Stella esei


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Stella esei

  1. 1. Information And Communication Technology In Science (SSI 3013) Title : Stella Report Prepared for: Encik Azmi Bin Ibrahim Prepared by:1. Dayang Sufinah Binti Datu Teng D20101037517 Semester 1 Session 2012/2013 Group B 1
  2. 2. CONTENTSCover 1Contents 2 1. Introduction 2. Application 4 3. Advantages and Disadvantages 9 4. Conclusion 11 2
  3. 3. Introduction Simulation is the imitation of the operation of a real world process or system overtime. A simulation of a system is the operation of a model, which is a representation of thatsystem. For example the act of simulating something is first requires that a model must bedeveloped because a simulation of a system is the operation of a model, which is arepresentation of that system. The model is amenable to manipulation which would beimpossible, too expensive or too impractical to perfom on the system which is potrays. Themodel of the simulation represent the key characteristics or the behaviors of the selectedphysical or abstract system. The model represents the system itself, whereas the simulationrepresents the operation of the system over the time. The operation of the model can bestudied, and from this, properties concerning the behvior of the actual system can be inferredor be concluded. Besides, simulation used in many contexts or ways. For example, simulation of thetechnology for the perfomance optimization, safety engineering, training and education.Simulation is also used with the scientific modelling or natural systems or human systems togain insight into their functioning. For example, simulation can be used to show the eventualreal effects of the alternative condition of the action. Simulation is also used when the realsystems cannot be engaged because it may not be accessible, or sometimes, it may bedangerous or unacceptable to engage, or it may simply not exist. A computer simulation , a computer model or a computational model is a computerprogram where it run on a single computer, or a network of computers. This will attempt tostimulate an abstract model of a particular system. Besides, computer simulations havebecome a useful part of mathematical modelling of many natural systems in physics,chemistry, biology, engineering and economics. This simulation of a system is represented asthe running of the system’s model. This help us to explore and gain new insight into the newtechnology. This computer simulation also helps us to estimate the performance of systemthat are too complex for the analytical solution. 3
  4. 4. Application There are some of the interesting applications of the simulation. One of theapplications is designing and analyzing manufacturing system. System can be design by usingthe process of the simulatiom. Then, evaluating the H/W and S/W requirements for acomputer system ia also one the application of simulation process. This simulation is alsoused in military because it can evaluating a new military weopons system or tactics. Not onlythat, simulation also determining the ordering policies for an inventory system and designingcommunications systems and message protocols for them. Simulation can be used on ourdaily life. This is because, simulation can be applied in designing and operating transportationfacilities sucha s freeways, airports, subways and ports. The other application of thesimulation is evaluating design for service organizations such as hospitals, post offices or fastfood restaurant and analyzing financial or economic systems. Computer simulation will help to give motivation to the student in the class. This isbecause simulation can be defined as interactive multimedia with dynamic-element that areunder user control. Unlike the other currently available educational media, simulation arehighly interactive with many user-controlled features. For example, one of the computersimulation is Stella System. This simulation will help student to increase their motivation inthe learning. For example, when the student learn about pre-predators. A predator is anorganism that eats another organism. The prey is the organism which the predator eats. Someexamples of predator and prey are snake and rat, lion and zebra, bear and fish, and fox andrabbit. The words "predator" and "prey" are almost always used to mean only animals that eatanimals, but the same concept also applies to plants: Bear and berry, rabbit and lettuce,grasshopper and leaf. Predator and prey evolve together. The prey is part of the predators environment, andthe predator dies if it does not get food, so it evolves whatever is necessary in order to eat theprey. so speed, stealth, a good sense of smell, sight, or hearing to find the prey, immunity tothe preys poison, poison to kill the prey, the right kind of mouth parts or digestive system arevery important. Likewise, the predator is part of the preys environment, and the prey dies if itis eaten by the predator, so it evolves whatever is necessary to avoid being eaten that includespeed, camouflage to hide from the predator, a good sense of smell, sight, or hearing to detectthe predator, thornsand poison to spray when approached or bitten. 4
  5. 5. Example of Relationship between Pre-Predator So, with computer simulation, student can know the increase or decrease in thepopulation of the pre-predators. For example, rat and snake in oil palm plantations. Thissimulation will motivate students to have higher interesting in this topics. This is because,students can adjust and run the simulation themselves. With this simulation, student will havehigher intrinsic motivation compared when teachers only teach them about the increasing inthe population with the pictures. Student will have no ideas if they only be shown to thepictures and this will lead them to become boring with the lesson. Then, using Stella system,student can explore the simulation, their intrinsic motivation will increase. This is because,using computer simulation, the parameter of the experiment can be change. So, when thissimulation help to show the real data about the experiments. Student can identify the changesof the pattern of the result. Simulations also allow students to explore and create materials that they could notwork directly with in real life. For example, Stella program or system provides anenvironment in which students can explore processes and see the effects of changes. Theseopen environments can also help students to correct the errors and misconceptions in theirthinking by allowing them to test out hypotheses. Simulations can enable students to developfamiliarity with an activity before they engage in it. As an example, with Stella students canuse an interactive computer program to proceed fully through a graph and they can do repeatthe activity whenever they like. So, it will make them easy to understand the lesson. The other benefit of using stella are the student can stimulate the system over the timeand tis simulation is jump the gap between theory and the real world. Students are enable tocreatively change the system to make their understanding about topics they learn more strong 5
  6. 6. and avoid them from having miscncept about the topics. This simultion also teach students tolook for relationship and clearly communicate system inputs and outputs besides demonstratethe outcomes result. For example, the 3 graph for different parameter use to look for thepattern of the result outcomess. From the three graphs, it shown that using computersimulation also can make student easily to make prediction about the population of the prey-predators. This is because, when the students run the experiment so many times, they willhave the ideas about the pattern. So, student will easily can predict the next result of thegraph.Graph of simulation 150 6
  7. 7. 300450600 7
  8. 8. Computer simulations are more effective when some form of guidance is provided tostudents. Many simulations provide guidance in the form of directions at critical points andfeedback on performance. Simulations can also guide students by highlighting criticalfeatures, ensuring that students attend to what is important and what is not important.Particularly when working in a relatively new content area, students may be overwhelmed bythe features of process and miss important points. So, well-structured simulations anticipatethis problem in various ways, such as by limiting the choices a student can make or drawingstudents’ attention to a specific feature. Simulations use animated pedagogical agents toprovide directions and offer guidance and advice. To effectively promote learning, simulations must include ways for students to reflecton and explain what is happening. In fact, learning may not occur without guidance and timefor reflection. Students may become caught up in the game format and not internalize thelearning. Students with disabilities, in particular, may have trouble focusing simultaneouslyon the educational content. Several programs use animated pedagogical agents or worksheetsto help students reflect on what they are learning by providing explanations and questions forthem to answer. For example, the rat and snake simulation using Stella system, in whichstudents explore how nature keeps balance, has a worksheet of guiding questions that studentscan answer as they use the simulation. Simulations can be a valuable part of an educational curriculum. As with all learning,students need guidance and opportunities to reflect on their work. Simulations need to besufficiently challenging to engage students, and the level of challenge should be flexible,changing as students become more proficient. While simulations incorporate features to guideand support students, teachers should monitor students’ use of these materials to make surestudent can achieve the objective of the learning process. Not only that, teachers shouldmonitor the student activities using computer simulation to make sure the student to achievegoals of their studies. 8
  9. 9. Advantages and Disadvantages Every thing will have advantages and disadvantages, same goes with this computersimulation. Thera are some advantages and disadvantages in using computer simulationprograms in education. There are some spesific advantage connected with the computersimulation. For example, some general advantageous aspects of simulation as a form andmethod of learning will be indicated. First, computer simulation offers the opportunity toexperiment with phenomena or events, which for a number of reasons, cannot normally beexperimented with in the traditional way. Simulations provide students with experience thatmay be difficult or impossible to obtain in every day life. Besides, in class it is not possible toexperiment actively with an economic system. The only thing the teacher can do is to discussthe nature and content of the system. Experimenting would surely be useful because this cangenerate an insight into the functioning of the economic system. Furthermore, computer simulation programs can be used in education to give thestudent more feeling for reality in some abstract fields of learning. This is because,simulations can be entertaining because of dramatic and game-like components. It can beshown when a teacher tries to explain a difficult interrelationship, such as a hybridizationexperiment with fruit flies in the traditional way it is likely that part of the class will fail tounderstand. Execution of the real experiment is impossible because this would take a numberof weeks and can therefore not be integrated as such within a lesson. When, after thenecessary theoretical discussion of the material, a simulation experiment follows there will bea greater chance that more students will understand a complete relationship. Next, when using computer simulation program, the student is experimenting, so thestudents will playing an active rather than passive role. This active engagement is contrastwhen student listening to the teacher, they will listen passively. Using the simulation, itcreates an interactive educational setting which offers the possibility to effect changes inrelation to the learning experience more interesting and efficient way. Next, student will behappy and enjoy their learning in their class. So, their learning will be more interestingcompared when not using using computer simulation in the learning process. Furthermore, the other advantages of computer simulation is the apparatus necessaryto be able to carry out an experiment in reality is too expensive and often this apparatus canonly be operated by specialists, if it can be obtained at all. So, using computer simulation, it 9
  10. 10. will saving the cost. Then, The process to be investigated takes place so quickly in reality thatit can not be examined through the traditional experiment, for example certain chemicalprocesses. Changes in a chemical reaction should be presented at such a pace in educationalsituations that observation is possible. In reality those changes can hardly be noticed and theyare not interesting for calculations, but only for the acquisition of insight. The other advantages of the computer simulation such as stella simulation system, thestudent can change and insert the parameter values that they think will produce a result thatare interesting for them. They can skip other part or aspect that are not interesting to them. So,using this simulation, student will know how to learn and conduct experiment sistematically.They also can decides wether they want to approach simulation, how often they want to repeatthe experiment. This is because, using cmputer simulation, student will have many ways toachieve their understanding. Besides, if the simulation is well designed, the learning of how to operate thecomputer simulation will become easy. Teachers just need to give short introduction to thestudent, so that they will enable to run the simulation easily. Then, the advantages of thecomputer simulation is the student can perceives that not everything can be used as the input.For example, student will realizes that variables and parameters have their limit and they willlearn about ahat input is reasonable for a particular variable and what input yields releventinformation. There are not only advantages connected with the using of computer simulation ineducation in scchool, but this simulation also has some disadvantages. Limitations are in somecases the result of the wrong or inappropiate use of the program. For example, simulation isconcern about the manipulation of a number of variable of a model representing the realsystem. However, the manipulation of a single variable often means that the reality of thesystem as a whole can be lost. Then, a simulation of computer cannot develop the student’semotional and intuitive awareness that the use of simulation is specially directed atestablishing the relationship between the variables in a model. So, because of the problems,this intuition has to be developed in a different way. Another disadvantage of this simulation is computer simulation cannot react tounexpected sub goals which the student may developed during a learning procses. This subgoal would be brought up during a teacher-student interaction but they remain unsaid during 10
  11. 11. the individual student use of simulation. Besides, computer simulation is also cannot beadapted to take into different student levels into accountwithin the group or class. By the way,a computer simulation program or system can certainly be made to adapt to differentcircumstances. During the experience of the interaction interaction with a computersimulation program, the student is frequently asked to solve problems in which creativity isoften the decisive factor to success. The fact that this creativity is more present in some pupilsthan in others is not taken into account by the simulation. Mutual collaboration and discussionamong students while using the software could be a solution for this.Conclusion For the conclusion, stella or computer simulation system is suitable in education inMalaysian School. This is because, this computer simulation have many advantages to thestudent. Besides, Considerable research worldwide has established the need to improveteaching and learning of Geography through development and use of appropriate media.However ,teachers of Geography were observed to predominantly use educational resourcesthat incorporate only two dimensions (2D), such as chalkboard illustrations, wall maps, chartsand posters. These may not help learners certain abstract concepts such as spatial orientation,motion and changes in time, place and location. There is currently no inclusion of real-worldlearning contexts in the traditional classroom setting. For example, computer technology may improve the quality of Geography educationin schools because of its robust nature in displaying graphics and simulations reminiscent inreal-world learning contexts. The purpose of this study was to establish a computersimulations design suitable for teaching secondary school Geography. The design of the studywas survey and experiment, carried out in secondary schools in Kisumu District of NyanzaProvince, Kenya. The study population was 3500 Form Three students, out of which a sampleof 1165 students was drawn by simple random sampling. The Likert scale was used toidentify cognitively difficult topic in secondary school Geography that could be taughtthrough computer simulations. The most difficult topic was identified as ‘The earth and the solar system .A computersimulations software was then designed to address it. Effect of computer simulations onstudents’ performance in the most difficult topic was determined by an experiment. It was 11
  12. 12. established that use of the simulations software concurrently with the traditional verbalexpositions had positive results in the performance of learners in the hitherto difficult topiccompared to the use of the traditional verbal expositions alone. Students who used simulationsto learn difficult topics performed much better (p= 0.0001) than their counterparts who didnot use simulations (p=0.7151). As such, the study concluded that computer simulations werevery effective in teaching and learning difficult topics in Geography and should be integratedinto Geography curricula. The study recommends that it is essential to consider soundeducational practices and philosophies that underpin the use of interactive computersimulations. Not only that, simulation Stella or computer programs are highly engaging, and thereis great interest in how to harness their power to support learning. Researchers have studiedthat simulations to determine how they can effectively support learning. This Research inBrief article provides an overview of this research, emphasizing how computer simulationscan best be used to support learning, citing research done with students with disabilities whereavailable. The focus is on simulations designed to be used by an individual, multiuser gamesand simulations are discussed in the Research in Brief on Multiuser Virtual Environments forEducation. The article includes four main sections that are an overview of the researchimplications for using computer games and simulations to support learning, a guidefor choosing games and simulations for the classroom, a list ofresources, and a more detaileddescription of the research literature. 12