Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Transcription and Self-Correction Strategies for Improving L2 Pronunciation


Published on

Presentation from 2010

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Transcription and Self-Correction Strategies for Improving L2 Pronunciation

  1. 1. Transcription and Self-Correction Strategies for Improving L2 Pronunciation Sue Ingels University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign For more information: https :// Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages March 26, 2010
  2. 2. Presentation Outline <ul><li>Purpose and motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Role of strategies in L2 learning </li></ul><ul><li>Strategy descriptions and examples </li></ul><ul><li>Strategy effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Integrating strategies into ESL courses </li></ul><ul><li>Providing feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Tips </li></ul><ul><li>Different learners, different targets </li></ul>
  3. 3. Purpose <ul><li>To describe useful strategies for improving L2 pronunciation </li></ul><ul><li>To explain how the strategies work </li></ul><ul><li>To describe how to integrate them into your class </li></ul><ul><li>To emphasize the value of strategy training (e.g., Berg, 1999) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Motivation <ul><li>Promotion of learner autonomy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Techniques for self-instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strategies that learners can easily use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No specialized resources or expensive technology </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Goals for students <ul><li>Gaining ability to perceive target features in their own and others’ speech </li></ul><ul><li>Gain awareness of their own pronunciation strengths and weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>Learn how to evaluate and correct their own speech </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimate goal: improved accuracy in unrehearsed speech </li></ul>
  6. 6. How to get from A to B? A Knowing about language B Knowing how to use language ???
  7. 7. Strategies as a Bridge Knowing about language Knowing how to use language <ul><li>Listen </li></ul><ul><li>Transcribe </li></ul><ul><li>Write corrections </li></ul><ul><li>Self-correct </li></ul>
  8. 8. What Students Know “about” L2 <ul><li>Cues, rules for using </li></ul><ul><li>Message units </li></ul><ul><li>Primary phrase stress </li></ul><ul><li>Intonation </li></ul>
  9. 9. Knowledge “about” language Message Units (MU) a.k.a. thought groups, etc. <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>Smallest unit of spoken discourse , identified at each boundary by a pause, lengthening, intonation pattern. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What did you do in Florida? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>I went to the beach / and ate lunch with a friend. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Knowledge “about” language Primary Phrase Stress (PPS) a.k.a. sentence stress, nucleus <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>Most prominent stress in a MU </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>we went to the stORE. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>we bought banANas there. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Knowledge “about” language Intonation a.k.a. pitch pattern : fall, rise, rise to mid-range <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>Pitch changes surrounding the primary stress </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We’re going to the store, / the library, / </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and the park. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. The “Bridge”: Strategies <ul><li>Critical listening </li></ul><ul><li>Transcription </li></ul><ul><li>Writing corrections </li></ul><ul><li>Self-correction and rehearsal </li></ul>
  13. 13. What the strategies help learners do <ul><li>Raise self-awareness regarding one’s pronunciation </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on cues for targeted features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pitch move, duration, loudness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Repetition frees up processing resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploits familiarity with task and meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learner can focus on form </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Critical Listening <ul><li>Create recording of your own speech </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on one target at a time (e.g., MU boundaries) </li></ul><ul><li>Listen to small chunk of recording (1-2 MUs) </li></ul><ul><li>Identify what you are doing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Target-like or not? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rehearse and record best oral correction </li></ul>
  15. 15. Example of Listening only <ul><li>“ Time 1. Listen and repeat one time.” </li></ul><ul><li>Original </li></ul><ul><li>yeah you may guess that uh it may be the: / number that / that most prob uh probably happens. / </li></ul><ul><li>R1 (improved MUs) </li></ul><ul><li>so you may gue:ss / it may be the numbe:r / that most probably happens. / </li></ul>
  16. 16. Listening only <ul><li>Audio sample: correcting PPS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Original: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>we will / make decision. / whether I like it. / or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dislike it. / </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R1: we will make decision, / whether / we like it, / or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dislike it. / </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Transcription <ul><li>Create speech recording </li></ul><ul><li>Listen to small chunks of recording and write down exactly what was spoken </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on one target at a time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Listen again and mark the target on transcript </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Review and evaluate transcript, one feature at a time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Target-like or not? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Write corrections </li></ul><ul><li>Rehearse, with corrections </li></ul>
  18. 18. Listening + Transcription <ul><li>Audio sample: correcting PPS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Original: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>there’s actually many / types of elisa. / like </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>indirect / elisa, / dile-direct , / and uh competitive elisa, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R1: there’s actually many types of elisa like / indirect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>elisa, / direct elisa, / and competitive elisa. / </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Oral self-correction and rehearsal <ul><li>By listening or by writing corrections on transcripts: Ss identify non-target production </li></ul><ul><li>Through rounds of rehearsal, Ss try to make their speech more target-like </li></ul>
  20. 20. What we know about strategy effectiveness
  21. 21. Preliminary Findings <ul><li>When students listen to and transcribe their own recorded speech… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They can identify and correct non-target features </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Listening and transcription: MUs, PPS, Intonation (Ingels, in press) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Listening: Intelligibility (Acton, 1984) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Listening: Epenthesis and dropping syllables (Couper, 2003) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transcription: Overall pronunciation improvement (Mennim, 2003, 2007) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transcription: Grammar and vocabulary (Lynch, 2007) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Strategies and targets The strategy types varied in effectiveness for different pronunciation features (Ingels, in press) <ul><li>MUs: Transcription is most effective </li></ul><ul><li>PPS: Critical listening alone appears to be superior to use of transcription </li></ul><ul><li>Intonation: Transcription is superior to critical listening alone </li></ul>
  23. 23. Why the differences? <ul><li>MU boundaries and intonation contours may be easier to “see” in a transcription </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>PPS may be more salient for learners aurally rather than visually (in transcript) </li></ul><ul><li>and in this minilecture, / I want to introduce you / uh how / we can make / dna aptamer / </li></ul>
  25. 25. Implications for L2 teaching <ul><li>Teach both listening and transcription </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies are combinable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learners can shape strategy use to their own learning style </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emphasize listening-only for PPS instruction </li></ul><ul><li>For listening only: focus on small chunks of speech (1 or 2 MUs) </li></ul><ul><li>For transcription: use up to 15 MUs (45 to 60 s) of speech </li></ul>
  26. 26. Extra instruction needed on how to rehearse <ul><ul><li>Emphasize purpose of rehearsal and striving for increased accuracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on smaller chunks of language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid fatigue </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Strategy Instruction <ul><ul><ul><li>Before teaching… </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Relate strategy use to your course goals and objectives <ul><li>Define objectives for strategy use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategies occupy a primary role in your class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Start teaching them from beginning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scaffold learners throughout the semester </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide final project in which Ss demonstrate independent use of the strategies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategies occupy a secondary role </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Awareness-raising for target features </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Even after one use of transcriptions, Ss stated that they had better sense of their oral skills </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Identify learner needs <ul><li>Diagnostic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pronunciation and oral skills needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Familiarity with strategies? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provide technological instruction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of voice recording software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to submit audio recordings </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Strategy Instruction <ul><li>Throughout semester: </li></ul><ul><li>Techniques demonstrated in class (weekly) </li></ul><ul><li>Regular homework assignments for practicing each strategy (every 1-2 weeks; varying length; some not graded) </li></ul><ul><li>3 major assignments to gauge progress (following each of 3 mini-lectures) </li></ul>
  31. 31. Listening: Start here <ul><ul><li>Use listening to raise awareness of targets in NS speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide transcript and recording </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ask Ss to identify targets and mark on transcription </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ss can imitate the recording to practice using accurate PPS cues </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. NS models of target features <ul><ul><li>The Matrix (Neo)--PPS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I know you're out there. I can feel you now. I know </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>that you're afraid. You're afraid of us. You're afraid of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>change.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What does PPS sound like? What does NEO do with his voice? </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. NS models of target features <ul><ul><li>The Matrix (Neo) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I know you're out there. I can feel you now. I know </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>that you're afraid. You're afraid of us. You're afraid of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>change. </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Structured to less structured listening and production <ul><li>Provided text with salient examples of contrasts </li></ul><ul><li>There are lots of ways to get to class. Some people walk to </li></ul><ul><li>school and others bike there. </li></ul><ul><li>Students create their own sentences with similar features. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are you going to do on vacation? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I can’t decide! I’ll either ___ first / or _____ first. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Students respond to prompt and record their answers: “Identify choices you have for relaxing during the weekend.” </li></ul>
  35. 35. Transcription <ul><li>Demonstrate in class </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What does spoken English sound like? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Homework </li></ul>
  36. 36. What does spoken English sound like? <ul><ul><ul><li>Predict MUs, intonation patterns, stress. Then listen. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>01 okay so if any of you have taken the SPEAK test or are </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>02 practicing for it you know that there is at the end of </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>03 the um test a question that asks you to talk about </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>04 schedule changes so uhm what I’d like you to do is </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>05 work with a partner first figure out where all the </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>06 theta words are and then practice those a little bit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>07 together and then take turns uh pretending that you </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>08 are maybe some of you are TAs now but pretending </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>09 you’re a TA and you’re explaining to a class uh </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10 schedule changes and so you can do that with your </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>11 partner so go ahead and I think I already had you in </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>12 groups figure out where the theta words are and uh </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Homework: Transcription practice <ul><li>Use short contextualized recordings </li></ul><ul><li>Ss complete outside class </li></ul><ul><li>Review in class </li></ul><ul><li>Show teacher’s version and have Ss compare </li></ul><ul><li>Identify trouble spots and listen together to point out key features </li></ul>
  38. 38. Transcription example: Hearing ---ed endings <ul><li>Yesterday, I taught my first class ever! I was really excited last semester when my advisor informed me that I would be a TA. But as the first day of class approached, I got really nervous. What if my students don’t like me, or can’t understand my lectures? </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Amanda Huensch </li></ul>
  39. 39. Transcription: Ss’ own speech <ul><li>After Ss have practiced listening to NS models </li></ul><ul><li>After Ss have practiced transcription of NS speech with access to a correct transcript </li></ul>
  40. 40. Transcription <ul><li>Students record a speech sample </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In-class presentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Response to a prompt recorded as homework </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transcribe 45 to 60 seconds </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate transcription and mark corrections </li></ul><ul><li>Rehearse and record their best version </li></ul>
  41. 41. Checklist <ul><li>___1. Listen only </li></ul><ul><li>___2. Listen and transcribe what you really said </li></ul><ul><li>___3. Listen and mark all pauses with a  </li></ul><ul><li>___4. Listen and mark PPS, with black dot:  </li></ul><ul><li>___5. Listen and mark the intonation you used at the end of each message unit: ↑ (rise), -> (rise to mid-range), or ↓ (falling) </li></ul><ul><li>___6. Review once to become familiar with the text; make no marks. </li></ul><ul><li>___7. Review again and correct MUs; cross out disfluencies </li></ul><ul><li>___8. Review again and mark corrections to PPS </li></ul><ul><li>___9. Review again and correct intonation </li></ul><ul><li>___10. Review transcription one last time for corrections you missed </li></ul><ul><li>When ready, rehearse and record your best pronunciation. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Decide how to provide feedback <ul><li>Teacher provides evaluative feedback </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To all Ss (fewer assignments?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotate provision of feedback (more assignments?) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provide answer key and allow students to evaluate own work </li></ul><ul><li>Use group work to listen and transcribe </li></ul>
  43. 43. Use student’s transcription first <ul><li>En / so by examining this picture / we can see / the </li></ul><ul><li>state x one / decays to zero / so it is stable / and the state of x </li></ul><ul><li>two / will goes to infinity / so we can’t find any bounded </li></ul><ul><li>set / to bound this trajectory / so this is just a simple / </li></ul><ul><li>simple example / </li></ul><ul><li>Listen for one target at a time: </li></ul><ul><li>Is transcription complete? All words, fillers, hesitations? </li></ul><ul><li>Where did you pause? </li></ul><ul><li>Did you use PPS? If so, which word in each message unit is most prominent? (Look at one MU at a time.) </li></ul><ul><li>Listen to intonation pattern in each MU: Is correct form used? </li></ul>
  44. 44. Show your corrected version
  45. 45. Pointers <ul><li>Describe strategies using terminology students will understand </li></ul><ul><li>Explain why the strategies are being used </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrate the strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Provide opportunities for practice </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on one pronunciation target at a time </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a variety of speech samples </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provide individual feedback </li></ul>
  46. 46. What’s reasonable to expect? <ul><li>Improvement in pronunciation and oral skills takes time. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slowing a fast speaking rate, improving MU boundaries and intonation, gaining self-awareness occur sooner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improving PPS takes longer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Students may feel discouraged when they listen and transcribe their own speech. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide encouragement. Spoken language is much messier than written. </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Adapting to learners at different levels <ul><li>Decide which features to target, based on student need </li></ul><ul><li>Select shorter recordings to start, even with advanced Ss </li></ul><ul><li>Adjust tempo of NS recordings (e.g., Audacity) </li></ul>
  48. 48. Other uses of the strategies <ul><li>Use for non-pronunciation targets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disfluencies, excessive self-repair </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overuse of fillers, words, phrases (uh… ok? You know?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rate of speaking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grammar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discourse structure </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Useful resources <ul><li>Audacity sound recording software (free) </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjust tempo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on short speech segments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Looping feature for transcription </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Online audio with transcriptions </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> / </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> (uses captioning) </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. Thank you! <ul><li>Questions? </li></ul>
  51. 51. References <ul><li>Acton, W. (1984). Changing fossilized pronunciation. TESOL Quarterly, 18 (1), 71-85. </li></ul><ul><li>Berg, E. C. (1999). The effects of trained peer response on ESL students' revision types and writing quality. Journal of Second Language Writing , 8( 3), 215-241. </li></ul><ul><li>Bygate, M. (2001). Effects of task repetition on the structure and control of oral language. In M. Bygate, P. Skehan, & M. Swain (Eds.), Researching pedagogic tasks: Second language learning, teaching and testing (pp. 23-48) . Harlow: Longman. </li></ul><ul><li>Couper, C. (2003). The value of an explicit pronunciation syllabus in ESOL teaching. Prospect, 18 (3), 53-70. </li></ul><ul><li>Dickerson, W. B. (1989). Stress in the speech stream: The rhythm of spoken English [CD-ROM] . Urbana, IL: Author. </li></ul><ul><li>Gu, P. Y. (2007). Foreword. In A. D. Cohen & E. Macaro (Eds.), Language learner strategies (pp. vii-viii). Oxford: Oxford University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Hsiao, T.-Y., & Oxford, R. L. (2002). Comparing theories of language learning strategies: A confirmatory factor analysis. The Modern Language Journal , 86 (3), 368-383. </li></ul><ul><li>Ingels, S. (in press). The Effects of self-monitoring strategy use on the pronunciation of learners of English. Selected Papers from the first annual conference of Pronunciation in Second Language Learning and Teaching. Iowa State University. (Paper presented on September 17, 2009.) Available at </li></ul><ul><li>Lynch, T. (2007). Learning from the transcripts of an oral communication task. ELT Journal, 61 (4), 311-320. </li></ul><ul><li>Lynch, T., & Maclean, J. (2001). ‘A case of exercising’: Effects of immediate task repetition on learners’ performance. In M. Bygate, P. Skehan, & M. Swain (Eds.), Researching Pedagogic Tasks: Second Language Learning, Teaching and Testing (pp. 141-162) . Harlow: Longman. </li></ul><ul><li>Mennim, P. (2003). Rehearsed oral L2 output and reactive focus on form. ELT Journal, 57 (2), 130-138. </li></ul><ul><li>Mennim, P. (2007). Long-term effects of noticing on oral output. Language Teaching Research, 11 (3), 265-280. </li></ul><ul><li>Rubin, J. (1975). What the &quot;good language learner&quot; can teach us. TESOL Quarterly, 9 (1), 41-51. </li></ul><ul><li>Trofimovich, P., & Gatbonton, E. (2006). Repetition and focus on form in processing L2 Spanish words: Implications for pronunciation instruction. The Modern Language Journal, 90, 519-535. </li></ul>
  52. 52. Contact information: <ul><li>Sue Ingels </li></ul><ul><li>PhD candidate </li></ul><ul><li>Department of Educational Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign </li></ul><ul><li>Email: </li></ul>