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  1. 1. By Sufal Chhabra Class-8 th Indus World School Argon Argon
  2. 2. Basic Information <ul><li>Atomic Number:18 </li></ul><ul><li>Atomic Mass: 39.948(1) amu </li></ul><ul><li>Symbol: Ar </li></ul><ul><li>Subatomic Particles: 18 electrons, 18 protons, 22 neutrons </li></ul><ul><li>Isotopes: Ar-36 Ar-38 Ar-40 </li></ul><ul><li>Electron Configuration: [Ne]3s 2 3p 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Pure Form: Colorless odorless tasteless nontoxic gas </li></ul><ul><li>Physical State at Room Temperature: gas </li></ul><ul><li>Common in Nature: makes up 0.93 % of the earth’s atmosphere third most abundant. It has increased since the earth was created because Potassium that is radioactive decays and forms Argon. </li></ul><ul><li>Where found in Nature: In the air as a by product of Nitrogen and Oxygen. </li></ul><ul><li>How to make pure samples: from fractional distillation of liquid air </li></ul><ul><li>Does not form compounds </li></ul>
  3. 3. Common Uses <ul><li>Used in electric light bulbs, and florescent tubes </li></ul><ul><li>Filling phototubes, and glow tubes </li></ul><ul><li>Used as an inert gas shield for arc welding and cutting </li></ul><ul><li>Crystals in the semiconductor industry are grown in argon atmospheres </li></ul><ul><li>A blanket for the production of radioactive elements </li></ul><ul><li>Makes argon lasers that are used in holography , eye surgery, spectrochemistry , optical image processing, semiconductor processing, and laser light shows </li></ul>
  4. 4. History <ul><li>From the Greek word argon meaning inactive. It was discovered in 1894 by Sir William Ramsay, a Scottish chemist, and Lord Rayleigh, an English chemist. </li></ul><ul><li>Lord Rayleigh noticed that a liter of pure nitrogen from air weighed more than a liter of nitrogen from a compound </li></ul><ul><li>He concluded another gas was present </li></ul><ul><li>Many gases were present such as helium, neon, krypton, xenon, as well as argon </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually Ramsey obtained argon by examining the left over elements in air after removing nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Air has 0.93% argon </li></ul></ul>Lord Rayleigh (above), William Ramsay (left)
  5. 5. Argon in Light Bulbs <ul><li>Incandescent bulbs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vacuum or inert gas must be used in the bulb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Argon- inert gas, inexpensive, does not conduct a lot of heat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Replaces air that causes bulbs to blacken and burn out by preventing the metal from hitting air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes mixed with nitrogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes replaces nitrogen (very inert) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of gas makes it possible for the filament to be at a higher temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Light more visible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Argon filled light bulbs usually last longer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>120 watt bulbs (over 60 watts) contain gases like argon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Gas Discharge Tubes (Neon Bulbs) and Florescent Lighting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed with neon or mercury </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produces a blue or violet glow </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Argon Lasers <ul><li>An ion laser (popular) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used for scientific and medical purposes, artistic/light shows </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Produces nine different wavelengths </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blue spectrum wavelength- common </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Large amount of power necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Argon atoms become ionized and excited </li></ul><ul><li>Magnetic field around laser tube </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevents loss of electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Discharge tube - normally made of materials with low heat conductivity </li></ul><ul><li>Emits 1 to 20 Watts of flux </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages include: little noise, easy to aim beam, cost, long lasting </li></ul><ul><li>Used often for eye surgery, holography, spectrochemistry, optical imaging, and semiconductor processing, printing, copying, scanning </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Arc Welding - welding that uses an electrical arc to provide heat </li></ul><ul><li>Discharge Tube - a closed insulating vessel containing a gas at low pressure through which an electric current flows when sufficient voltage is applied to its electrodes </li></ul><ul><li>Distillation - the evaporation and subsequent collection of a liquid by condensation as a means of purification </li></ul><ul><li>Holography - a method of producing a three-dimensional image of an object by recording on a photographic plate or film the pattern of interference formed by a split laser beam and then illuminating the pattern either with a laser or with ordinary light </li></ul><ul><li>Inert - not readily reactive with other chemical elements; forming few or no chemical compounds </li></ul>Glossary Glossary
  8. 8. Glossary cont. <ul><li>Ionized- converted totally or partly into ions </li></ul><ul><li>Filament - A fine wire heated electrically to incandescence in an electric lamp </li></ul><ul><li>Flux - radiant energy in the visible-wavelength range </li></ul><ul><li>Liquid air - air in its liquid state, intensely cold and bluish, obtained by cooling and compression. </li></ul><ul><li>Spectrochemistry - a branch of chemistry based on a study of the spectra of substances </li></ul>Glossary