </li></ul><ul><li>Axon supported by pituicytes (glial-like cell) </li></ul><ul><li>Axon contain granule of vasopressin or oxytocin </li></ul><ul><li>Chrome-alum staining reveal Herring bodies (accumulation of neurosecretory granule) </li></ul>
  10. 10. HYPOPHYSIS=MASTER GLAND
  11. 11. ADRENAL GLAND <ul><li>Consist of two layer : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adrenal cortex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>From coelomic intermediate mesoderm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adrenal medulla </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>From neural crest modified sympathetic postganglionic neurons </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Adrenal cortex <ul><li>Zona glomerulosa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Columnar/pyramidal cells are arranged in closely packed, rounded or arched clusters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mineralocorticoids(aldosterone) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Zona fasciculata </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Polyhedral cells arranged in straight cords </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glucocorticoids (cortisone &cortisol) and androgens </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Zona reticularis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells disposed in irregular cords that form anatomozing network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glucocorticoids and androgens </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. ADRENAL MEDULLA <ul><li>Parenchymal : polyhedral cells arranged in cords/ clumps and supported by reticular fiber network </li></ul><ul><li>>> capillary supply </li></ul><ul><li>>> secretory granules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>epinephrine & </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>norepinephrine </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. THYROID GLAND <ul><li>Thyroid follicle is the structural and functional unit </li></ul><ul><li>Connective tissue septa derived from the capsule invaded the parenchym </li></ul><ul><li>Secrete T3 and T4 </li></ul>
  15. 15. PARENCHYM OF THYROID GLAND <ul><li>FOLLICULAR CELLS </li></ul><ul><li>Range from squamous-low columnar </li></ul><ul><li>Numerous short villi that extend into colloid </li></ul><ul><li>Round, ovoid nucleus, </li></ul><ul><li>Basophilic cytoplasm, rod-shape mitochondria, supranuclear golgi comp. numerous small vesicle </li></ul><ul><li>Hormone T4 and T3 stored in colloid, which bound to Thyroglobulin </li></ul>
  16. 16. PARENCHYME CELL OF THYROID GLAND <ul><li>PARAFOLLICULAR CELLS </li></ul><ul><li>Pale staining, lie cluster among the follicular cells </li></ul><ul><li>2-3 times larger than follicular cells; 0,1% of epithelium </li></ul><ul><li>Round nucleus, moderate RER, elongated mithocondria, well developed golgi compl. Small dense granule </li></ul><ul><li>Secrete calcitonin </li></ul>
  17. 17. SYNTHESIS OF THYROID HORMONE
  18. 18. PARATHYROIDS GLAND <ul><li>Parenchym : consist of chief cells and oxyphill cells </li></ul><ul><li>Cells form the cords or cluster surrounded by reticular fiber and rich capillary network </li></ul><ul><li>Connective tissue in older adult :>> adipose cells (up to 60%) </li></ul><ul><li>Secrete PTH  calcium metabolism </li></ul>
  19. 19. PARENCHYM OF PARATHYROID GLAND <ul><li>CHIEF CELLS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eosinophilic-staining </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contain secretory granules (PTH) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Juxtanuclear golgi complex, elongated mitochondria and abundant RER </li></ul></ul><ul><li>OXYPHIL CELLS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More deeply stain with eosin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less numerous , appear in group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More mitochondria, small golgi app. And little RER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The inactive phase of Chief cells </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. PINEAL GLAND <ul><li>Cone-shape midline projection from roof of the diencephalons </li></ul><ul><li>5-8 mm X 3-5 mm (120 mg) </li></ul><ul><li>Covered by pia mater  capsule  septa  incomplete lobules </li></ul><ul><li>Parenchym composed by : pinealocytes & interstitial cell </li></ul><ul><li>Melatonine secretion are influenced by light and dark </li></ul>
  21. 21. PARENCHYME OF PINEAL GLAND <ul><li>Pinealocytes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basophilic cells, with one. two long processed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleus spherical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cytoplasm : SER, RER, small golgi app., mitochondria and small secretory granule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce Melatonin and serotonin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interstitial cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scattered trough pinealocytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deeply staining, with long processed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calcium and carbonate deposite  CORPORA ARENACEA (BRAIN SAND)  >> older </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. ISLET OF LANGERHANS <ul><li>Appear as rounded clusters of cells within exocrine pancreatic tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Each islet consists of lightly stained polygonal/ rounded cells arranged in cords separated by network of fenestrated blood capillaries </li></ul><ul><li>Four type cells (A, B, D and F) </li></ul><ul><li>The B cells have irregular granules (insulin ) </li></ul><ul><li>Type A cell  Glucagons </li></ul>

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