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The updated
non-technical
introduction
to ChatGPT
Sue Beckingham
Peter Hartley
March 1, 2023
This session:
Please put comments and
questions in the Chat.
• Introducing ourselves
• ChatGPT: very brief history and
context (updated 1/3/23).
• What ChatGPT can do:
examples (new - see previous
ppt for others) and options.
• Implications and issues.
• Next steps.
• Further sources, such as work
by Anna Mills.
Sue Beckingham
Sue is a National Teaching Fellow, Principal Lecturer in Digital Analytics and Technologies, and a Learning and
Teaching Portfolio Lead at Sheffield Hallam University.
She is also a Certified Management and Business Educator, a Senior Fellow of the Higher Education Academy, a
Fellow of the Staff and Educational Development Association, and a Visiting Fellow at Edge Hill University.
Her research interests include social media for learning and digital identity, groupwork, and the use of
technology to enhance learning and teaching; and has published and presented this work nationally and
internationally as an invited keynote speaker. She is a co-founder of the international #LTHEchat 'Learning and
Teaching in Higher Education Twitter Chat' and the Social Media for Learning in HE Conference @SocMedHE.
Publications: https://www.suebeckingham.com/p/publications.html
Twitter: @suebecks
Blog: http://socialmediaforlearning.com/
LinkedIn: linkedin.com/in/suebeckingham
Email: s.beckingham@shu.ac.uk
2022
Author of book chapters
Peter Hartley
profpeter1@me.com
Now into my 3rd career:
• Career 1: Teaching academic in
Communication Studies: lecturer > dept head >
Professor of Communication.
• Career 2: Educational developer.
National Teaching Fellow.
Head of Ed Development Unit
Professor of Education Development.
• Career 3: Educational consultant.
Visiting Professor at Edge Hill.
External examiner & writer. Working/ed on:
project evaluation; learning spaces; NTF/CATE
mentoring; assessment strategies; visual thinking,
online development/ethical issues re tech (e.g.
applications/implications of ChatGPT); new
SEDA/Jisc Student Partnership Impact Award etc.
https://www.routled
ge.com/products/97
81138854710
http://www.routled
ge.com/books/detai
ls/9780415640282/
https://he.p
algrave.com/
page/detail/
Learning-
Developmen
t-in-Higher-
Education/?
K=97802302
41480
4
PROGRAMME ASSESSMENT
Chapters with Ruth Whitfield in………………………………………………and in ……………………..…
https://www.bloomsbury.
com/uk/success-in-
groupwork-
9781350933491/
2nd edition,
February, 2022
with
Sue Beckingham
and Mark Dawson
Now published:
https://ww
w.springer.c
om/gp/boo
k/97830302
63416
Forthcoming in May 2023.
3rd edition of
https://www.r
outledge.com/I
nterpersonal-
Communicatio
n/Hartley/p/bo
ok/978041518
1075
With
Helena Knapton
And
Susie Marriott
From
Edge Hill University
Terminology
• AI = artificial intelligence
the simulation of human intelligence processes by computer systems. SIRI and
Alexa are powered by AI.
• GPT = Generative Pre-Training Transformer.
• Transformer – technical paper from Google in 2017 described the transformer
technology – the “novel neural network architecture based on a self-attention
mechanism” - which is the basis for applications like GPT-3 and ChatGPT.
• OpenAI – Organisation that developed ChatGPT
https://openai.com/blog/chatgpt/ .
• Chat GPT – Software described on next slide.
What is ChatGPT*
And who wrote this?
ChatGPT is a computer program that can respond to questions and
provide information on a wide range of topics. You can talk to
ChatGPT as if you were speaking to a knowledgeable friend or a
reference book. It can provide answers, explanations, and
information on topics such as history, science, arts, and current
events, among many others. It can also generate text for tasks such
as writing stories, composing poems, and creating conversations. In
short, ChatGPT is an AI tool that helps people access information
and communicate in a more natural and efficient way.
• See our previous presentation for a (slightly) more technical explanation.
The brief history (up to Feb 7, 2023)
• Long history of experiments with computers as text generators, story-
tellers, and ‘chatbots’ (remember Eliza, anyone ...?).
• OpenAI developed improved versions of GPT - GPT-3 received considerable
attention – see Sharples and Perez y Perez (2022).
• ChatGPT is the latest ‘free’ version (more user-friendly) – issued November
2022 - the ‘fastest growing’ online product of all time.
• ChatGPTPlus now available ($20 a month for better, speedier, guaranteed
access, and some additional features).
• Microsoft and Google – both made announcements on February 8 2023.
The brief history #2 (from Feb 8 to yesterday, 2023)
The Microsoft way
• Microsoft
• “every product of Microsoft
will have some of the same
AI capabilities ...we'll be
seeing it soon” (1)
• Bing – the new ‘AI-powered
answer engine’
• Edge – the browser with Bing
built in
Example of a Bing chat
Bing: a few issues and questions
Both these items are screenshots from
this article by Sabrina Ortiz on
zdnet.com, 24/2/23:
The brief history #2
(Feb 8 to yesterday, 2023)
The Google way
• Google
• Their language model – LaMDA
• New ‘experimental conversational AI service – Bard.
Example from Google demo. See James Vincent article 8/2/23 at
https://www.theverge.com/2023/2/8/23590699/google-ai-search-features-bard-chatgpt-rival
Brief history #3: the new kids on the block
There are other AI services already out there
•https://beta.tome.app/
•Generative storytelling creating presentation slide decks
Tome
• https://elicit.org/
• AI research assistant – find, summarise and extract info from papers
Elicit
•https://researchrabbitapp.com/home
•Add a paper and explore similar work, citations, authors
Research Rabbit
•https://midjourney.com/
•Creates images from textual descriptions
Midjourney
• https://openai.com/dall-e-2/
• Creates images and art from a description
DALL E 2
• See details & links at https://www.producthunt.com/products/lex-4
• Word-processor with GPT-3 built in.
•Lex
DALL E 2
Research Rabbit
Image generated by BlueWillow:
Professor struggling to
understand AI language models
Mass media
attention
Dan Fitzpatrick
https://thirdbox.org
Other
reactions?
First response from QAA
Selected Quotations ...(new ones in blue)
“Ai won’t replace teachers, but it will replace teachers who can’t use AI.” (2)
“ChatGPT ... it’s an expensive deal with the devil.” (3)
It is “hi-tech plagiarism” (4)
”ChatGPT ... can easily teach classes already” (5)
“Google Panics Over ChatGPT (The AI wars have begun).”(6)
“the myths surrounding AI are so dangerous” (7)
“ChatGPT..received a B to B- grade on the (MBA) exam.” (8)
“I’m encouraging my students to become responsible, aware users of the AI
technologies that will play a profoundly important role over the course of
their careers.” (9)
“What are we actually educating young people for in the future? It's really
important to differentiate human intelligence and AI. (then talking about
‘regurgitating material in exams) ... well ChatGPT can do that pretty well
and it's only getting better every second.” (10)
https://www.qaa.ac.uk/news-
events/news/qaa-briefs-members-on-
artificial-intelligence-threat-to-
academic-integrity
ChatGPT text is:
• Grammatical – few or no mistakes spotted
by grammar-checkers like Grammarly.
• Relevant to the topic.
• Plausible – you can ‘fool’ expert readers if
they are unaware of the text origins.
• Worthy of a decent/good academic grade
in some assignments.
ChatGPT text – note that:
• It does not ‘understand’.
• May be wrong/inaccurate or ’invented’.
• Is based on estimating the most likely next
word(s) given the overall topic question or
prompt.
• Can mimic different styles of writing or
adapt the text to target a particular
audience.
ChatGPT text – note that:
• It has built in biases having been trained
on limited sources
• Is unable to critically evaluate gathered
information
• ChatGPT currently uses data frorm 2021 or
earlier
Comparing tools
Google
DuckDuckGo
ChatGPT
Outputs Delivers results as ... Ranked links Full text
Provides details of sources Yes No/possibly
Reliable and truthful Link-dependent Not necessarily
Capacities Can write ‘good’ computer code No Yes
Can construct a story No Yes
Can summarise information No Yes
Can simulate a conversation No Yes
Examples
(all responses totally generated by ChatGPT)
Examples we used last time
1. ChatGPT explaining ChatGPT
2. The future of educational
development?
3. Why does ChatGPT sometimes lie?
4. Responding in different styles
5. A more complex question on literary
characters
6. Plan a presentation – expand it –
and evaluate it.
Examples we use today
1. Advantages of ChatGPT?
And any likely pitfalls?
2. The future of educational development?
3. Responding in different styles #2.
4. Refining/improving prompts.
5. Summarise a novel.
6. Cultural understanding?
7. Plan an academic task.
And then evaluate the plan.
Some questions you may like
to pose for our examples ...
• Is the ChatGPT text coherent and plausible?
• Can you spot any obvious errors?
• Anything that could be challenged?
• How would you describe ChatGPT’s ‘natural’ use
of language?
• What level is ChatGPT working at?
For example, would you ‘accept’ the text from an
undergraduate or postgraduate student? If so,
what level of student?
1a: Advantages of ChatGPT in 50 or 100 words?
What can Chat GPT offer UK Higher Education?
ChatGPT can offer UK Higher
Education institutions AI-powered
solutions for various tasks, such as
improving student learning
experiences, automating
administrative tasks, and
developing personalized
educational content.
ChatGPT can offer UK Higher Education institutions
a range of AI-powered solutions to enhance their
operations. These may include automated
administrative tasks such as student enrollment,
course scheduling, and grading. ChatGPT can also
help develop personalized educational content,
provide real-time support to students and teachers,
and improve the overall student learning
experience. Additionally, it can assist in research and
data analysis, and provide insights to enhance
decision-making processes.
1b: Negatives of ChatGPT in 100 words: - potential
downsides to the use of ChatGPT in UK HE?
The potential downsides of using ChatGPT in UK Higher Education include
concerns around data privacy and security, as well as issues with bias and
fairness in AI decision-making.
There may also be challenges around transparency and accountability,
particularly in relation to the use of AI-generated content.
Moreover, the implementation of AI solutions may require significant
investments in technology and infrastructure, and may also result in job
displacement or changes to traditional job roles.
Therefore, careful consideration and ethical evaluation should be conducted
to mitigate these risks.
2: Will educational development units in UK Higher Education
become more or less influential in the next decade?
It is likely that educational development units in UK Higher Education will
become more influential in the next decade. The increasing use of
technology in education, including AI-powered solutions, is expected to
create a greater demand for expertise in areas such as curriculum design,
pedagogy, and assessment.
Educational development units have a key role to play in providing support
and guidance to faculty and staff in navigating these changes and ensuring
that pedagogical practices keep pace with technological developments.
Additionally, they are well-positioned to lead the development and
implementation of institutional strategies for digital learning and innovation.
3. What is ChatGPT?
Answer the question in the style of ......
My fellow citizens, let me tell you about ChatGPT.
ChatGPT is an innovative artificial intelligence language model, developed by
the brilliant minds at OpenAI. It has the capability to converse with humans
in a natural language, and learn from the vast amounts of data available on
the internet. It has the power to solve complex problems, generate creative
ideas, and make our lives easier and more productive.
But what is most exciting about ChatGPT is its potential to revolutionize the
way we think about education. With its ability to personalize content and
provide real-time support to students, it can enhance the learning
experience and help us reach our full potential.
So, let us embrace the power of ChatGPT, and work together to unlock the
limitless possibilities it offers for a better future. Thank you.
4. Refining prompts:
advice from ChatGPT on using brackets
One way to use instructions in brackets to improve the quality of responses in
ChatGPT is by providing specific prompts or guidelines for the model to follow. For
example, you could include instructions like "[Provide three examples of]" or
"[Explain the significance of]" to help the model understand the specific task or
question at hand.
In addition, you can also use instructions in brackets to provide additional context or
information that may be helpful for the model. For instance, you could include "[In
the context of 18th century literature]" or "[Drawing on recent scientific research]" to
help the model understand the broader context or background of the question.
By providing clear and specific instructions in brackets, you can help ChatGPT
generate responses that are more relevant, accurate, and useful for the given task or
question. However, it's worth noting that while instructions can be helpful, they may
also constrain the model's creativity and ability to generate unexpected or innovative
responses. As with any language model, it's important to strike a balance between
providing guidance and allowing for flexibility and creativity.
5 . Summary example: summarise the novel 1984 in less
than 100 words.
In George Orwell's novel 1984, the government of Oceania, led by Big
Brother, uses mass surveillance, propaganda, and censorship to
control its citizens completely.
The story follows Winston Smith, a low-ranking member of the ruling
Party who begins to rebel against the oppressive regime. He becomes
involved in a forbidden love affair with a fellow Party member and
joins a subversive organization dedicated to overthrowing the
government.
However, the Party's thought police ultimately capture Winston and
brainwash him into submission, extinguishing his hopes for rebellion
and freedom. The novel is a cautionary tale about the dangers of
totalitarianism and the importance of individual freedom.
6. Plan something and evaluate
The prompt:
Produce a summary plan for a research project investigating
current UK students' wellbeing and academic engagement |
(in less than 100 words).
6b. The Plan – part 1
Title: Investigating UK Students' Wellbeing and
Academic Engagement: A Mixed-Methods Study
Aim: This study aims to examine the wellbeing and academic
engagement of current UK students by exploring their
experiences, attitudes, and behaviours.
Methods: The study will employ a mixed-methods approach,
utilizing both quantitative and qualitative data collection
methods. Quantitative data will be collected through an
online survey, while qualitative data will be collected through
in-depth interviews. Data analysis will involve descriptive
statistics and thematic analysis.
6b. The Plan – part 2
Participants: The study will recruit a sample of current UK
undergraduate and postgraduate students from different
universities and disciplines.
Expected outcomes: The study will provide insights into the
current state of UK students' wellbeing and academic
engagement, as well as the factors that may influence these
outcomes. The findings may inform the development of
interventions and policies to support students' wellbeing and
academic success.
6c. The evaluation
The prompt:
Evaluate this project summary in terms of its likely success
given that it has to be completed in less than 6 months by a
final year undergraduate student who will spend about 20%
of their study time on it
6c. The evaluation – part 1
Completing a mixed-methods research project investigating
UK students' wellbeing and academic engagement in less
than 6 months by a final year undergraduate student who
can dedicate only about 20% of their study time to it can be
challenging. However, the proposed project summary seems
feasible with the given time frame and resources.
The aim, methods, participants, and expected outcomes are
clearly outlined, indicating a well-planned study. The mixed-
methods approach is appropriate to gather both quantitative
and qualitative data, which can provide a more
comprehensive understanding of the topic.
6c. The evaluation – part 2
To increase the likelihood of success, the student needs to
carefully plan the data collection, analysis, and write-up
stages, considering the limited time available. Additionally,
recruiting participants from different universities and
disciplines can be time-consuming, so the student may need
to consider using online recruitment methods and offering
incentives.
Overall, with careful planning and effective time
management, the proposed project summary has the
potential to be successful in achieving its objectives within
the given time frame.
7a. Cultural understanding #1
The prompt
(Use the dialect typical of native Scottish Glaswegians in the
1950s. Use no more than 150 words. Use expressions which
would be acceptable if this was part of a speech to an
audience of local business people at that time)
What are the prospects for Scotland to become an
independent country?
7a. Cultural understanding #1 The response
Richt, folks, let's get doon tae brass tacks. Ah ken ye're aw wonderin'
aboot the chances o' Scotland gainin' independence. Noo, whit ah'm
gonnae tell ye is jist ma ain opinion, mind ye.
Furst up, there's nae denyin' that there's a lot o' support fur the idea o'
independence, especially amang the workin' class. But ye cannae
ignore the fact that it's a complex issue, wi' a lot o' economic and
political considerations. There's also the matter o' whether the UK
government would even allow another referendum.
So, whaur does that leave us? Weel, ah think the prospects fur
independence are certainly no' off the table. But it's gonnae tak' a lot
o' hard work and negotiation tae mak' it happen. An' even then, there's
nae guarantee o' success.
But hey, we Scots are a resilient bunch, eh? So let's keep the heid up
and see what the future holds. Slainte!
7b. Cross-Cultural understanding
The prompt
Would you expect academic staff in the UK to have a different
response to students using ChatGPT compared with their
counterparts in the USA?
7b. Cross-Cultural understanding: the response.
It is possible that academic staff in the UK and the USA may have different responses to students
using ChatGPT, as attitudes and cultural values can vary between different countries and regions.
For example, in the UK, there is a strong emphasis on academic integrity and the importance of
independent learning, and there may be concerns about students using ChatGPT to generate work
that they have not actually written themselves. Academic staff in the UK may therefore be more
likely to view the use of ChatGPT with skepticism and may be more inclined to emphasize the
importance of originality and critical thinking in student work.
In the USA, there may be a greater emphasis on innovation and the use of technology to enhance
teaching and learning, and academic staff may be more open to the use of language models like
ChatGPT as a tool to support student learning and assessment. There may also be a greater focus
on outcomes and results in the USA, and academic staff may be more interested in using ChatGPT
to quickly and efficiently evaluate student work.
Of course, these are generalizations, and individual attitudes and responses will vary among
academic staff in both countries. Ultimately, the response to students using ChatGPT will depend on
a variety of factors, including institutional policies, academic standards, and individual instructor
preferences and priorities.
How can/do
university
staff use
ChatGPT
with students?
As a “study aid,”
(description of DNA methylation)
“Virtual teaching assistant”
(see conversation here with ChatGPT)
Grading
Lesson and curriculum planning
Formative feedback
Designing presentations
Listing privacy/safety concerns
Students use ChatGPT: 2 new examples
From last time –
Personal Tutor; Study Buddy; Create tests/exams; Language Learning; Summarise Information At
https://youtu.be/VeXKByjBMXw
Undergrad in CS explaining his
strategies
Medical student using ChatGPT, e.g. check
diagnosis; cue cards
https://youtu.be/P5Df0KDSYNM
https://youtu.be/lKmR-pHGxI8
Important issues and implications
• Can we reliably identify an AI-
generated text?
• Can we/should we control the use
of ChatGPT and similar software?
• How can we use it positively?
• Do we need an institutional
strategy?
More important issues and implications
• How can individual tutors make best
use of it?
• How do we develop ‘critical AI’ skills in
our students (and our staff)?
• What are the key Issues of data
security and privacy?
• Ethics, access and accessibility – which
students can afford the premium
product?
Next steps?
Please see the SEDA
website or @Seda_UK for
forthcoming events and
recordings, including an
invited keynote from Mike
Sharples, March 8, 2023.
https://www.seda.ac.uk/
https://twitter.com/Seda_
UK_
Sources (repeated from the first webinar)
See at: https://www.slideshare.net/suebeckingham/a-nontechnical-
introduction-to-chatgpt-sedapptx
1.Interview with Satya Nadella, Microsoft CEO
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UNbyT7wPwk4
2. Dan Fitzpatrick Thirdbox https://thirdbox.org/
3. John Naughton in The Observer, 4/2/23.
https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2023/feb/04/chatgpt-isnt-a-great-leap-forward-its-an-expensive-deal-with-the-devil
4. Noam Chomsky interview at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IgxzcOugvEI&t=789s
5. New York Post, 25/1/23, quoting Pengcheng Shi, Associate Dean in computer dept. At: https://nypost.com/2023/01/25/chat-gpt-could-make-
these-jobs-obsolete/
6. KellyRow at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zk1_to-Slbo
7. Web Summit at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PBdZi_JtV4c&t=1349s
8. Would Chat GPT Get a Wharton MBA? New White Paper By Christian Terwiesch
At: https://mackinstitute.wharton.upenn.edu/2023/would-chat-gpt3-get-a-wharton-mba-new-white-paper-by-christian-terwiesch/
9. John Villasenor, 10/2/23 How ChatGPT Can Improve Education, Not Threaten it Scientific American
https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/how-chatgpt-can-improve-education-not-threaten-it/
10. Priya Lakhani, CEO, CENTURY Tech 23/2/23 from the Bottom Line Programme - Powered by AI
Available on BBC Sounds at https://www.bbc.co.uk/sounds/play/m001jccc
More Sources
Sharples, M. and Pérez y Pérez, R. (2022) Story Machines: How Computers Have Become
Creative Writers. London: Routledge.
See the review at https://leonfurze.com/2022/07/27/review-story-machines-by-mike-
sharples-and-rafael-perez-y-perez/
Anna Mills – as well as her NAIN presentation (see title slide), see her website for some
excellent resources: https://www.annarmills.com
• University of Oxford Centre for Teaching and Learning
Four lessons from ChatGPT: Challenges and opportunities for educators
https://ctl.ox.ac.uk/article/four-lessons-from-chatgpt-challenges-and-opportunities-for-
educators
• Example of student guidance on using AL tools
https://blogs.deakin.edu.au/deakinlife/2023/02/02/what-you-need-to-know-about-
chatgpt-and-other-ai-tools/
• Teaching AI ethics
https://leonfurze.com/2023/01/26/teaching-ai-ethics/
New Sources (shared during the webinar)
Thanks to Dustin, David and Lea
Dustin Hosseini
• Anna Mills
How well can AI respond to my assignment prompts?
https://docs.google.com/document/d/1ZbrdqB2xqoOVOdo2OAbk9Osz4_xyG7Xhp2RpeJyWG0g/edit?usp=sharing
Example from sociology of education
https://docs.google.com/document/d/19Gz1EZJi57XsSXdgu0cXWmqXk9X0_v8H1YrWgIagfJ4/edit?usp=sharing
Example from history
https://docs.google.com/document/d/1BAufpoevD7q2HrutbOLeI0qrT0hPCE7v4z3K4ycWQoA/edit?usp=sharing
A collection of sources to stimulate discussion among educators: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1V1drRG1XlWTBrEwgGqd-
cCySUB12JrcoamB5i16-Ezw/edit?usp=sharing
David Walker
• Microsoft Bing is using version GPT3.5. ChatGPT uses GPT3.
https://blogs.microsoft.com/blog/2023/01/23/microsoftandopenaiextendpartnership/
• Jisc guidance on producing AI use guidance
https://nationalcentreforai.jiscinvolve.org/wp/2023/02/14/considerations-on-wording-ai-advice/
• Microsoft has some existing functionality in its Editor tools and ability to summarise but more to come following partnership with
OpenAI: https://www.theverge.com/2023/2/10/23593980/microsoft-bing-chatgpt-ai-teams-outlook-integration
New Sources (shared during the webinar)
Lea Sharman
• UCL's official guidance on Chat GPT for staff (Published Feb 2023):
https://www.ucl.ac.uk/teaching-learning/assessment-resources/ai-education-and-assessment-staff-briefing-1
• AI Text Classifier: a fine-tuned GPT model that predicts how likely it is that a piece of text was generated by AI from a variety of
sources, such as ChatGPT.
https://platform.openai.com/ai-text-classifier

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The updated non-technical introduction to ChatGPT SEDA March 2023.pptx

  • 1. The updated non-technical introduction to ChatGPT Sue Beckingham Peter Hartley March 1, 2023
  • 2. This session: Please put comments and questions in the Chat. • Introducing ourselves • ChatGPT: very brief history and context (updated 1/3/23). • What ChatGPT can do: examples (new - see previous ppt for others) and options. • Implications and issues. • Next steps. • Further sources, such as work by Anna Mills.
  • 3. Sue Beckingham Sue is a National Teaching Fellow, Principal Lecturer in Digital Analytics and Technologies, and a Learning and Teaching Portfolio Lead at Sheffield Hallam University. She is also a Certified Management and Business Educator, a Senior Fellow of the Higher Education Academy, a Fellow of the Staff and Educational Development Association, and a Visiting Fellow at Edge Hill University. Her research interests include social media for learning and digital identity, groupwork, and the use of technology to enhance learning and teaching; and has published and presented this work nationally and internationally as an invited keynote speaker. She is a co-founder of the international #LTHEchat 'Learning and Teaching in Higher Education Twitter Chat' and the Social Media for Learning in HE Conference @SocMedHE. Publications: https://www.suebeckingham.com/p/publications.html Twitter: @suebecks Blog: http://socialmediaforlearning.com/ LinkedIn: linkedin.com/in/suebeckingham Email: s.beckingham@shu.ac.uk 2022 Author of book chapters
  • 4. Peter Hartley profpeter1@me.com Now into my 3rd career: • Career 1: Teaching academic in Communication Studies: lecturer > dept head > Professor of Communication. • Career 2: Educational developer. National Teaching Fellow. Head of Ed Development Unit Professor of Education Development. • Career 3: Educational consultant. Visiting Professor at Edge Hill. External examiner & writer. Working/ed on: project evaluation; learning spaces; NTF/CATE mentoring; assessment strategies; visual thinking, online development/ethical issues re tech (e.g. applications/implications of ChatGPT); new SEDA/Jisc Student Partnership Impact Award etc. https://www.routled ge.com/products/97 81138854710 http://www.routled ge.com/books/detai ls/9780415640282/ https://he.p algrave.com/ page/detail/ Learning- Developmen t-in-Higher- Education/? K=97802302 41480 4 PROGRAMME ASSESSMENT Chapters with Ruth Whitfield in………………………………………………and in ……………………..… https://www.bloomsbury. com/uk/success-in- groupwork- 9781350933491/ 2nd edition, February, 2022 with Sue Beckingham and Mark Dawson Now published: https://ww w.springer.c om/gp/boo k/97830302 63416 Forthcoming in May 2023. 3rd edition of https://www.r outledge.com/I nterpersonal- Communicatio n/Hartley/p/bo ok/978041518 1075 With Helena Knapton And Susie Marriott From Edge Hill University
  • 5. Terminology • AI = artificial intelligence the simulation of human intelligence processes by computer systems. SIRI and Alexa are powered by AI. • GPT = Generative Pre-Training Transformer. • Transformer – technical paper from Google in 2017 described the transformer technology – the “novel neural network architecture based on a self-attention mechanism” - which is the basis for applications like GPT-3 and ChatGPT. • OpenAI – Organisation that developed ChatGPT https://openai.com/blog/chatgpt/ . • Chat GPT – Software described on next slide.
  • 6. What is ChatGPT* And who wrote this? ChatGPT is a computer program that can respond to questions and provide information on a wide range of topics. You can talk to ChatGPT as if you were speaking to a knowledgeable friend or a reference book. It can provide answers, explanations, and information on topics such as history, science, arts, and current events, among many others. It can also generate text for tasks such as writing stories, composing poems, and creating conversations. In short, ChatGPT is an AI tool that helps people access information and communicate in a more natural and efficient way. • See our previous presentation for a (slightly) more technical explanation.
  • 7. The brief history (up to Feb 7, 2023) • Long history of experiments with computers as text generators, story- tellers, and ‘chatbots’ (remember Eliza, anyone ...?). • OpenAI developed improved versions of GPT - GPT-3 received considerable attention – see Sharples and Perez y Perez (2022). • ChatGPT is the latest ‘free’ version (more user-friendly) – issued November 2022 - the ‘fastest growing’ online product of all time. • ChatGPTPlus now available ($20 a month for better, speedier, guaranteed access, and some additional features). • Microsoft and Google – both made announcements on February 8 2023.
  • 8. The brief history #2 (from Feb 8 to yesterday, 2023) The Microsoft way • Microsoft • “every product of Microsoft will have some of the same AI capabilities ...we'll be seeing it soon” (1) • Bing – the new ‘AI-powered answer engine’ • Edge – the browser with Bing built in
  • 9. Example of a Bing chat
  • 10. Bing: a few issues and questions Both these items are screenshots from this article by Sabrina Ortiz on zdnet.com, 24/2/23:
  • 11. The brief history #2 (Feb 8 to yesterday, 2023) The Google way • Google • Their language model – LaMDA • New ‘experimental conversational AI service – Bard. Example from Google demo. See James Vincent article 8/2/23 at https://www.theverge.com/2023/2/8/23590699/google-ai-search-features-bard-chatgpt-rival
  • 12. Brief history #3: the new kids on the block There are other AI services already out there •https://beta.tome.app/ •Generative storytelling creating presentation slide decks Tome • https://elicit.org/ • AI research assistant – find, summarise and extract info from papers Elicit •https://researchrabbitapp.com/home •Add a paper and explore similar work, citations, authors Research Rabbit •https://midjourney.com/ •Creates images from textual descriptions Midjourney • https://openai.com/dall-e-2/ • Creates images and art from a description DALL E 2 • See details & links at https://www.producthunt.com/products/lex-4 • Word-processor with GPT-3 built in. •Lex
  • 13. DALL E 2 Research Rabbit Image generated by BlueWillow: Professor struggling to understand AI language models
  • 15. Other reactions? First response from QAA Selected Quotations ...(new ones in blue) “Ai won’t replace teachers, but it will replace teachers who can’t use AI.” (2) “ChatGPT ... it’s an expensive deal with the devil.” (3) It is “hi-tech plagiarism” (4) ”ChatGPT ... can easily teach classes already” (5) “Google Panics Over ChatGPT (The AI wars have begun).”(6) “the myths surrounding AI are so dangerous” (7) “ChatGPT..received a B to B- grade on the (MBA) exam.” (8) “I’m encouraging my students to become responsible, aware users of the AI technologies that will play a profoundly important role over the course of their careers.” (9) “What are we actually educating young people for in the future? It's really important to differentiate human intelligence and AI. (then talking about ‘regurgitating material in exams) ... well ChatGPT can do that pretty well and it's only getting better every second.” (10) https://www.qaa.ac.uk/news- events/news/qaa-briefs-members-on- artificial-intelligence-threat-to- academic-integrity
  • 16. ChatGPT text is: • Grammatical – few or no mistakes spotted by grammar-checkers like Grammarly. • Relevant to the topic. • Plausible – you can ‘fool’ expert readers if they are unaware of the text origins. • Worthy of a decent/good academic grade in some assignments.
  • 17. ChatGPT text – note that: • It does not ‘understand’. • May be wrong/inaccurate or ’invented’. • Is based on estimating the most likely next word(s) given the overall topic question or prompt. • Can mimic different styles of writing or adapt the text to target a particular audience.
  • 18. ChatGPT text – note that: • It has built in biases having been trained on limited sources • Is unable to critically evaluate gathered information • ChatGPT currently uses data frorm 2021 or earlier
  • 19. Comparing tools Google DuckDuckGo ChatGPT Outputs Delivers results as ... Ranked links Full text Provides details of sources Yes No/possibly Reliable and truthful Link-dependent Not necessarily Capacities Can write ‘good’ computer code No Yes Can construct a story No Yes Can summarise information No Yes Can simulate a conversation No Yes
  • 20. Examples (all responses totally generated by ChatGPT) Examples we used last time 1. ChatGPT explaining ChatGPT 2. The future of educational development? 3. Why does ChatGPT sometimes lie? 4. Responding in different styles 5. A more complex question on literary characters 6. Plan a presentation – expand it – and evaluate it. Examples we use today 1. Advantages of ChatGPT? And any likely pitfalls? 2. The future of educational development? 3. Responding in different styles #2. 4. Refining/improving prompts. 5. Summarise a novel. 6. Cultural understanding? 7. Plan an academic task. And then evaluate the plan.
  • 21. Some questions you may like to pose for our examples ... • Is the ChatGPT text coherent and plausible? • Can you spot any obvious errors? • Anything that could be challenged? • How would you describe ChatGPT’s ‘natural’ use of language? • What level is ChatGPT working at? For example, would you ‘accept’ the text from an undergraduate or postgraduate student? If so, what level of student?
  • 22. 1a: Advantages of ChatGPT in 50 or 100 words? What can Chat GPT offer UK Higher Education? ChatGPT can offer UK Higher Education institutions AI-powered solutions for various tasks, such as improving student learning experiences, automating administrative tasks, and developing personalized educational content. ChatGPT can offer UK Higher Education institutions a range of AI-powered solutions to enhance their operations. These may include automated administrative tasks such as student enrollment, course scheduling, and grading. ChatGPT can also help develop personalized educational content, provide real-time support to students and teachers, and improve the overall student learning experience. Additionally, it can assist in research and data analysis, and provide insights to enhance decision-making processes.
  • 23. 1b: Negatives of ChatGPT in 100 words: - potential downsides to the use of ChatGPT in UK HE? The potential downsides of using ChatGPT in UK Higher Education include concerns around data privacy and security, as well as issues with bias and fairness in AI decision-making. There may also be challenges around transparency and accountability, particularly in relation to the use of AI-generated content. Moreover, the implementation of AI solutions may require significant investments in technology and infrastructure, and may also result in job displacement or changes to traditional job roles. Therefore, careful consideration and ethical evaluation should be conducted to mitigate these risks.
  • 24. 2: Will educational development units in UK Higher Education become more or less influential in the next decade? It is likely that educational development units in UK Higher Education will become more influential in the next decade. The increasing use of technology in education, including AI-powered solutions, is expected to create a greater demand for expertise in areas such as curriculum design, pedagogy, and assessment. Educational development units have a key role to play in providing support and guidance to faculty and staff in navigating these changes and ensuring that pedagogical practices keep pace with technological developments. Additionally, they are well-positioned to lead the development and implementation of institutional strategies for digital learning and innovation.
  • 25. 3. What is ChatGPT? Answer the question in the style of ...... My fellow citizens, let me tell you about ChatGPT. ChatGPT is an innovative artificial intelligence language model, developed by the brilliant minds at OpenAI. It has the capability to converse with humans in a natural language, and learn from the vast amounts of data available on the internet. It has the power to solve complex problems, generate creative ideas, and make our lives easier and more productive. But what is most exciting about ChatGPT is its potential to revolutionize the way we think about education. With its ability to personalize content and provide real-time support to students, it can enhance the learning experience and help us reach our full potential. So, let us embrace the power of ChatGPT, and work together to unlock the limitless possibilities it offers for a better future. Thank you.
  • 26. 4. Refining prompts: advice from ChatGPT on using brackets One way to use instructions in brackets to improve the quality of responses in ChatGPT is by providing specific prompts or guidelines for the model to follow. For example, you could include instructions like "[Provide three examples of]" or "[Explain the significance of]" to help the model understand the specific task or question at hand. In addition, you can also use instructions in brackets to provide additional context or information that may be helpful for the model. For instance, you could include "[In the context of 18th century literature]" or "[Drawing on recent scientific research]" to help the model understand the broader context or background of the question. By providing clear and specific instructions in brackets, you can help ChatGPT generate responses that are more relevant, accurate, and useful for the given task or question. However, it's worth noting that while instructions can be helpful, they may also constrain the model's creativity and ability to generate unexpected or innovative responses. As with any language model, it's important to strike a balance between providing guidance and allowing for flexibility and creativity.
  • 27. 5 . Summary example: summarise the novel 1984 in less than 100 words. In George Orwell's novel 1984, the government of Oceania, led by Big Brother, uses mass surveillance, propaganda, and censorship to control its citizens completely. The story follows Winston Smith, a low-ranking member of the ruling Party who begins to rebel against the oppressive regime. He becomes involved in a forbidden love affair with a fellow Party member and joins a subversive organization dedicated to overthrowing the government. However, the Party's thought police ultimately capture Winston and brainwash him into submission, extinguishing his hopes for rebellion and freedom. The novel is a cautionary tale about the dangers of totalitarianism and the importance of individual freedom.
  • 28. 6. Plan something and evaluate The prompt: Produce a summary plan for a research project investigating current UK students' wellbeing and academic engagement | (in less than 100 words).
  • 29. 6b. The Plan – part 1 Title: Investigating UK Students' Wellbeing and Academic Engagement: A Mixed-Methods Study Aim: This study aims to examine the wellbeing and academic engagement of current UK students by exploring their experiences, attitudes, and behaviours. Methods: The study will employ a mixed-methods approach, utilizing both quantitative and qualitative data collection methods. Quantitative data will be collected through an online survey, while qualitative data will be collected through in-depth interviews. Data analysis will involve descriptive statistics and thematic analysis.
  • 30. 6b. The Plan – part 2 Participants: The study will recruit a sample of current UK undergraduate and postgraduate students from different universities and disciplines. Expected outcomes: The study will provide insights into the current state of UK students' wellbeing and academic engagement, as well as the factors that may influence these outcomes. The findings may inform the development of interventions and policies to support students' wellbeing and academic success.
  • 31. 6c. The evaluation The prompt: Evaluate this project summary in terms of its likely success given that it has to be completed in less than 6 months by a final year undergraduate student who will spend about 20% of their study time on it
  • 32. 6c. The evaluation – part 1 Completing a mixed-methods research project investigating UK students' wellbeing and academic engagement in less than 6 months by a final year undergraduate student who can dedicate only about 20% of their study time to it can be challenging. However, the proposed project summary seems feasible with the given time frame and resources. The aim, methods, participants, and expected outcomes are clearly outlined, indicating a well-planned study. The mixed- methods approach is appropriate to gather both quantitative and qualitative data, which can provide a more comprehensive understanding of the topic.
  • 33. 6c. The evaluation – part 2 To increase the likelihood of success, the student needs to carefully plan the data collection, analysis, and write-up stages, considering the limited time available. Additionally, recruiting participants from different universities and disciplines can be time-consuming, so the student may need to consider using online recruitment methods and offering incentives. Overall, with careful planning and effective time management, the proposed project summary has the potential to be successful in achieving its objectives within the given time frame.
  • 34. 7a. Cultural understanding #1 The prompt (Use the dialect typical of native Scottish Glaswegians in the 1950s. Use no more than 150 words. Use expressions which would be acceptable if this was part of a speech to an audience of local business people at that time) What are the prospects for Scotland to become an independent country?
  • 35. 7a. Cultural understanding #1 The response Richt, folks, let's get doon tae brass tacks. Ah ken ye're aw wonderin' aboot the chances o' Scotland gainin' independence. Noo, whit ah'm gonnae tell ye is jist ma ain opinion, mind ye. Furst up, there's nae denyin' that there's a lot o' support fur the idea o' independence, especially amang the workin' class. But ye cannae ignore the fact that it's a complex issue, wi' a lot o' economic and political considerations. There's also the matter o' whether the UK government would even allow another referendum. So, whaur does that leave us? Weel, ah think the prospects fur independence are certainly no' off the table. But it's gonnae tak' a lot o' hard work and negotiation tae mak' it happen. An' even then, there's nae guarantee o' success. But hey, we Scots are a resilient bunch, eh? So let's keep the heid up and see what the future holds. Slainte!
  • 36. 7b. Cross-Cultural understanding The prompt Would you expect academic staff in the UK to have a different response to students using ChatGPT compared with their counterparts in the USA?
  • 37. 7b. Cross-Cultural understanding: the response. It is possible that academic staff in the UK and the USA may have different responses to students using ChatGPT, as attitudes and cultural values can vary between different countries and regions. For example, in the UK, there is a strong emphasis on academic integrity and the importance of independent learning, and there may be concerns about students using ChatGPT to generate work that they have not actually written themselves. Academic staff in the UK may therefore be more likely to view the use of ChatGPT with skepticism and may be more inclined to emphasize the importance of originality and critical thinking in student work. In the USA, there may be a greater emphasis on innovation and the use of technology to enhance teaching and learning, and academic staff may be more open to the use of language models like ChatGPT as a tool to support student learning and assessment. There may also be a greater focus on outcomes and results in the USA, and academic staff may be more interested in using ChatGPT to quickly and efficiently evaluate student work. Of course, these are generalizations, and individual attitudes and responses will vary among academic staff in both countries. Ultimately, the response to students using ChatGPT will depend on a variety of factors, including institutional policies, academic standards, and individual instructor preferences and priorities.
  • 38. How can/do university staff use ChatGPT with students? As a “study aid,” (description of DNA methylation) “Virtual teaching assistant” (see conversation here with ChatGPT) Grading Lesson and curriculum planning Formative feedback Designing presentations Listing privacy/safety concerns
  • 39. Students use ChatGPT: 2 new examples From last time – Personal Tutor; Study Buddy; Create tests/exams; Language Learning; Summarise Information At https://youtu.be/VeXKByjBMXw Undergrad in CS explaining his strategies Medical student using ChatGPT, e.g. check diagnosis; cue cards https://youtu.be/P5Df0KDSYNM https://youtu.be/lKmR-pHGxI8
  • 40. Important issues and implications • Can we reliably identify an AI- generated text? • Can we/should we control the use of ChatGPT and similar software? • How can we use it positively? • Do we need an institutional strategy?
  • 41. More important issues and implications • How can individual tutors make best use of it? • How do we develop ‘critical AI’ skills in our students (and our staff)? • What are the key Issues of data security and privacy? • Ethics, access and accessibility – which students can afford the premium product?
  • 42. Next steps? Please see the SEDA website or @Seda_UK for forthcoming events and recordings, including an invited keynote from Mike Sharples, March 8, 2023. https://www.seda.ac.uk/ https://twitter.com/Seda_ UK_
  • 43.
  • 44. Sources (repeated from the first webinar) See at: https://www.slideshare.net/suebeckingham/a-nontechnical- introduction-to-chatgpt-sedapptx 1.Interview with Satya Nadella, Microsoft CEO https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UNbyT7wPwk4 2. Dan Fitzpatrick Thirdbox https://thirdbox.org/ 3. John Naughton in The Observer, 4/2/23. https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2023/feb/04/chatgpt-isnt-a-great-leap-forward-its-an-expensive-deal-with-the-devil 4. Noam Chomsky interview at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IgxzcOugvEI&t=789s 5. New York Post, 25/1/23, quoting Pengcheng Shi, Associate Dean in computer dept. At: https://nypost.com/2023/01/25/chat-gpt-could-make- these-jobs-obsolete/ 6. KellyRow at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zk1_to-Slbo 7. Web Summit at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PBdZi_JtV4c&t=1349s 8. Would Chat GPT Get a Wharton MBA? New White Paper By Christian Terwiesch At: https://mackinstitute.wharton.upenn.edu/2023/would-chat-gpt3-get-a-wharton-mba-new-white-paper-by-christian-terwiesch/ 9. John Villasenor, 10/2/23 How ChatGPT Can Improve Education, Not Threaten it Scientific American https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/how-chatgpt-can-improve-education-not-threaten-it/ 10. Priya Lakhani, CEO, CENTURY Tech 23/2/23 from the Bottom Line Programme - Powered by AI Available on BBC Sounds at https://www.bbc.co.uk/sounds/play/m001jccc
  • 45. More Sources Sharples, M. and Pérez y Pérez, R. (2022) Story Machines: How Computers Have Become Creative Writers. London: Routledge. See the review at https://leonfurze.com/2022/07/27/review-story-machines-by-mike- sharples-and-rafael-perez-y-perez/ Anna Mills – as well as her NAIN presentation (see title slide), see her website for some excellent resources: https://www.annarmills.com • University of Oxford Centre for Teaching and Learning Four lessons from ChatGPT: Challenges and opportunities for educators https://ctl.ox.ac.uk/article/four-lessons-from-chatgpt-challenges-and-opportunities-for- educators • Example of student guidance on using AL tools https://blogs.deakin.edu.au/deakinlife/2023/02/02/what-you-need-to-know-about- chatgpt-and-other-ai-tools/ • Teaching AI ethics https://leonfurze.com/2023/01/26/teaching-ai-ethics/
  • 46. New Sources (shared during the webinar) Thanks to Dustin, David and Lea Dustin Hosseini • Anna Mills How well can AI respond to my assignment prompts? https://docs.google.com/document/d/1ZbrdqB2xqoOVOdo2OAbk9Osz4_xyG7Xhp2RpeJyWG0g/edit?usp=sharing Example from sociology of education https://docs.google.com/document/d/19Gz1EZJi57XsSXdgu0cXWmqXk9X0_v8H1YrWgIagfJ4/edit?usp=sharing Example from history https://docs.google.com/document/d/1BAufpoevD7q2HrutbOLeI0qrT0hPCE7v4z3K4ycWQoA/edit?usp=sharing A collection of sources to stimulate discussion among educators: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1V1drRG1XlWTBrEwgGqd- cCySUB12JrcoamB5i16-Ezw/edit?usp=sharing David Walker • Microsoft Bing is using version GPT3.5. ChatGPT uses GPT3. https://blogs.microsoft.com/blog/2023/01/23/microsoftandopenaiextendpartnership/ • Jisc guidance on producing AI use guidance https://nationalcentreforai.jiscinvolve.org/wp/2023/02/14/considerations-on-wording-ai-advice/ • Microsoft has some existing functionality in its Editor tools and ability to summarise but more to come following partnership with OpenAI: https://www.theverge.com/2023/2/10/23593980/microsoft-bing-chatgpt-ai-teams-outlook-integration
  • 47. New Sources (shared during the webinar) Lea Sharman • UCL's official guidance on Chat GPT for staff (Published Feb 2023): https://www.ucl.ac.uk/teaching-learning/assessment-resources/ai-education-and-assessment-staff-briefing-1 • AI Text Classifier: a fine-tuned GPT model that predicts how likely it is that a piece of text was generated by AI from a variety of sources, such as ChatGPT. https://platform.openai.com/ai-text-classifier

Editor's Notes

  1. https://youtu.be/ENgHpunmdzk