Nurturing Students’ Professional Spirit inNurturing Students’ Professional Spirit in
Translation Courses with EmpowermentT...
 Sharing ofSharing of
experience inexperience in
developingdeveloping
translationtranslation
coursescourses
BackgroundBackground
 Unemployed university graduatesUnemployed university graduates
 Esp. foreign language graduatesEsp...
Some statistical backgroundSome statistical background
 Population: 242.3 millionPopulation: 242.3 million
(2011)(2011)
...
Indonesian HE under MOE&CIndonesian HE under MOE&C
*There are 15 academies under other ministries
*
Graduates per yearGraduates per year
Students and graduates ofStudents and graduates of language-language-
and-literatureand-literature related field of study ...
ENTREPRENEURSHIPENTREPRENEURSHIP
GILT
 2 Translation courses (of the whole BA2 Translation courses (of the whole BA
program)program)
 show them “translator” i...
Baseline situationBaseline situation
 Translation I: Lecture on the TranslationTranslation I: Lecture on the Translation
...
 Course structureCourse structure
 PhilosophyPhilosophy
 ApproachApproach
 DesignDesign
 techniquetechnique
Literature ReviewLiterature Review
 Approaches toApproaches to
translation teachingtranslation teaching
Product oriented...
1. Product oriented1. Product oriented
 Teaching focus: the productTeaching focus: the product
 Usually teacher centered...
2. Process-oriented2. Process-oriented
 Focus: to see what’s going on in the mind of aFocus: to see what’s going on in th...
3. Function-oriented approach3. Function-oriented approach
 Focus: appropriate function of the targetFocus: appropriate f...
4. Skill-oriented approach4. Skill-oriented approach
 Focus: translation skills or strategyFocus: translation skills or s...
5. Empowerment approach (Kiraly, 1992)5. Empowerment approach (Kiraly, 1992)
 Focus: achieving student’s professionalFocu...
6. Interactive approach6. Interactive approach
 Classroom:Classroom:
 IndependentIndependent
What is the teaching ofWhat is the teaching of
Translation like in Indonesia?Translation like in Indonesia?
 Bachelor lev...
What are the contents of theWhat are the contents of the
courses?courses?
 Bachelor levelBachelor level
 1 dept of Trans...
PROPOSAL assumptionPROPOSAL assumption
PACTE model of Translation Competence (2005)
NOT
ENOUGH
NOT
ENOUGH
NOT
ENOUGH
No
te...
ProposalProposal
 Approach, design and procedure (2004)Approach, design and procedure (2004)
 Approach: theories or beli...
SequencingSequencing
1
2
3
students
Professional
translators
 Design:Design:
 Content selectionContent selection
 AimAim
 SequencingSequencing
 Ss and Ts’ rolesSs and Ts’ roles
F...
translators
1
SequencingSequencing
1
2
3
students
Team work,
etc
Knowledge
about translation
Bilingual
Instrumental
Extra-...
1
SequencingSequencing
1
2
3
Team work,
etc
Knowledge
about translation
Bilingual
Instrumental
translato
Extra-linguistic
Translation ITranslation I
 Definition and types of TranslationDefinition and types of Translation
 Dichotomies in Trans...
Translation IITranslation II
 Translating general textTranslating general text
 Translating short storiesTranslating sho...
Translation IIITranslation III
Translation IIITranslation III
 Project workProject work
 Real jobReal job
 Use of CAT andUse of CAT and
related softwa...
Asking peersAsking peers
31Unrestricted
Searching the internetSearching the internet
CAT Tool
wordfast
Translation III: Product EvaluationTranslation III: Product Evaluation
Error categoryError category Error sub-categoryErro...
Translation III: Process EvaluationTranslation III: Process Evaluation
Teacher’s observation
Working document
(PM, TSL, ED...
Experience from the fieldExperience from the field
 Changing roleChanging role
Teacher: not readyTeacher: not ready
Stu...
Final note: encouragementFinal note: encouragementWe cannot just provide a fertile land for a
sprout, but we must water it...
Thank youThank you
Nurturing students’ professional spirit in translation courses
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Nurturing students’ professional spirit in translation courses

  1. 1. Nurturing Students’ Professional Spirit inNurturing Students’ Professional Spirit in Translation Courses with EmpowermentTranslation Courses with Empowerment ApproachApproach Sugeng HariyantoSugeng Hariyanto State Polytechnics of Malang, IndonesiaState Polytechnics of Malang, Indonesia sg_hariyanto[@]yahoo.co.idsg_hariyanto[@]yahoo.co.id
  2. 2.  Sharing ofSharing of experience inexperience in developingdeveloping translationtranslation coursescourses
  3. 3. BackgroundBackground  Unemployed university graduatesUnemployed university graduates  Esp. foreign language graduatesEsp. foreign language graduates  Good economic growth of IndonesiaGood economic growth of Indonesia  Entrepreneurship or professional spiritEntrepreneurship or professional spirit
  4. 4. Some statistical backgroundSome statistical background  Population: 242.3 millionPopulation: 242.3 million (2011)(2011)  Higher education: 3011 (+ 15)Higher education: 3011 (+ 15)
  5. 5. Indonesian HE under MOE&CIndonesian HE under MOE&C *There are 15 academies under other ministries *
  6. 6. Graduates per yearGraduates per year
  7. 7. Students and graduates ofStudents and graduates of language-language- and-literatureand-literature related field of study (2010)related field of study (2010)  Non – teacher training:Non – teacher training:  Students: 116,172 Graduates: 17,659Students: 116,172 Graduates: 17,659  Teacher training:Teacher training:  Students: 170,081 Graduates: 24,947Students: 170,081 Graduates: 24,947  TOTAL:TOTAL:  Students: 286,253 Graduates: 42,606Students: 286,253 Graduates: 42,606 EVERY YEAR
  8. 8. ENTREPRENEURSHIPENTREPRENEURSHIP GILT
  9. 9.  2 Translation courses (of the whole BA2 Translation courses (of the whole BA program)program)  show them “translator” is an alternativeshow them “translator” is an alternative profession and make them ones.profession and make them ones.
  10. 10. Baseline situationBaseline situation  Translation I: Lecture on the TranslationTranslation I: Lecture on the Translation Studies basic themes, e.g. linguistic andStudies basic themes, e.g. linguistic and translation, culture and translation, definitiontranslation, culture and translation, definition of translations, dichotomies in Translationof translations, dichotomies in Translation Studies, Translation strategies, etc.Studies, Translation strategies, etc.  Delivery mode: lectureDelivery mode: lecture  Translation II: Translating specific textsTranslation II: Translating specific texts  Students do the text translation as homeStudents do the text translation as home assignment and discuss in the class whereassignment and discuss in the class where teacher is the center of the activityteacher is the center of the activity
  11. 11.  Course structureCourse structure  PhilosophyPhilosophy  ApproachApproach  DesignDesign  techniquetechnique
  12. 12. Literature ReviewLiterature Review  Approaches toApproaches to translation teachingtranslation teaching Product orientedProduct oriented Process orientedProcess oriented Skill-orientedSkill-oriented Function-orientedFunction-oriented Empowerment appEmpowerment app Interactive approachInteractive approach ((sorry, it may be a bitsorry, it may be a bit overlappingoverlapping))
  13. 13. 1. Product oriented1. Product oriented  Teaching focus: the productTeaching focus: the product  Usually teacher centeredUsually teacher centered  Students’ trial and errorStudents’ trial and error  Discussion: student presents, classDiscussion: student presents, class discussion/error analysis, feedbackdiscussion/error analysis, feedback from the teacher based on his/herfrom the teacher based on his/her perspectiveperspective  Orientation: produce the bestOrientation: produce the best
  14. 14. 2. Process-oriented2. Process-oriented  Focus: to see what’s going on in the mind of aFocus: to see what’s going on in the mind of a translatortranslator  Translator reports in a written form theTranslator reports in a written form the processprocess  Diary (Olivia, 2000)Diary (Olivia, 2000)  Sequential process (Gile, 1995)Sequential process (Gile, 1995)  Collaborative translation (Jakobsen, 1994)Collaborative translation (Jakobsen, 1994)  Class discussion: students reports theClass discussion: students reports the problems encountered and the solution takenproblems encountered and the solution taken
  15. 15. 3. Function-oriented approach3. Function-oriented approach  Focus: appropriate function of the targetFocus: appropriate function of the target text (quality of the product)text (quality of the product)  Teaching Technique: Certain steps inTeaching Technique: Certain steps in the processthe process  Material: Authentic text/warm textMaterial: Authentic text/warm text
  16. 16. 4. Skill-oriented approach4. Skill-oriented approach  Focus: translation skills or strategyFocus: translation skills or strategy  Classroom scenario: discussionClassroom scenario: discussion appropriate skills for certain problemsappropriate skills for certain problems and exerciseand exercise  Source of idea: Mona BakerSource of idea: Mona Baker
  17. 17. 5. Empowerment approach (Kiraly, 1992)5. Empowerment approach (Kiraly, 1992)  Focus: achieving student’s professionalFocus: achieving student’s professional level of autonomylevel of autonomy  Classroom scenario:Classroom scenario:  Many independent workMany independent work  Authentic projectAuthentic project  Students’ Roles: project manager,Students’ Roles: project manager, translator, editortranslator, editor  Teacher’s role: client representativeTeacher’s role: client representative
  18. 18. 6. Interactive approach6. Interactive approach  Classroom:Classroom:  IndependentIndependent
  19. 19. What is the teaching ofWhat is the teaching of Translation like in Indonesia?Translation like in Indonesia?  Bachelor levelBachelor level  1 dept of Translation, Open University,1 dept of Translation, Open University, (distant learning)(distant learning)  At other universities, Translation is only 2At other universities, Translation is only 2 or 6 credit points out of 120 credit pointsor 6 credit points out of 120 credit points taken by Ss.taken by Ss.  Translation Master’s program: 4Translation Master’s program: 4  Translation Doctorate programs: 2Translation Doctorate programs: 2 (USU and UNS)(USU and UNS) S I T U A T I O N
  20. 20. What are the contents of theWhat are the contents of the courses?courses?  Bachelor levelBachelor level  1 dept of Translation, Open University,1 dept of Translation, Open University, (distant learning) – translation theory and(distant learning) – translation theory and practicumpracticum  At other universities: Overview of the fieldAt other universities: Overview of the field and theories, with minimal text translationand theories, with minimal text translation exercise.exercise.  Translation Master’s program:Translation Master’s program: Translation theoryTranslation theory  Translation Doctorate programs:Translation Doctorate programs: translation theorytranslation theory
  21. 21. PROPOSAL assumptionPROPOSAL assumption PACTE model of Translation Competence (2005) NOT ENOUGH NOT ENOUGH NOT ENOUGH No team -work
  22. 22. ProposalProposal  Approach, design and procedure (2004)Approach, design and procedure (2004)  Approach: theories or belief aboutApproach: theories or belief about Translation. Translation is aTranslation. Translation is a professional skill. Skills can be nurtured.professional skill. Skills can be nurtured. Translation teaching shall empowerTranslation teaching shall empower students to be professional translators.students to be professional translators.
  23. 23. SequencingSequencing 1 2 3 students Professional translators
  24. 24.  Design:Design:  Content selectionContent selection  AimAim  SequencingSequencing  Ss and Ts’ rolesSs and Ts’ roles For Bachelor students: -2 subjects on Translation, not enough; must be at least 3 -The 3 subject is considered as one course Basic idea: - scalfolding
  25. 25. translators 1 SequencingSequencing 1 2 3 students Team work, etc Knowledge about translation Bilingual Instrumental Extra-linguisticExtra-linguistic
  26. 26. 1 SequencingSequencing 1 2 3 Team work, etc Knowledge about translation Bilingual Instrumental translato Extra-linguistic
  27. 27. Translation ITranslation I  Definition and types of TranslationDefinition and types of Translation  Dichotomies in Translation studiesDichotomies in Translation studies  Translation procedures/strategiesTranslation procedures/strategies  Finding word level equivalenceFinding word level equivalence  Finding phrase level equivalenceFinding phrase level equivalence  Finding clause/sentence levelFinding clause/sentence level equivalenceequivalence  Textual equivalenceTextual equivalence
  28. 28. Translation IITranslation II  Translating general textTranslating general text  Translating short storiesTranslating short stories  Translating journal articlesTranslating journal articles  Translating newsTranslating news  Translating filmTranslating film
  29. 29. Translation IIITranslation III
  30. 30. Translation IIITranslation III  Project workProject work  Real jobReal job  Use of CAT andUse of CAT and related softwarerelated software  Real paymentReal payment  Final score basedFinal score based on the group workon the group work and product qualityand product quality
  31. 31. Asking peersAsking peers 31Unrestricted
  32. 32. Searching the internetSearching the internet
  33. 33. CAT Tool wordfast
  34. 34. Translation III: Product EvaluationTranslation III: Product Evaluation Error categoryError category Error sub-categoryError sub-category Severity levelSeverity level languagelanguage Grammar/syntaxGrammar/syntax Punctuation/spellingPunctuation/spelling Naturalness/fluencyNaturalness/fluency minor/major/criticalminor/major/critical minor/major/criticalminor/major/critical minor/major/criticalminor/major/critical terminologyterminology Adherence to glossaryAdherence to glossary Field specificField specific consistencyconsistency minor/major/criticalminor/major/critical minor/major/criticalminor/major/critical minor/major/criticalminor/major/critical accuracyaccuracy Wrong meaningWrong meaning OmissionOmission AdditionAddition cross-referencecross-reference minor/major/criticalminor/major/critical minor/major/criticalminor/major/critical minor/major/criticalminor/major/critical minor/major/criticalminor/major/critical Result is discussed with the students.
  35. 35. Translation III: Process EvaluationTranslation III: Process Evaluation Teacher’s observation Working document (PM, TSL, EDT) Biggest challenge!!!
  36. 36. Experience from the fieldExperience from the field  Changing roleChanging role Teacher: not readyTeacher: not ready Students: fineStudents: fine  Students’ opinionStudents’ opinion Self confidenceSelf confidence Professional attitudeProfessional attitude
  37. 37. Final note: encouragementFinal note: encouragementWe cannot just provide a fertile land for a sprout, but we must water it, too. We cannot just provide a fertile land for a sprout, but we must water it, too. Think positive! every tunnel has its end.every tunnel has its end. Work the best, andWork the best, and others will noticeothers will notice you.you. Work the best, andWork the best, and others will noticeothers will notice you.you. God knows, but He waits.God knows, but He waits. So, wait for your turn toSo, wait for your turn to rock the world.rock the world. God knows, but He waits.God knows, but He waits. So, wait for your turn toSo, wait for your turn to rock the world.rock the world.
  38. 38. Thank youThank you

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