Michigan Reading Association Annual Conference
Lightning The Way For Literacy
Sue Ann Sharma, Ph.D. & Tanya S. Wright, Ph....
Introduction
Racial/Ethnic Diversity in U.S. Schools
English Language Learners in U.S.
Schools
Racial/Ethnic Diversity of U.S.
Teachers
82.9
6.9
7.2
1.3 0.2
0.5 0.9
Percentage of U.S. Teachers by Racial/Ethnic
Diversi...
IRA Standard 4: Diversity
Candidates create
and engage their
students in literacy
practices that
develop awareness,
unders...
Studying Teacher Education:
AERA Report
•  Teacher candidates are a homogenous population
with limited experience interact...
Studying Teacher Education:
AERA Report
•  Candidates placed in urban settings with diverse
students for field work gain m...
Teacher Education for Equity and
Democracy
Equitable Access Democratic Participation & Advocacy
for Equity
Recruit & admit...
Defining Diversity
The dimensions of
diversity range from
generic facets involving
race, culture, religion,
language, and ...
Multicultural
Education
Teaching
Teacher
Educator
Dispositions
Theoretical Framework
Investigation Objective
How are literacy teacher
educators faring with IRA’s
Standard 4: Diversity?
Research Questions
•  Question 1: What are the beliefs and values
teacher educators hold about diversity as it relates
to ...
Methodology
Mixed-Methods
Quantitative
Logistic Regression
Modified Sign Tests
Bonferroni
Corrections
Qualitative
Constant...
Survey Distribution
Participant Demographics
Institution Student Profile Institution Location Profile
Data Sources
• Accreditation
Status
• NCATE
• Institution
Profile
• Student
Population
• Location
• Faculty
Profile
Part 1...
Research Question 1:
Quantitative Results
What are the beliefs and values
teacher educators hold about
diversity as it rel...
Value of Diversity in General Value With Regard to Specific
Areas of Diversity
Agreement
Disagreement
88.2
11.8
Agreement
...
Reality is Relative to Experiences
Strong
Logistic
Regression
Suburban
D=.95
Urban
Logistic Regression Analysis
IRA Standard 4: Diversity Valued by
Teacher Educators
Teacher Educators
Most Strongly Agreed
Institution of
Employment Val...
Instructional Practices Taught to
Support Learning Among Diverse
Students
Under
Graduate
Relevant
Curriculum
Differentiate...
Coursework that Develops
Diversity Awareness
Curriculum
That Promotes
Diversity
Understanding
Complexity
of Learning
for E...
Research Question 2:
Qualitative Results
How do teacher educators
describe the experiences they
provide around diversity?
Participant Narrative Demographics
Institution Student Profile Institution Location Profile
Narrative Response
Response
Doesn’t
Answer the
Question
(13)
Direct
Engagement
(20)
Indirect
Engagement
(40)
Both Direct
&...
Indirect Engagement
Multicultural
Literature
Observation of
Diverse Learners
Through Video
Readings
Focused on
Diversity
C...
Indirect & Direct Engagement
Simulations
Reading
Disabilities
Language
Delays
Auditory
Challenges
Interpreting
Writing &
R...
Direct Engagement
Tutoring
Students
Field
Placement
Family
Literacy
Events
Cultural
Studies
Interview
Project
Limitation
Low Number of
Survey
Respondents
N=201
Selection Bias
Conclusion
• Teacher educators value addressing diversity
• Demographics and location of teacher preparation
institutes in...
Focus Group Questions
•  Briefly describe your teacher candidate profiles and the
kinds of populations your teachers will ...
Educational Significance
•  All students would benefit from higher education
programs that cultivate diversity and multicu...
Between Teacher and Child
I’ve come to a frightening conclusion that I am the
decisive element in the classroom. It’s my p...
Acknowledgments
•  International Reading
Association Committee for
Diversity of Learning
–  Linda Akanbi, Ed.D.
–  Susan G...
Contact Information
Sue Ann Sharma, Ph.D. sa3sharm@oakland.edu
Tanya S. Wright, Ph.D. tswright@msu.edu
Presentation can be...
References
•  Banks, J. (1993). Multicultural education: Historical development, dimensions, and
practice. Review of Resea...
References
•  Hollins, E. & Torres-Guzman, M.E. (2005). Research on preparing teachers for diverse
populations. Cochran-Sm...
References
•  Menken, K., & Antunez, B. (2001). An overview of the preparation and certification of teachers
working with ...
Diversity in Teacher Education Programs in Literacy and Reading: A Nationwide Investigative Study
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Diversity in Teacher Education Programs in Literacy and Reading: A Nationwide Investigative Study

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The world is becoming increasingly more diverse in our nation’s classrooms. One critical aspect of respecting diversity as well as using it as a means to strengthen students’ educational experiences and academic outcomes is how the issue of diversity plays out in American teacher education programs in literacy and reading. International Reading Association’s (IRA) Committee on Learning Diversity has undertaken a national study to examine this issue.

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Diversity in Teacher Education Programs in Literacy and Reading: A Nationwide Investigative Study

  1. 1. Michigan Reading Association Annual Conference Lightning The Way For Literacy Sue Ann Sharma, Ph.D. & Tanya S. Wright, Ph.D. March 9, 2013 Diversity in United States Teacher Education Programs in Literacy and Reading: A Nationwide Investigative Study International Reading Association, Learning Diversity Committee
  2. 2. Introduction
  3. 3. Racial/Ethnic Diversity in U.S. Schools
  4. 4. English Language Learners in U.S. Schools
  5. 5. Racial/Ethnic Diversity of U.S. Teachers 82.9 6.9 7.2 1.3 0.2 0.5 0.9 Percentage of U.S. Teachers by Racial/Ethnic Diversity in 2007-2008 White Black Hispanic Asian Native Hawaiian/ Pacific Islander American Indian/ Alaska Native
  6. 6. IRA Standard 4: Diversity Candidates create and engage their students in literacy practices that develop awareness, understanding, respect, and a valuing of differences in our society.
  7. 7. Studying Teacher Education: AERA Report •  Teacher candidates are a homogenous population with limited experience interacting with people from different backgrounds to their own. •  Enter teacher prep programs with negative or deficit attitudes about those who are different from themselves. •  Limited evidence of whether activities aimed at reducing prejudice have long-term results on the instruction that teacher candidates provide. Cochran-Smith, M. & Zeichner, K. (2005). Studying teachers education: The report of the American Education Research Association (AERA) panel on research in teacher education. Lawrence Erlbaum, 7(3). 20-27.
  8. 8. Studying Teacher Education: AERA Report •  Candidates placed in urban settings with diverse students for field work gain more complex understandings of cultural and experiential differences than candidates in suburban settings. •  Teacher preparation programs are at different points in preparing teacher candidates to address diversity. Cochran-Smith, M. & Zeichner, K. (2005). Studying teachers education: The report of the American Education Research Association ( AERA) panel on research in teacher education. Lawrence Erlbaum, 7(3). 20-27.
  9. 9. Teacher Education for Equity and Democracy Equitable Access Democratic Participation & Advocacy for Equity Recruit & admit More diverse teacher candidates Candidates committed to multicultural democracy and equity Early fieldwork In multiple classrooms, Inquiry-based to disrupt deficit theorizing, In communities to learn culture of students Inquiry into school and community patterns of inequity Professional coursework Self-analysis, Socio-cultural framework for teaching & learning, Teaching strategies linking what students bring to academics Strategies for building multicultural democracy in classroom, Nature of institutional discrimination in society and schools Student teaching In culturally diverse and/or low-income schools, with plenty of time and support In classrooms that support democratic decision-making, With teachers that model advocacy stance On-going professional development Practice-based inquiry with support Activist teacher networks Sleeter, C. E. (2001). Preparing teachers for culturally diverse schools: Research and the overwhelming presence of whiteness. Journal of Teacher Education, 52(2), 94-106.
  10. 10. Defining Diversity The dimensions of diversity range from generic facets involving race, culture, religion, language, and gender identity, including differences related to learning interests, capabilities, and disabilities.
  11. 11. Multicultural Education Teaching Teacher Educator Dispositions Theoretical Framework
  12. 12. Investigation Objective How are literacy teacher educators faring with IRA’s Standard 4: Diversity?
  13. 13. Research Questions •  Question 1: What are the beliefs and values teacher educators hold about diversity as it relates to teacher preparation programs?(survey) •  Question 2: How do teacher educators describe the experience they provide around diversity? (narrative description) •  Question 3: What influences shape literacy teacher educators’ teaching practices and developing beliefs about literacy and learning? (focus groups)
  14. 14. Methodology Mixed-Methods Quantitative Logistic Regression Modified Sign Tests Bonferroni Corrections Qualitative Constant Comparative Method Inter-Rater Reliability Cronbach’s Alpha .83
  15. 15. Survey Distribution
  16. 16. Participant Demographics Institution Student Profile Institution Location Profile
  17. 17. Data Sources • Accreditation Status • NCATE • Institution Profile • Student Population • Location • Faculty Profile Part 1: Institutional Information • Life Experiences • Childhood • Adulthood • Work Life Part 2: Faculty Background • Promotes • Diversity Knowledge • Assessment Understandings • Field experiences Part 3: Program Level — Undergraduate & Graduate • Provides • Choice in Addressing Diversity Issues Part 4: Course Level — Undergraduate & Graduate • Describe Innovative • Assignments • Experiences Narrative Description
  18. 18. Research Question 1: Quantitative Results What are the beliefs and values teacher educators hold about diversity as it relates to teacher preparation programs?
  19. 19. Value of Diversity in General Value With Regard to Specific Areas of Diversity Agreement Disagreement 88.2 11.8 Agreement Disagreement Development of Diversity Awareness Religion & Sexual Orientation Sign Test Analysis
  20. 20. Reality is Relative to Experiences Strong Logistic Regression Suburban D=.95 Urban Logistic Regression Analysis
  21. 21. IRA Standard 4: Diversity Valued by Teacher Educators Teacher Educators Most Strongly Agreed Institution of Employment Values Diversity IRA Standard 4: Diversity P> .000000000000000000001 with Bonferroni Corrections Modified Sign Tests
  22. 22. Instructional Practices Taught to Support Learning Among Diverse Students Under Graduate Relevant Curriculum Differentiated Instruction Adapt Approaches for ELL Graduate (P<.000001) Relevant Curriculum Differentiated Instruction Adapt Approaches for ELL ✔ ✔ ✔✔ ✔ X
  23. 23. Coursework that Develops Diversity Awareness Curriculum That Promotes Diversity Understanding Complexity of Learning for ELL Students Awareness of Responsibility to Educate About Diversity (p< .0001)
  24. 24. Research Question 2: Qualitative Results How do teacher educators describe the experiences they provide around diversity?
  25. 25. Participant Narrative Demographics Institution Student Profile Institution Location Profile
  26. 26. Narrative Response Response Doesn’t Answer the Question (13) Direct Engagement (20) Indirect Engagement (40) Both Direct & Indirect Engagement (16) Cronbach’s alpha 0.833
  27. 27. Indirect Engagement Multicultural Literature Observation of Diverse Learners Through Video Readings Focused on Diversity Cultural Studies Planning Lessons That Include Responding to Student Diversity
  28. 28. Indirect & Direct Engagement Simulations Reading Disabilities Language Delays Auditory Challenges Interpreting Writing & Reading Errors
  29. 29. Direct Engagement Tutoring Students Field Placement Family Literacy Events Cultural Studies Interview Project
  30. 30. Limitation Low Number of Survey Respondents N=201 Selection Bias
  31. 31. Conclusion • Teacher educators value addressing diversity • Demographics and location of teacher preparation institutes influences one’s diversity lens • Next Steps: – Find Ways to learn exactly what is happening and how it is enacted in the field • Conduct focus groups by institution size – Urban, Suburban, and Rural
  32. 32. Focus Group Questions •  Briefly describe your teacher candidate profiles and the kinds of populations your teachers will serve. •  Describe the complexities that your teacher candidate face when meeting the needs of diverse learners. •  Describe what you do to prepare teacher candidate to meet the needs of diverse learners both at the program level and the courses you teach. •  Describe what challenges you face in preparing teacher candidate to met the needs of diverse learners. •  Specifically, can you speak to preparing teacher candidate to meet the needs of ELL, religious and sexual orientation and any other areas of diversity? •  What else would like to add to our discussion?
  33. 33. Educational Significance •  All students would benefit from higher education programs that cultivate diversity and multiculturally responsive teachers. •  This research is significant to the enhancement of instructional support for the advancement of teaching diversity.
  34. 34. Between Teacher and Child I’ve come to a frightening conclusion that I am the decisive element in the classroom. It’s my personal approach that creates the climate. It’s my daily mood that makes the weather. As a teacher, I possess a tremendous power to make a child’s life miserable or joyous. I can be a tool of torture or an instrument of inspiration. I can humiliate or heal. In all situations, it is my response that decides whether a crisis will be escalated or de-escalated and a child humanized or dehumanized. Ginott, H. (1975). Teacher and child: A book for parents and teachers. New York, NY: Macmillan.
  35. 35. Acknowledgments •  International Reading Association Committee for Diversity of Learning –  Linda Akanbi, Ed.D. –  Susan Grogan, Ph.D. –  Abha Gupta, Ph.D. –  Wendy Kasten, Ph.D.* –  Julie Kidd, Ed.D. –  Sue Ann Sharma, Ph.D.* –  Diana Sisson, Ed.D. –  Lynn Smolen, Ph.D. –  Tanya Wright, Ph.D. •  Principal Investigators* •  Quantitative Analysis Team –  Yeaton Clifton, Ph.D. –  Sue Ann Sharma, Ph.D. –  Tanya Wright, Ph.D. •  Qualitative Analysis Team –  Abha Gupta, Ph.D. –  Julie Kidd, Ed.D. –  Nedra Cossa –  Heather West –  Wendy Kasten, Ph.D. –  Sue Ann Sharma, Ph.D. •  Literature Review Team –  Tanya Wright, Ph.D. –  Marliese Peltier –  Chad Waldron
  36. 36. Contact Information Sue Ann Sharma, Ph.D. sa3sharm@oakland.edu Tanya S. Wright, Ph.D. tswright@msu.edu Presentation can be found online at www.slideshare.com
  37. 37. References •  Banks, J. (1993). Multicultural education: Historical development, dimensions, and practice. Review of Research in Education, 19, 3-49. •  Cochran-Smith, M., Davis, D., & Fries, K. (2004). Multicultural teacher education: research, practice, and policy. In Banks, J. A. (Ed.), Handbook of research in multicultural education (2nd ed., pp. 931–936). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. •  Cochran-Smith, M. & Zeichner, K. (2005). Studying teachers education: The report of the AERA panel on research in teacher education. Lawrence Erlbaum, 7(3). 20-27. •  Darling-Hammond, L. & Bransford, J. (Eds.). (2005). Preparing teachers for a changing world: What teachers should learn and be able to do. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. •  Douglas, F. (1845). Narrative of the the life of Frederick Douglass, an American slave. New York, NY: Signet Classics. 2005 Print. •  Gay, G. (2010). Acting on beliefs in teacher education for cultural diversity. Journal of Teacher Education, 61(1-2), 143-152. •  Gee, J. P. (1996). Social linguistics and literacies: Ideology in discourses (2nd ed.). London: Taylor & Francis. •  Geertz, C. (1973). The interpretation of culture: Selected essays. New York, NY: Basic Books. •  Ginott, H. (1975). Teacher and child: A book for parents and teachers, New York, NY: Macmillan.
  38. 38. References •  Hollins, E. & Torres-Guzman, M.E. (2005). Research on preparing teachers for diverse populations. Cochran-Smith, M. & Zeichner, K. (Eds.). Studying teacher education the report of the AERA panel on research and teacher education: (pp.477-544). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. •  International Reading Association's Standards for Reading Professionals (2010). Retrieved from http://www.reading.org/General/CurrentResearch/Standards/ ProfessionalStandards2010.aspx •  Ladson-Billings, G. (1998). Preparing teachers for diverse student populations: A critical race theory perspective. Review of Research in Education, 24(2), 211-247. •  Lankford, H., Loeb, S., & Wyckoff, J. (2002). Teacher sorting and the plight of urban schools: A descriptive analysis. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 24(7), 37-62. •  Lenski, S. D., Crumpler, T. P., Stallworth, C., & Crawford, K. M. (2005). Beyond awareness: Preparing culturally responsive preservice teachers. Teacher Education Quarterly,32(2), 85-98. •  Lucas, T. Villegas, A. M., & Freedson-Gonzalez, M. (2008). The culturally responsive teacher: Preparing classroom teachers to teach English language learners. Journal of Teacher Education, 59(4), 361-373. •  Miles, M. B, Huberman, M. (1994). Qualitative Data Analysis: An Expanded Sourcebook. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
  39. 39. References •  Menken, K., & Antunez, B. (2001). An overview of the preparation and certification of teachers working with limited English proficient students. Washington, DC: National Clearinghouse of Bilingual Education. Retrieved July 30, 2013. www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/recordDetail? accno=ED455231 •  National Center for Education Statistics. (2013). The conditions of education. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/ •  National Center for Education Statistics. (2011). The conditions of education. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/ analysis/2011-index.asp •  Reardon, S.F., & Bischoff, K. (2011). Income inequality and income segregation. American Journal of Sociology, 116(4), 1092-1153. •  Shudak, N. J. (2010). Diversity in teacher education: A double helix. Academic Questions, 23(3), 348-355. •  Simonds, B. K., Lippert, L. R., Hunt, S. K., Angell, M. E., & Moore, M. K. (2008). Communication and diversity: Innovations in teacher education. Communication Teacher, 22(2), 56-65. •  Sleeter, C. E. (2001). Preparing teachers for culturally diverse schools: Research and the overwhelming presence of whiteness. Journal of Teacher Education, 52(2), 94-106. •  Strauss, A. L., & Corbin, J. M. (1998). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. •  Tatum, A. W. (2003). Professional development for teachers of African American adolescents. Illinois Reading Council Journal, 30(1), 42-52. •  Villegas, A. M. & Lucas, T. (2007). The culturally responsive teacher. Educational Leadership, 64(6), 28-33.

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