Stem cells Introduction

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Slide show on introduction of stem cell transplantation, harvesting, and maintenance

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  • Hematopoietic stem cells
    Main article: Hematopoietic stem cell
    Hematopoietic stem cells are found in the bone marrow and give rise to all the blood cell types. Cord blood[9] is also a common example of adult stem cell that is considered multipotent.
    [edit] Hematopoietic stem cells
    Mammary stem cells provide the source of cells for growth of the mammary gland during puberty and gestation and play an important role in carcinogenesis of the breast.[10] Mammary stem cells have been isolated from human and mouse tissue as well as from cell lines derived from the mammary gland. Single such cells can give rise to both the luminal and myoepithelial cell types of the gland, and have been shown to have the ability to regenerate the entire organ in mice.[10]
    [edit] Intestinal stem cells
    Intestinal stem cells divide continuously throughout life and use a complex genetic program to produce the cells lining the surface of the small and large intestines.[11] Intestinal stem cells reside near the base of the stem cell niche, called the crypts of Lieberkuhn. Intestinal stem cells are probably the source of most cancers of the small intestine and colon.[12]
    [edit] Mesenchymal stem cells
    Main article: Mesenchymal stem cell
    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are of stromal origin and may differentiate into a variety of tissues. MSCs have been isolated from placenta, adipose tissue, lung, bone marrow and blood, Wharton's jelly from the umbilical cord,[13] and teeth (perivascular niche of dental pulp and periodontal ligament).[14] MSCs are attractive for clinical therapy due to their ability to differentiate, provide trophic support, and modulate innate immune response.[13]
    [edit] Endothelial stem cells
    Main article: Endothelial stem cell
    Endothelial Stem Cells are one of the three types of Multipotent stem cells found in the bone marrow. They are a rare and controversial group with the ability to differentiate into endothelial cells, the cells that line blood vessels.
    [edit] Neural stem cells
    Main article: neural stem cell
    The existence of stem cells in the adult brain has been postulated following the discovery that the process of neurogenesis, the birth of new neurons, continues into adulthood in rats.[15] The presence of stem cells in the mature primate brain was first reported in 1967.[16] It has since been shown that new neurons are generated in adult mice, songbirds and primates, including humans. Normally, adult neurogenesis is restricted to two areas of the brain – the subventricular zone, which lines the lateral ventricles, and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation.[17] Although the generation of new neurons in the hippocampus is well established, the presence of true self-renewing stem cells there has been debated.[18] Under certain circumstances, such as following tissue damage in ischemia, neurogenesis can be induced in other brain regions, including the neocortex.
    Neural stem cells are commonly cultured in vitro as so called neurospheres – floating heterogeneous aggregates of cells, containing a large proportion of stem cells.[19] They can be propagated for extended periods of time and differentiated into both neuronal and glia cells, and therefore behave as stem cells. However, some recent studies suggest that this behaviour is induced by the culture conditions in progenitor cells, the progeny of stem cell division that normally undergo a strictly limited number of replication cycles in vivo.[20] Furthermore, neurosphere-derived cells do not behave as stem cells when transplanted back into the brain.[21]
    Neural stem cells share many properties with haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Remarkably, when injected into the blood, neurosphere-derived cells differentiate into various cell types of the immune system.[22]
    [edit] Olfactory adult stem cells
    Olfactory adult stem cells have been successfully harvested from the human olfactory mucosa cells, which are found in the lining of the nose and are involved in the sense of smell.[23] If they are given the right chemical environment these cells have the same ability as embryonic stem cells to develop into many different cell types. Olfactory stem cells hold the potential for therapeutic applications and, in contrast to neural stem cells, can be harvested with ease without harm to the patient. This means they can be easily obtained from all individuals, including older patients who might be most in need of stem cell therapies.
    [edit] Neural crest stem cells
    Hair follicles contain two types of stem cells, one of which appears to represent a remnant of the stem cells of the embryonic neural crest. Similar cells have been found in the gastrointestinal tract, sciatic nerve, cardiac outflow tract and spinal and sympathetic ganglia. These cells can generate neurons, Schwann cells, myofibroblast, chondrocytes and melanocytes.[24][25]
    [edit] Testicular cells
    Multipotent stem cells with a claimed equivalency to embryonic stem cells have been derived from spermatogonial progenitor cells found in the testicles of laboratory mice by scientists in Germany[26][27][28] and the United States,[29][30][31][32] and, a year later, researchers from Germany and the United Kingdom confirmed the same capability using cells from the testicles of humans.[33] The extracted stem cells are known as human adult germline stem cells (GSCs)[34]
    Multipotent stem cells have also been derived from germ cells found in human testicles.[35]
  • Stem cells Introduction

    1. 1. If starfish can grow a new arm, why can’t I?
    2. 2. STEM CELL • • INTRODUCTION MAINTENANCE OF STEM CELL SUE ®
    3. 3. WHERE DO I COME FROM?
    4. 4. GAMETES
    5. 5. FERTILISATION
    6. 6. ZYGOTE  WHEN GAMETE FUSED
    7. 7. MORULA
    8. 8. BLASTOCYSTS
    9. 9. IMPLANTATION
    10. 10. EMBRYO  IMPLANTED ZYGOTE TO 8TH WEEK
    11. 11. FETUS
    12. 12. HOW DOES A ONE CELL ZYGOTE BECOME A HUMAN? Human body composed of 50-75 TRILLION cells. MORE THAN 220 TYPES OF CELL
    13. 13. DIFFERENTIATION  GROWTH FACTORS  INTRACELLULAR SIGNALLING  GENETIC MATERIAL - TO BE CONTINUED IN NEXT PART
    14. 14. STEM CELL  Ascending stalk of a tree  Also means 'to stop or to slow down’ In this case, stop and slow down and turn into other types of cells.
    15. 15. DIFFERENCE OF STEM CELL AND NORMAL BODY CELLS  Ability to divide throughout life (theoretically)  Ability to differentiate into many different cell types
    16. 16. TYPES OF STEM CELL  EMBRYONIC STEM CELL  FETAL STEM CELL  BERASHI CELL  ADULT STEM CELL
    17. 17. POTENTIAL OF STEM CELL Totipotent   stem cells early embryos Each cell can form a complete organism Pluripotent   undifferentiated inner cell mass of blastocyst form any of over 200 different cell types  Multipotent  stem cells stem cells ability to differentiate is more limited
    18. 18. TOTIPOTENT STEM CELLS  Up to 8-cell stage of zygote  No research work on totipotent stem cells  Our aim is NOT to create a clone human
    19. 19. EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS  Derived from inner cell mass of blastocysts  Pluripotent 1. Ectoderm 2. Mesoderm 3. Endoderm  Able to replicate indefinitely
    20. 20. BLASTOCYSTS
    21. 21. ISOLATION OF EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS  SOURCE • SURPLUS EMBRYO – I.V. FERTILISATION  TECHNIQUE • • OF ISOLATION MICROSURGERY LASER-ASSISTED BLASTOCYST DISSECTION
    22. 22. MAINTENANCE OF EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS  STEM - CELL NICHE in vivo or in vitro stem cell microenvironment  Human ES cells are often grown in - fibroblastic growth factor-2 containing, fetal bovine serum supplemented media  Grown on a feeder layer of cells - supportive in maintaining the pluripotent characteristics of embryonic stem cells
    23. 23. GERM LINE STEM CELLS NICHE
    24. 24. HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS NICHE
    25. 25. AGING OF STEM CELLS  Occurs when cultured in vitro  Morphology is changed and their proliferative capacity is decreased  Causes: 1. 2. reduction in niche signaling pathway activity accumulation of Reactive Oxygen species (ROS)
    26. 26. BERASHI STEM CELLS  Found in cord and extra embryonic tissues and membranes  Formed only by TOTIPOTENT CELLS  Umbilical cord banking
    27. 27. FETAL STEM CELLS  Taken from aborted fetal tissue  Have the potential to be a greater kind of cells that adult cells
    28. 28. ADULT STEM CELLS         Hematopoietic stem cells Intestinal stem cells Mesenchymal stem cells Endothelial stem cells Neural stem cells Olfactory adult stem cells Testicular cells Mammary stem cells
    29. 29. HISTORY OF STEM CELL RESEARCH
    30. 30. REGENERATIVE MEDICINE process of replacing or regenerating human cells, tissues or organs to restore or establish normal function  grow tissues and organs in the laboratory and safely implant them when the body cannot heal itself   Advantages: 1. 2. solve the problem of the shortage of organs available for donation solve the problem of organ transplant rejection
    31. 31. DEDIFFERENTIATION
    32. 32. CHALLENGES OF STEM CELL RESEARCH  If the embryo = inanimate matter -then the resistance to embryonic stem cell research is ludicrous.  If the embryo is alive, then embryonic stem cell research is immoral. one must differentiate between human beings and persons.

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