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Shareology and Social Media in Academia #SussexTEL


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Invited speaker at the University of Sussex #SussexTEL seminar series

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Shareology and Social Media in Academia #SussexTEL

  1. 1. Shareology and Social Media in Academia Sue Beckingham | @suebecks Invited Speaker University of Sussex Technology Enhanced Learning Seminar Series
  2. 2. "A good educational system should have three purposes: 1. it should provide all who want to learn with access to available resources at any time in their lives; 2. empower all who want to share what they know to find those who want to learn it from them; 3. furnish all who want to present an issue to the public with the opportunity to make their challenge known." Ivan Illich, Deschooling Society 1995
  3. 3. SHARING Great things in business are never done by one person. They’re done by a team of people. Steve Jobs Why should it be any different for educators?
  4. 4. In the traditional education system, students typically learned on their own and were judged individually. But as technology progresses and once separate economies become interdependent, working with others is becoming increasingly important. Today, innovation rarely results from individuals working in isolation; far more often than not, it is the product of sharing and collaboration. Schools need to incorporate this new reality into their curriculums, preparing their students to work across cultures and equipping them for a world shaped by issues that transcend national boundaries. Andreas Schleicher (World Economic Forum) 2015
  5. 5. "In the past, education was about imparting knowledge. Today, it is about providing students with the tools to navigate an increasingly uncertain, volatile world. Unfortunately, the skills that are easiest to teach and test are also the easiest to automate or outsource. State-of-the- art knowledge remains important. But the global economy no longer rewards workers for what they know (Google knows everything); it rewards them for what they can do with what they know." Andreas Schleicher 2015
  6. 6. We share information we hear, see and read
  7. 7. Information needs • Philosophical perspective: information in science and technology • Political perspective: information in modern society and a global world • Economic perspective: information as a commodity on the market • Societal perspective: information as the glue between communities • Psychological perspective: information as a basis for knowing and acting • Ecological perspective: information as a prerequisite for living creatures Philosophical Political Economic Societal Psychological Ecological Adapted from Vosen 2012
  8. 8. Merriam-Webster, n.d.
  9. 9. Can social media "empower all who want to share what they know to find those who want to learn it from them" (Illich 1995) AND "empower all who want to learn, to find those who know and want to share"
  10. 10. What do we share?
  11. 11. On a post-it WHAT do you share via social media?
  12. 12. Unabridged, n.d..
  13. 13. What do we share online?
  14. 14. Smart Insights 2016
  15. 15. My personal social media sharing began by joining Facebook as a means to exchange family photos
  16. 16. What do we share online and why? • 31% of content is personal photos  a third are of animals • Over half share content with all followers
  17. 17. What do we share online and why? • Facebook • Twitter • Email • WhatsApp Most share content to make others feel happy, some admit to drawing attention to themselves, and others to spark a debate
  18. 18. Ipsos 2013 An international sample of 18,150 adults Global “Sharers” on Social Media sites seek to share Interesting (61%), Important (43%) and Funny (43%) things
  19. 19. An ongoing evolution of sharing sharing [living] space a car sharing service a bike sharing service connects gardenless would-be growers with unused spare land for swapping almost anything
  20. 20. Where do we share?
  21. 21. Leading social networks worldwide as of April 2016, ranked by number of active users (in millions) Statista 2016 LinkedIn has 414million users however only 100 million are active...
  22. 22. It took Facebook just 3.5 years to reach 50,000,000 users It took Angry Birds 35 days...
  23. 23. Why do we share?
  24. 24. Motivations for Sharing The Psychology of Sharing Study, Brett 2011 Information management To bring valuable and entertaining content to others To define ourselves to others To grow and nourish our relationships Self-fulfilment 73% said that they process information more deeply, thoroughly and thoughtfully when they share it. 85% said reading other people's responses helps them understand and process information and events 78% share information online because it lets them stay connected to people they may not otherwise stay in touch with and 73% because it helps them connect with others who share their own interests. 94% carefully consider how the information they share will be useful to others 68% share to give people a better sense of who they are and what they care about 69% share information because it allows them to feel more involved in the world
  25. 25. Altruists helpful, reliable, thoughtful and connected share via email Careerists valuable, intelligent, building their network share through LinkedIn Hipsters cutting edge, creative, building identity, young and popular less likely to use email Boomerangs reactive, seeking validation, sharing empowered likely to share of Facebook ad Twitter Connectors creative, relaxed, thoughtful planners likely to share via email or Facebook Selective resourceful, careful, thoughtful, informative Likely to share via email The Psychology of Sharing: Why do People Share Online? Brett, New York Times 2011 Why do People Share Online?
  26. 26. From broadcasters to sharecasters receiving combining redistributing mashing up creating and recreating Brett, 2011
  27. 27. SHARING best practices, reflections and documentation of learning is the essential fabric of education and the building block of networking, growing and moving forward. Silvia Tolisano @langwitches 2014 Why we should share
  28. 28. Adapted from Charles Hardy 2015 Identity who you are Networks who you know AND who knows you Knowledge what you know Developing and optimising your professional identity shares
  29. 29. Using social media can help you develop NEW connections beyond your immediate networks
  30. 30. Socialnomics = World of Mouth Difference between Word of Mouth and World of Mouth (Qualman 2011:2)
  31. 31. Guardian 2015 What motivates Guardian readers to share
  32. 32. Guardian 2015 Does sharing equal engagement?
  33. 33. Sharing is a choice
  34. 34. The importance of sharing "We share for many reasons - some self serving and some not. Our need to share is based on the human instinct not only to survive but to thrive." Kramer 2015
  35. 35. Sharing is enhanced by visibility in social spaces 1 an informative profile 2 social connectedness 3 mutual interests 4 active listening 5 interactive dialogue 6 dash of serendipity 7
  36. 36. Sharing is enhanced by visibility in social spaces 1 an informative profile 2 social connectedness 3 mutual interests 4 active listening 5 interactive dialogue 6 dash of serendipity 7
  37. 37. Sharing is enhanced by visibility in social spaces 1 an informative profile 2 social connectedness 3 mutual interests 4 active listening 5 interactive dialogue 6 dash of serendipity 7
  38. 38. Sharing is enhanced by visibility in social spaces 1 an informative profile 2 social connectedness 3 mutual interests 4 active listening 5 interactive dialogue 6 dash of serendipity 7
  39. 39. Sharing is enhanced by visibility in social spaces 1 an informative profile 2 social connectedness 3 mutual interests 4 active listening 5 interactive dialogue 6 dash of serendipity 7
  40. 40. Sharing is enhanced by visibility in social spaces 1 an informative profile 2 social connectedness 3 mutual interests 4 active listening 5 interactive dialogue 6 dash of serendipity 7
  41. 41. Sharing is enhanced by visibility in social spaces 1 an informative profile 2 social connectedness 3 mutual interests 4 active listening 5 interactive dialogue 6 dash of serendipity 7
  42. 42. Michael de Groot 2015
  43. 43. There are three main kinds of communication spoken 1 gestural 2 graphic 3 verbal, non-verbal and visual Genevieve von Petzinger 2015
  44. 44. Share a smile and introduce yourself to someone you don't already know
  45. 45. There are hundreds of languages in the world, but a smile speaks them all. Anonymous
  46. 46. Thousands of candles can be lit from a single candle, and the life of the candle will not be shortened. Happiness never decreases by being shared. Gautama Buddha (attributed)
  47. 47. University of California at Berkeley psychologists Dacher Keltner and Lee Ann Harker identified six basic types of smiles to express feelings
  48. 48. Duchenne, Guillaume (1990). The Mechanism of Human Facial Expression. New York: Cambridge University Press. Translated by R. Andrew . Originally published as Mecanisme de la Physionomie Humaine in 1862. A Duchenne smile engages the muscles around the mouth and eyes
  49. 49. Graphic communication, on the other hand, decouples that relationship. And with its invention, it became possible for the first time for a message to be transmitted and preserved beyond a single moment in place and time. Three main kinds of communication spoken 1 gestural 2 graphic 3 Spoken and gestural are by their very nature ephemeral. It requires close contact for a message to be sent and received. And after the moment of transmission, it's gone forever. Genevieve von Petzinger 2015
  50. 50. Barring a handful of outliers, there are only 32 geometric signs across a 30,000-year time span and the entire continent of Europe. (von Petzinger 2015)
  51. 51. Spot the icons that are used in social media today
  52. 52. Emoticons published in the March 30, 1881 issue of Puck
  53. 53. Harvey Ross Ball (1921-2001)
  54. 54. Visually communicating emotions
  55. 55. How can we replicate non verbal body language online?
  56. 56. colon, dash, right bracket a 'text smile'
  57. 57. Kramer (2016) writes about the importance of developing social body language. This is how you interact online without the context of your offline behaviour.
  58. 58. Building digital social body language This can be enhanced by using visual components to give context e.g. photos, videos, animations, sketches, emoticons
  59. 59. However.... Miller, H.,Thebault-Spieker, J., Chang, S., Johnson, I., Terveen, L., & Hecht, B. “Blissfully happy” or “ready to fight”: Varying Interpretations of Emoji.
  60. 60. The study looked at 22 of the most popular anthropomorphic emoji (those that represent faces or people) and 5 most popular mobile platforms. Variations occurred across platforms and also in different versions of the same but different operating systems e.g. emoji in Android 4.4 are different to those in 6.1. “Blissfully happy” or “ready to fight”: Varying Interpretations of Emoji "People have interpreted the emoji meaning something different than I intended and gotten upset." "I downloaded the new iOS platform and I sent some nice faces, and they came to me wife's phone as aliens ." "When I use an emoji on an android and my iPhone friend says that it was a sad face instead of a crying excited face." (Miller et al 2015)
  61. 61. “Emoji have become an ever- evolving cryptographic language that changes depending on who we are talking to, and when.” Wortham 2013
  62. 62. Sharing icons are also inconsistent
  63. 63. give give give give give give give give give give give give give give give give get Kramer 2013
  64. 64. Social is a behaviour, not a channel Most people visit social networking sites to connect with others: to stay in touch with friends and family; to share things with colleagues and peers; and even to meet strangers with similar interests and needs. There are times when technology plays an important part in facilitating these connections; the filters on Instagram, or the sharing features common to most social networks, are important parts of the social networking experience. However, for most people, social media are just means to an end, with that ‘end’ being social interaction. Simon Kemp 2014:21
  65. 65. Sharing through working and learning 'out loud'
  66. 66. “Working Out Loud starts with making your work visible in such a way that it might help others. When you do that – when you work in a more open, connected way – you can build a purposeful network that makes you more effective and provides access to more opportunities.” John Stepper
  67. 67. 5 Elements of Working Out Loud Making your work visible1 Making work better 2 Leading with generosity3 Building a social network. 4 Making it all purposeful5 Stepper 2014
  68. 68. Benefits of Working Out Loud Internal: enterprise social network • peer-to-peer recognition • improved internal communications • better working relationships • humanised work • higher productivity • increased innovation and collaboration External: professional social networks • build professional network • opens virtual doors • crowd source information • breaks down geographical barriers
  69. 69. An (emerging) organising principle for an era of interconnected knowledge, trust and credibility. The working definition of Wirearchy is “a dynamic two-way flow of power and authority, based on knowledge, trust, credibility and a focus on results, enabled by interconnected people and technology”. Interconnected information flows "Wirearchy is about the power and effectiveness of people working together through connection and collaboration … taking responsibility individually and collectively rather than relying on traditional hierarchical status." Jon Husband 2014
  70. 70. We have been here before..... There have been eight epochal transformations of communication that in their way were no less profound and transformative than what we are experiencing now: from cave drawings to oral language, the written word to the printing press, the telegraph to the radio, broadcast television to cable, and now the Internet Kovach and Rosensteil 2011
  71. 71. 8 key steps to building a sharing PLN 1. explore 2. search 3. follow 4. tune 8. respond 7. inquire 6. engage 5. feed Rheingold 2011
  72. 72. My Twitter community
  73. 73. The #SocMedHE15 community NodeXL map
  74. 74. Established academic 'sharing' mechanisms
  75. 75. LinkedIn updates Blog comments Blog posts Tweets Slideshare YouTube & Vimeo Complementing the traditional we are now seeing a growing use of social channels
  77. 77. Learning and Teaching in Higher Education - weekly chat @LTHEchat #LTHEchat
  78. 78. / #LTHEchat #HEAchat
  79. 79.
  80. 80. The Lurker to be in a hidden place : to wait in a secret or hidden place especially in order to do something wrong or harmful computers : to read messages written by other people on the Internet in a newsgroup, chat room, etc., without writing any messages yourself Vicariousness experiences or felt by watching, hearing about, or reading about someone else rather than by doing something yourself Is 'listening in' vicarious lurking???
  81. 81. Positive Silent Engagement (PSE) I would argue that positive silent engagement (PSE) is not only valuable, but an essential component of digital connectedness. We learn by listening. It is no different online
  82. 82. KNOWLEDGE Knowledge is embodied in people gathered in communities and networks. The road to knowledge is via people, conversations, connections and relationships. Knowledge surfaces through dialog, all knowledge is socially mediated and access to knowledge is by connecting to people that know or know who to contact. In the knowledge economy, connections and relationships count more than personal knowhow and access to content. The environment changes so fast, the optimum knowledge strategy is instant access to people & their ideas and continuous awareness & learning in a supportive community. People and discourse communities provide the 'filter' mechanism for alerting and awareness. This helps to keep your focus, provides market intelligence and affords a platform for negotiating meaning and value. Denham Grey 2002
  83. 83. "The current search for new educational funnels must be reversed into the search for their institutional inverse: educational webs which heighten the opportunity for each one to transform each moment of his living into one of learning, sharing, and caring." Ivan Illich 1995
  84. 84. But it's having the right tool for the job at hand...
  85. 85. Sue Beckingham | @suebecks Educational Developer and Senior Lecturer at Sheffield Hallam University with a research interest in the use of social media in education. Blog: LinkedIn: Image sources: where uncited all images used are either public domain via Pixabay or author's own