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DIRECTING
A function of management

Sugandha Vidge
80
Shweta Gupta
82
Varun Bhatnagar
83
Nupur Vashisth
MEANING
 Refers to the process of motivation,
communication and leadership
 It deals with the relationship of managers
and non managers

 Managers as leaders should understand the
motives of people, and they should maintain or
improve the interpersonal relationship in an
organization so that people can be satisfied
from contributing to the achievement and
development of objectives of the enterprise
ELEMENTS OF DIRECTING
MOTIVATION
LEADERSHIP

COMMUNICATION
MOTIVATION
Motivation is a process that explains
how the needs, drives, urges
influence and control the behavior of
mankind.
MAJOR THEORIES OF
MOTIVATION
I. Need theories:
- Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

- Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory
- McGregor’s theory of X and Y
II. Process theories:
- Expectancy Theory
- Goal Setting Theory
- Adam Equity Theory
III. Reinforcement theory
MASLOW’S NEED
HIERARCHY THEORY
Self
actualization
needs
Esteem needs

Social needs

Safety needs

Physiological needs
TWO FACTOR THEORY
HYGEINE
FACTORS

MOTIVATORS

If absent- doesn’t
if absent- leads to lead to
dissatisfaction
dissatisfaction
If present- act as
If present- does
motivators
not act as
•Challenging work
motivators
•Recognition
•Status
•Learning and
•Job security
development
•Salary
•Work conditions •Opportunities
•Creativity
•Incentives
THEORY X AND Y
THEORY X
• people who do not take
responsibilities and seek
direction.
•Dislike work and attempt
to avoid it wherever
possible
•Less ambitious and not
trustworthy
•Want to be controlled
always
•Lower order needs to be
satisfied.

THEORY Y
• keen to take
responsibilities and self
directed.
•View work as being
natural as rest or play.
•More ambitious and
trustworthy.
•Self controlled.
•Higher order needs to
be satisfied.
VROOM’S EXPECTANCY
THEORY
 Motivation depends on how much we want

something and how likely we are to get it
 Elements
◦ Valence (V)
◦ Expectancy(E)
◦ Instrumentality(I)
GOAL SETTING THEORY


This theory states that goal setting is
essentially linked to task performance. It
states that specific and challenging goals
along with appropriate feedback contribute
to higher and better task performance



Goal Achievement Depends on:

 Acceptance

Extent to which persons accept a goal as
their own.
 Commitment
Extent to which an individual is personally
interested in reaching a goal.
ADAM EQUITY THEORY
•

Social comparison takes place
 Employees mentally construct outcome-toinput ratios for themselves and their
referent other and “socially compare”
 If equity exists, you experience no tension
and persist at your current level of effort
 When Outcome Self / Input Self is not equal
to Outcome Reference person/ Input Reference person
,the tension is created and employees are
“motivated” to restore equity.
REINFORCEMENT THEORY
 It states that individual’s behaviour is a

function of its consequences.
 Positive reinforcement
 Negative reinforcement
 Extinction
LEADERSHIP
Leadership is the process of influencing
the behavior , attitudes, activities and
efforts of an individual or a group for
achieving common goal.
THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP

Traits Theory
 Behavioural Theory

TRAITS THEORY








Drive
Desire to lead people
Honesty and Integrity
Self Confidence
Intelligent
Knowledge
Extroversion
BEHAVIOURAL THEORY
Motivation
 Positive
 Negative


Supervision
 People Oriented
 Task Oriented

Motivation

Positive
motivation

Negative
motivation
Managerial grids
Impoverished Management (1, 1)
 Task management (9, 1)
 Middle-of-the-Road (5, 5)
 Country Club (1, 9)
 Team Management (9, 9)

LEADERSHIP STYLES
 On the basis of behavioural approach

Power orientation
ii. Leadership as a continuum
iii. Employee-production orientation
i.

o
i.
ii.

On the basis of situational approach
Fiedler’s contingency model
Hursey and Blanchard’s situational model
Power Orientation

Authority

Autocratic

Participative

Free rein
Leadership as Continuum
AUTOCRATIC

Free-rein

Use of authority by manager

Area of freedom for
subordinates

Manager makes Manager seeks Manager presents
Manager present Manager define
manager
Decision and
decision
Ideas and invites
problems, get
limits, asks
permits
announces
suggestions
suggestion &
group to
subordinate
make decision
make
to
function
within limit
Situational approach
Hersey

Blanchard’s

Also known as life cycle theory of leadership ;
there are two basic consideration in this
model :i.
Leadership Styles
ii.
Maturity of Subordinates
Leadership Styles
Based on the combination two
consideration:i.
Relationship behaviour
ii. Task behaviour


HIGH
High relationship and
low task

High relationship and
high task

low task

Low relationship and
high task

Relationship
behaviour
Low relation ship and

Low
Task behaviour
Low

High
Maturity of subordinates
Based on the context of :i.
Ability
ii. Willingness
We get four combination :i.
Low ability and low willingness
ii. Low ability and willingness
iii. High ability and low willingness
iv. High ability and high willingness

Combining leadership style and
maturity
High
participating

selling

Relationship
behaviour
delegating

Low
High

telling

Low

Task behaviour

High

Maturity of followers

Low
COMMUNICATION
A process of transmitting ideas,
information, attitudes (images which we
have formulated for ourselves) by the use
of symbols, words, pictures, figures from
the source (who is the originator of the
message) to a receiver, for the purpose of
influencing with intent”. So communication
is considered as a process through which
senders and receivers of messages
interact in a given social context.
FORMS
Verbal
 oral communication
 written communication
• Non-verbal
 gestural communication

IMPORTANCE


Communication helps employees to
understand their role clearly and perform
effectively.
 It helps in achieving co-ordination and mutual
understanding which in turn, leads to industrial
harmony and increased productivity.
 Communication improves managerial
efficiency and ensures cooperation of the staff.
 Effective communication helps in moulding
attitudes and building up employees’ morale.
 Communication is the means through which
delegation and decentralisation of authority
is successfully accomplished in an organisation.
A MODEL OF
COMMUNICATION PROCESS
COMMUNICATION
NETWORKS
•

Ve r t i c a l C o mmu n i c a t i o n
Communication

Lateral

CEO

CEO

GM

GM

SR. MANAGER

SUPERVISORS

SUPERVISORS

SUPERVISORES

WORK GROUP

WORK GROUP 1

WORK GROUP 2
BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION


Information Overload



Selective Perception



Filtering



Gender Styles



Emotions



Language
How to Overcome these
Barriers


Avoid Information Overload



Eliminating differences in perception



Simple Organizational Structure



Active Listening



Emotional State



Use of Simple Language
COMMUNICATION AND
TECHNOLOGY
This section is about all the manners associated with
communication – both new and old. Even as we
write this, a new device hits the market and
everything changes – but, really,
not everything changes. Communication itself has
not changed; it is the means we actually use to
communicate that changes almost daily.
Some of the major technology
enabled means of communications are-Facsimile
-Tele-Communication
-E-mail
-Video Conferencing

However, maintaining the
standards of communication that
have served and will continue to
serve us well into the future is
what’s important.
DIRECTING - A Function of Management

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DIRECTING - A Function of Management

  • 1. DIRECTING A function of management Sugandha Vidge 80 Shweta Gupta 82 Varun Bhatnagar 83 Nupur Vashisth
  • 2. MEANING  Refers to the process of motivation, communication and leadership  It deals with the relationship of managers and non managers  Managers as leaders should understand the motives of people, and they should maintain or improve the interpersonal relationship in an organization so that people can be satisfied from contributing to the achievement and development of objectives of the enterprise
  • 4. MOTIVATION Motivation is a process that explains how the needs, drives, urges influence and control the behavior of mankind.
  • 5. MAJOR THEORIES OF MOTIVATION I. Need theories: - Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs - Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory - McGregor’s theory of X and Y II. Process theories: - Expectancy Theory - Goal Setting Theory - Adam Equity Theory III. Reinforcement theory
  • 6. MASLOW’S NEED HIERARCHY THEORY Self actualization needs Esteem needs Social needs Safety needs Physiological needs
  • 7. TWO FACTOR THEORY HYGEINE FACTORS MOTIVATORS If absent- doesn’t if absent- leads to lead to dissatisfaction dissatisfaction If present- act as If present- does motivators not act as •Challenging work motivators •Recognition •Status •Learning and •Job security development •Salary •Work conditions •Opportunities •Creativity •Incentives
  • 8. THEORY X AND Y THEORY X • people who do not take responsibilities and seek direction. •Dislike work and attempt to avoid it wherever possible •Less ambitious and not trustworthy •Want to be controlled always •Lower order needs to be satisfied. THEORY Y • keen to take responsibilities and self directed. •View work as being natural as rest or play. •More ambitious and trustworthy. •Self controlled. •Higher order needs to be satisfied.
  • 9. VROOM’S EXPECTANCY THEORY  Motivation depends on how much we want something and how likely we are to get it  Elements ◦ Valence (V) ◦ Expectancy(E) ◦ Instrumentality(I)
  • 10. GOAL SETTING THEORY  This theory states that goal setting is essentially linked to task performance. It states that specific and challenging goals along with appropriate feedback contribute to higher and better task performance  Goal Achievement Depends on:  Acceptance Extent to which persons accept a goal as their own.  Commitment Extent to which an individual is personally interested in reaching a goal.
  • 11. ADAM EQUITY THEORY • Social comparison takes place  Employees mentally construct outcome-toinput ratios for themselves and their referent other and “socially compare”  If equity exists, you experience no tension and persist at your current level of effort  When Outcome Self / Input Self is not equal to Outcome Reference person/ Input Reference person ,the tension is created and employees are “motivated” to restore equity.
  • 12. REINFORCEMENT THEORY  It states that individual’s behaviour is a function of its consequences.  Positive reinforcement  Negative reinforcement  Extinction
  • 13. LEADERSHIP Leadership is the process of influencing the behavior , attitudes, activities and efforts of an individual or a group for achieving common goal.
  • 14. THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP Traits Theory  Behavioural Theory 
  • 15. TRAITS THEORY        Drive Desire to lead people Honesty and Integrity Self Confidence Intelligent Knowledge Extroversion
  • 16. BEHAVIOURAL THEORY Motivation  Positive  Negative  Supervision  People Oriented  Task Oriented 
  • 18. Managerial grids Impoverished Management (1, 1)  Task management (9, 1)  Middle-of-the-Road (5, 5)  Country Club (1, 9)  Team Management (9, 9) 
  • 19. LEADERSHIP STYLES  On the basis of behavioural approach Power orientation ii. Leadership as a continuum iii. Employee-production orientation i. o i. ii. On the basis of situational approach Fiedler’s contingency model Hursey and Blanchard’s situational model
  • 21. Leadership as Continuum AUTOCRATIC Free-rein Use of authority by manager Area of freedom for subordinates Manager makes Manager seeks Manager presents Manager present Manager define manager Decision and decision Ideas and invites problems, get limits, asks permits announces suggestions suggestion & group to subordinate make decision make to function within limit
  • 22. Situational approach Hersey Blanchard’s Also known as life cycle theory of leadership ; there are two basic consideration in this model :i. Leadership Styles ii. Maturity of Subordinates
  • 23. Leadership Styles Based on the combination two consideration:i. Relationship behaviour ii. Task behaviour  HIGH High relationship and low task High relationship and high task low task Low relationship and high task Relationship behaviour Low relation ship and Low Task behaviour Low High
  • 24. Maturity of subordinates Based on the context of :i. Ability ii. Willingness We get four combination :i. Low ability and low willingness ii. Low ability and willingness iii. High ability and low willingness iv. High ability and high willingness 
  • 25. Combining leadership style and maturity High participating selling Relationship behaviour delegating Low High telling Low Task behaviour High Maturity of followers Low
  • 26. COMMUNICATION A process of transmitting ideas, information, attitudes (images which we have formulated for ourselves) by the use of symbols, words, pictures, figures from the source (who is the originator of the message) to a receiver, for the purpose of influencing with intent”. So communication is considered as a process through which senders and receivers of messages interact in a given social context.
  • 27. FORMS Verbal  oral communication  written communication • Non-verbal  gestural communication 
  • 28. IMPORTANCE  Communication helps employees to understand their role clearly and perform effectively.  It helps in achieving co-ordination and mutual understanding which in turn, leads to industrial harmony and increased productivity.  Communication improves managerial efficiency and ensures cooperation of the staff.  Effective communication helps in moulding attitudes and building up employees’ morale.  Communication is the means through which delegation and decentralisation of authority is successfully accomplished in an organisation.
  • 30. COMMUNICATION NETWORKS • Ve r t i c a l C o mmu n i c a t i o n Communication Lateral CEO CEO GM GM SR. MANAGER SUPERVISORS SUPERVISORS SUPERVISORES WORK GROUP WORK GROUP 1 WORK GROUP 2
  • 31. BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION  Information Overload  Selective Perception  Filtering  Gender Styles  Emotions  Language
  • 32. How to Overcome these Barriers  Avoid Information Overload  Eliminating differences in perception  Simple Organizational Structure  Active Listening  Emotional State  Use of Simple Language
  • 33. COMMUNICATION AND TECHNOLOGY This section is about all the manners associated with communication – both new and old. Even as we write this, a new device hits the market and everything changes – but, really, not everything changes. Communication itself has not changed; it is the means we actually use to communicate that changes almost daily. Some of the major technology enabled means of communications are-Facsimile -Tele-Communication
  • 34. -E-mail -Video Conferencing However, maintaining the standards of communication that have served and will continue to serve us well into the future is what’s important.