Lifespan TransitionsUnderstanding and supporting transition
A psychodynamic view: Blos (1967) Adolescence a second period of individuation (first was becoming self- reliant toddler). Reindividuation requires split from parents (overreaction to parental authority?) and assertion of individuality. Emotional emptiness results from separation from parents – satisfied by group experiences.
A psychodynamic view: Blos (1967) Regression viewed by Blos as a healthy and necessary response to stress. This may be to an infantile stage (in order to receive substitute parenting) or involve hero- worship (acting as substitute parent). Rebellion an important form of ego defence to prevent adolescents becoming dependent on parents again.
A psychodynamic view: Blos (1967) Steinberg & Silverberg (1986) measured emotional autonomy (degree of emotional independence adolescents feel from their parents). Large sample of American 10-16s. As autonomy increased so did peer dependence, most strongly between 11 and 13. However Ryan & Lynch (1989) argued that children may engage strongly in peer relationships because of a lack of emotional satisfaction at home.
Daniel Levinson (1977) – The Seasons of a Man’s Life Freud/Piaget stages end with adolescence Considers the whole lifespan Studied 40 American men aged 35-45 Two key concepts in Levinsons model are the stable period and the transitional period in a persons development. The stable period - make choices in life and seek goals. The transitional period is the end of a persons stage and the beginning of a new stage.
Daniel Levinson – The Seasons of a Man’s Life 1. Childhood and adolescence:0-20 2. Early adulthood: 17-45 Early adult transition-17-22 Entering the adult world-22-28 Age thirty transition-28-33 Settling down-33-40 3. Middle adulthood: age 40-65 Midlife transition-40-45 Entering middle adulthood-45-50 Age fifty transition-50-55 Culmination of middle adulthood-55-60 4. Late adulthood: age 60 onwards Late adult transition-60-65