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Revisiting the affordances and consequences of digital interconnectedness and socially mediated publicness

As an advocate of social media I can (and do) wax lyrical about the potential of the digital spaces that provide prospective place(s) to listen, interact and learn. For many the affordances have enabled opportunities to extend networks, helped to build meaningful connections and nurtured personal relationships (often at a distance).
The immediacy and open interactivity of these spaces have unlocked alternative ways to communicate and collaborate that can also remove spatial and time-oriented constraints. They enable and encourage the use of multimedia communication through images, video and audio to augment the written words we may choose to share.
However, as much as open listening and sharing can be considered as liberating and empowering, there can be (and are) unintended as well as intended consequences.
This keynote will explore why it is vital that we all consider the implications of our public digital interactions - from the data we share; what we say or don't say; and the significance of doing, being and becoming - and how this can impact on our sense of belonging and wellbeing.

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Revisiting the affordances and consequences of digital interconnectedness and socially mediated publicness

  1. 1. Revisiting the affordances and implications of interconnectedness and socially mediated publicness Sue Beckingham @suebecks #ALTC 2019 Keynote
  2. 2. Revisiting the affordances and consequences of digital interconnectedness and socially mediated publicness As an advocate of social media I can (and do) wax lyrical about the potential of the digital spaces that provide prospective place(s) to listen, interact and learn. For many the affordances have enabled opportunities to extend networks, helped to build meaningful connections and nurtured personal relationships (often at a distance). The immediacy and open interactivity of these spaces have unlocked alternative ways to communicate and collaborate that can also remove spatial and time-oriented constraints. They enable and encourage the use of multimedia communication through images, video and audio to augment the written words we may choose to share. However, as much as open listening and sharing can be considered as liberating and empowering, there can be (and are) unintended as well as intended consequences. This keynote will explore why it is vital that we all consider the implications of our public digital interactions - from the data we share; what we say or don't say; and the significance of doing, being and becoming - and how this can impact on our sense of belonging and wellbeing.
  3. 3. References and images References can be found in the notes section of the presentation. I will share using Twitter and SlideShare Where images are not cited, they have been obtained from Pixabay; and are free for use, no attribution required
  4. 4. a/19990901-00-a.html 1) everything that’s already in the world when you’re born is just normal; 2) anything that gets invented between then and before you turn thirty is incredibly exciting and creative and with any luck you can make a career out of it; 3) anything that gets invented after you’re thirty is against the natural order of things and the beginning of the end of civilisation as we know it until it’s been around for about ten years when it gradually turns out to be alright really. Douglas Adams 1999 How to Stop Worrying and Learn to Love the Internet
  5. 5. “I think when our world is in such a state of flux it is important to ensure that ethics and developing criticality are at the heart of education. We need to be questioning the validity and basis of everything just now.” Sheila MacNeill Chair ALT
  6. 6. FUTURE PREDICTIONS from the past
  7. 7. “A full analysis of all its implications needs the skills of the psychologist, the anthropologist, the sociologist, the lawyer, the political scientist and ultimately the philosopher,” Sieghart 1975
  8. 8. "The computer is widely feared. It constitutes a threat to middle class employment, and has increasingly become regarded as a threat to person privacy" Tapper, C. (1977). Computers and Privacy.
  9. 9. "The telescreen received and transmitted simultaneously. Any sound that Winston made, above the level of a very low whisper, would be picked up by it; moreover so long as he remained within the field of vision which the metal plaque commanded, he could be seen as well as heard. There was of course no way of knowing whether you were being watched at any given moment." Nineteen Eighty Four Orwell (1949:4)
  10. 10. Samsung Smart TV "listening in to everything you say" If you enable Voice Recognition, you can interact with your Smart TV using your voice. To provide you the Voice Recognition feature, some interactive voice commands may be transmitted (along with information about your device, including device identifiers) to a third-party service provider (currently, Nuance Communications, Inc.) that converts your interactive voice commands to text and to the extent necessary to provide the Voice Recognition features to you. In addition, Samsung may collect and your device may capture voice commands and associated texts so that we can provide you with Voice Recognition features and evaluate and improve the features. Samsung will collect your interactive voice commands only when you make a specific search request to the Smart TV by clicking the activation button either on the remote control or on your screen and speaking into the microphone on the remote control.
  11. 11. Saint Louis University The network of 2,300 Echo Dots is powered by Amazon's Alexa for Business platform. A private SLU skill built through Amazon Web Services is enabled on each Echo Dot. That skill can answer more than 135 questions about campus events, building hours, even nearby food options. Students can stream music, podcasts and live radio through iHeartRadio and call any phone number, including contacts in SLU's directory of student services.
  12. 12. "Imagine that many of the walls that separate rooms, offices and houses in our society were suddenly moved or removed and that many once distinct situations were suddenly combined. What would change? "In one large combined social situation, for example students would see their teachers falling asleep in front of the television set, blue collar workers would see corporate presidents being yelled at by their own children, voters would see politicians have one drink too many, women would overhear men talking about strategies for interacting with women, and children would see the sometimes childish behaviours of their parents." Meyrowitz (1986:8)
  13. 13. "Yesterday you might have gone to the supermarket and watched someone total up the bill with a bar code reader, Perhaps you paid with an ATM card or credit card or used one as identification for a check. Last night, maybe the data describing what you bought and who you are were telecommunicated from the supermarket to a central location point. This morning, detailed information about your buying habits could have been culled from one database and sold to a third party who could compile it tomorrow into another electronic dossier somewhere one that knows what you buy and where you live and how much money you owe. Next week a fourth party might purchase that dossier, combine it with a few tens of millions of others on an optical disk, and offer to sell the collection of information as a marketing tool." Rheingold 1993:312
  14. 14. Loyalty cards
  15. 15. In the next century, planet earth will don an electronic skin. It will use the Internet as a scaffold to support and transmit its sensations. This skin is already being stitched together. It consists of millions of embedded electronic measuring devices: thermostats, pressure gauges, pollution detectors, cameras, microphones, glucose sensors, EKGs, electroencephalographs. These will probe and monitor cities and endangered species, the atmosphere, our ships, highways and fleets of trucks, our conversations, our bodies--even our dreams. Gross 1999
  16. 16. cars voice-activated assistants appliances home systems health-monitoring devices road sensors security devices smart meters personal fitness trackers health trackers remote-controlled pet food dispensers toothbrushes baby monitors and changing tables sporting goods toys dental floss hairbrushes pillows egg trays wine bottle sleeves umbrellas web cams fridges thermostats lawn sprinklers lighting
  17. 17. Tweeting from the Smart Fridge Food management 3 built-in cameras allow you to see what’s inside the fridge via internet connectivity. When you're out shopping, you can use the Smart Home App (available on Android and iOS) to check what's left in the fridge and work out what you need to buy. There are also systems to help you keep track of your grocery's expiry dates, as well as monitor and re-order your food shopping. Family connection The fridge's touch screen display also works like a kitchen blackboard, complete with a calendar and diary for you to add reminders to, or share notes with the rest of the family. Just like a large tablet, you can watch TV or listen to the radio on while you're in the kitchen, or take advantage of a range of other apps that offer thousands of recipes and foodie ideas. £2,749.00
  18. 18. Concerns about the consequences of computers and internet use continue
  19. 19. Dark web vs Deep web The dark web forms a small part of the deep web. It is heavily encrypted and masks the ISP of its users. The dark web frequently attracts criminal activity, e.g. the sale of personal data. The deep web is the part of the Web not indexed by search engines, e.g. online banking pages and medical records. These pages are often hidden behind logins and are usually encrypted.
  20. 20. The surface web (also known as the visible web) is the content on the World Wide Web that may be indexed by popular search engines The surface web The deep web The dark web
  21. 21. The social consequences of internet use Dystopian view Utopian view According to the utopian view, the Internet provides an overwhelming potential for the development of liberating communities, for exponential increase in human and social capital, and for the achievement of each individual's full democratic participation in every policy decision. According to the dystopian view, the Internet has had bleak consequences, and the future trend is more dismal still. As commercial and technological forces gain control of the Internet, individual users are susceptible to misinformation, deception and hucksters. The Internet exposes users of all ages to violence, pornography, and hate messages. Katz and Rice (2002)
  22. 22. On privacy Those who argue in favour of post- privacy, stress that individuals as well as societies would be better-off if privacy is abandoned: Communication and empathy among people would be strengthened, they would be better informed, and they would share more information and help each other. On the other side, defenders of privacy fear that a post-privacy society would be totalitarian and that there would be a dictatorship of the public and publicity. Weber 2012
  23. 23. The Information Panopticon The Panopticon Prison “Information systems that translate, record and display human behaviour can provide the computer age version of universal transparency with a degree of illumination that would have exceeded even Bentham's most outlandish fantasies. Such systems can become information panopticons that, freed from the constraints of space and time, do not depend upon the physical arrangement of buildings or the laborious record keeping of industrial administration. They do not require the mutual presence of objects of observation. They do not even require the presence of an observer. Information systems can automatically and continuously record almost anything their designers want to capture, regardless of the specific intentions brought to the design process or the motives that guide data interpretation and utilization.“ Zuboff (1989:322)
  24. 24. Dataveillance "Dataveillance is the systematic creation and/or use of personal data for the investigation or monitoring of the actions or communications of one or more persons." (Clarke 1987) Panoptic Sort "The panoptic sort is the name I have assigned to the complex technology that involves the collection, processing, and sharing of information about individuals and groups that is generated through their daily loves as citizens, employees, and consumers and is used to coordinate and control their access to the goods and services that define life in the modern capitalist economy." (Gandy 1993:15) Disinformation "High-bandwidth interactive networks could be used in conjunction with other technologies as a means of surveillance, control, and disinformation as well as a conduit for useful information." (Rheingold 1993) Superpanopticon "Today's 'circuits of communication' and the databases the generate constitute a Superpanopticon, a system of surveillance without walls, windows, towers or guards." (Poster 1990) Electronic Panopticon "Information technology enabled surveillance" (Lyon 1994:60)
  25. 25. The panopticon effect: monitoring and data collecting "Employers can get programs to covertly track keystrokes of staff working from home to make sure they really are putting in their hours. Parents can get software to monitor their children’s mobile phone use. Governments around the world are passing laws so they can collect internet data on people suspected of planning terror attacks. Even public transport cards can be used to monitor physical movements of citizens."
  26. 26. One way to challenge and problematize both surveillance and acquiescence to it is to resituate these technologies of control on individuals, offering panoptic technologies to help them observe those in authority. We call this inverse panopticon “sousveillance” from the French words for “sous” (below) and “veiller” to watch. Mann et al (2003:332)
  27. 27. Sousveillance: surveilling the surveillers Examples include: • customers photographing shopkeepers; • taxi passengers photographing cab drivers; • citizens photographing police officers who come to their doors; • civilians photographing government officials; • residents beaming satellite shots of occupying troops onto the Internet. (Mann et al 2003)
  28. 28. "Equiveillance, sousveillance, or counterveillance were supposed to bring power to the people; Google Glasses could have been another tool for that kind of empowerment. But at the same time, such technology just democratizes sur-veillance in the sense that almost everybody will be able to conduct large-scale surveillance." Wearable Computing for Sousveillance Weber 2012
  29. 29. Beware online filter bubbles
  30. 30. Invisible algorithmic editing of the web There's this shift in how information is flowing online, and it's invisible...the Internet is showing us what it thinks we want to see, but not necessarily what we need to see. Eli Pariser 2011
  31. 31. Filter bubbles and echo chambers "Online publishing, social networks, and web search have dramatically lowered the costs of producing, distributing, and discovering news articles. Some scholars argue that such technological changes increase exposure to diverse perspectives, while others worry that they increase ideological segregation." Flaxman et al (2016
  32. 32. Permanent Record by Edward Snowden Release date: 17 Sept 2019
  33. 33. DATA
  34. 34. Raconteur 2019
  35. 35. A day in data • 500 million tweets are sent • 294 billion emails are sent • 4 petabytes of data are created on Facebook • 4 terabytes of data are created from each connected car • 65 billion messages are sent on WhatsApp • 5 billion searches are made
  36. 36. A million new internet users came online every day in 2018 - 11 people per second We Are Social and Hootsuite’s Digital 2019 report finds in the past year social media use also jumped almost 9% to nearly 3.5 billion people
  37. 37. "Facebook captures around 600 terabytes of data from its users. To give an idea of exactly how much data that is, the entire printed collection of the US Library of Congress [the largest library in the world] amounts to about 50 terabytes. So stack 12 of those on top of one another, and you've got roughly the amount of information Facebook users give the company on a daily basis." Sumner 2016
  38. 38. Drowning in data websites to visit links to click videos to watch reports to read notifications news stories to readpodcasts to listen to EMAIL status updates SharePoint sites to navigate phone calls meetings
  39. 39. Information overload
  40. 40. A multitude of books....Information overload We have reason to fear that the multitude of books which grows every day in a prodigious fashion will make the following centuries fall into a state as barbarous as that of the centuries that followed the fall of the Roman Empire. Unless we try to prevent this danger by separating those books which we must throw out or leave in oblivion from those which one should save and within the latter between what is useful and what is not. (Adrien Baillet, 1685) Cited in Blair, A. (2003) Reading Strategies for Coping with Information Overload ca. 1550-1700
  41. 41. The chasm between technology and corporate culture Strother et al (2012) • Technology Reality (What is Possible) • unlimited accessibility of everyone to everyone by many communication channels • sending messages is easy to do and perceived practically free of cost (monetary or other) • free, asynchronous access to everyone's attention queues • queued messaging is available for most communication modes (email, voice mail) • work from home technology is 'as good as being in the office' • computers allow multitasking and rapid switching from task to task • Cultural Paradigm (What is Done) • everyone is 'expected' by managers, peers, and self to be available 24 x 7 • we sanction the unlimited sending of unsolicited messages ('freedom of speech') • interruption-driven, unnegotiated task management replacing plan-driven methodology • expectation that message queues be emptied (including unsolicited messages) • no clear understanding, much less a policy, of where to place the work-life barrier • implicit expectation that all people are good at multitasking and can switch rapidly
  42. 42. Internet Security and Trust The 2019 CIGI-Ipsos Global Survey, now in its fifth year, is the world’s largest and most comprehensive survey of internet security and trust, involving more than 25,000 internet users in over two dozen countries across North America, Latin America, Europe, the Middle East, Africa and the Asia-Pacific region. Conducted by Ipsos on behalf of the Centre for International Governance Innovation (CIGI), in partnership with the Internet Society (ISOC) and the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) The survey provides invaluable insight into the views of internet users on a wide range of topics — from online privacy, social media and fake news to blockchain, cryptocurrencies and the Dark Web.
  43. 43. 2019 CIGI-Ipsos Global Survey Highlights
  44. 44. 2019 CIGI-Ipsos Global Survey Highlights
  45. 45. 2019 CIGI-Ipsos Global Survey Highlights
  46. 46. 2019 CIGI-Ipsos Global Survey Highlights
  47. 47. 2019 CIGI-Ipsos Global Survey Highlights The most common reasons for a lack of confidence in the unbiasedness of algorithms were a lack of transparency, a perception that they are exploitative by design and the absence of a human element from decision-making. By contrast, objectivity, a lack of human emotion to cloud decision-making and the absence of human influence were most frequently mentioned by those who expressed confidence in the unbiasedness of algorithms.
  48. 48. We need to remind ourselves that social media is based on a model of providing a 'free service' in exchange for advertising. As technology advances, the collection and analysis of user data is providing increasingly more personalised targeted adverts. A double edged sword...
  50. 50. Push for change "Recent headline news regarding business email compromise ($123M extracted from Facebook and Google), large breaches (383 million records from Marriott) and questionable handling of users’ data (series of revelations regarding Facebook), as well as the commencement of the EU’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), reinforce the need for organizations to embrace best practices in all areas – email security, site security and privacy practices." OTA 2018 Online Trust Audit
  51. 51. "Big Data and smart devices do not represent the end of privacy and personal data protection. On the contrary, they call for a reworking of the EU privacy and personal data protection framework to ensure it is up-to-date and operational." Fuster and Scherrer 2015 Big data and smart devices and their impact on privacy
  52. 52. Buttararelli, G. (2015) Big data, big data protection: challenges and innovative solutions. We’ve seen a lot of headlines devoted to the ‘right to be forgotten’. But in fact, in its judgment on Google Spain in May last year, the European Court of Justice did not invent a new right. It rather confirmed that if you process personal data (and, it ruled, search engines certainly do process and make decisions on processing personal data) then you have a responsibility to treat those data in a way that respects the rights and interests of the individual. Part of that responsibility is enabling the individual to challenge what you do with the information which relates to him or her.
  53. 53. Right to be Forgotten In May 2014, the European Court Of Justice ruled that EU citizens have a ‘Right To Be Forgotten Google must delete "inadequate, irrelevant or no longer relevant" data from its results when a member of the public requests it. The test case privacy ruling by the European Union's court of justice against Google Spain was brought by a Spanish man, Mario Costeja González, after he failed to secure the deletion of an auction notice of his repossessed home dating from 1998 on the website of a mass circulation newspaper in Catalonia. Guardian 2014
  54. 54. Cookie settings are now 'opt in' You have the choice to accept or reject
  55. 55. Cookies come in different flavours • Strictly necessary cookies - necessary for the webste to function. Don't store any personally identifiable information • Performance cookies - count visits and traffic sources. Info collected is anonymous • Functional cookies - provide enhanced functionality and personalisation. May be set up third party providers. If not allowed some or all of these services might not function • Targeting cookies - may be set up by advertising partners and used to build a profile of your interests and show you adverts on other sites. Don't store directly personal info but are based on uniquely identifying your browser and device • Social media cookies - set by a range of social media services added to allow users to share content. Capable of tracking your browser across other sites and builds a profile of your interests
  56. 56. privacy policy
  57. 57. Wired's privacy policy
  58. 58. Optional free 'apps' via Facebook
  59. 59. ICO on cookies Cookies are small text files that are placed on your computer by websites that you visit. They are widely used in order to make websites work, or work more efficiently, as well as to provide information to the owners of the site. Information Commissioner's Office
  60. 60. The Internet Society Digital security is the foundation of our connected economies and societies. We’re asking global leaders to prioritize it.
  61. 61. US Online Trust Audit and Honour Role 2018 1200 organisations assessed. 100 baseline points can be earned in 3 major categories: 1. Consumer protection 2. Site security 3. Privacy Sites qualify for the Honour Roll by achieving a score of 80% or higher overall with no failures in any one of the three core categories. Bonus points are applied for emerging best practices and penalty points are applied for breaches, legal settlements and observed vulnerabilities. A minimum score of 60 is required in each of the three categories. Bonus points are limited to a maximum of 20% of the baseline score.
  62. 62. US Online Trust Audit and Honour Role 2018
  63. 63. Cambridge Analytica In March 2017 the ICO announced a broad investigation into the use of personal data and analytics by political campaigns, parties, social media companies and other commercial actors. We are currently investigating 30 organisations, including Facebook. One part of this investigation is looking at how data was collected from a third party app on Facebook called “thisisyourdigitallife” and shared with an organisation called Cambridge Analytica. Facebook recently confirmed that information relating to up to 87 million people was captured by the app, with approximately 1 million of these people being UK citizens. On Monday 9 April 2018 Facebook notified all those whose details were involved, via a message on their Facebook Newsfeed. Information Commissioner's Office
  64. 64. Your Data Matters We live in a data-driven world. Almost every transaction and interaction you have with most organisations involves you sharing personal data, such as your name, address and birth date. You share data online too, every time you visit a website, search for or buy something, use social media or send an email. Sharing data helps makes life easier, more convenient and connected. But your data is your data. It belongs to you so it's important your data is used only in ways you would reasonably expect, and that it stays safe. Data protection law makes sure everyone’s data is used properly and legally. Information Commissioner's Office
  65. 65. How to take control of your personal information on social media platforms The privacy and advertising settings on social media apps and websites should give you control over how your personal information is used. We [ICO] always advise those who use social media to check their privacy and advertising settings before using a particular service and to review them regularly, particularly after any new settings are introduced. Information Commissioner's Office
  66. 66. Social Media Factsheets Also available for Snapchat and LinkedIn
  67. 67. More guidance on your rights Information Commissioner's Office
  68. 68. General Data Protection Regulation GDPR 2018 "The previous Data Protection Act, passed a generation ago, failed to account for today’s internet and digital technologies, social media and big data. The new Act updates data protection laws in the UK…[and]… provides tools and strengthens rights to allow people to take back control of their personal data.” Elizabeth Denham – Information Commissioner ICO (Information Commissioner's Office)
  69. 69. Article 17 - Right to Erasure • The GDPR introduces a right for individuals to have personal data erased. • The right to erasure is also known as ‘the right to be forgotten’. • Individuals can make a request for erasure verbally or in writing. • You have one month to respond to a request. • The right is not absolute and only applies in certain circumstances. • This right is not the only way in which the GDPR places an obligation on you to consider whether to delete personal data. ICO 2018
  70. 70. GDPR fines 2019 Company Data breach Customers Fine British Airways name, address, payment card, booking information 500k £183.4m (1.5% of annual turnover) Marriott Hotel credit card, passport numbers, dates of birth 339m (7m UK residents) £99.2m
  71. 71. DPA (Data Protection Act) fine 2017 Company Data breach Customers Fine Facebook Data shared with third party developers without sufficient consent (Cambridge Analytical) 87m £500k Given Facebook's revenue was £31.5bn in 2017, if the case had been eligible under GDPR a fine of up to £1.26bn (4% of revenue) could have been given
  72. 72. GDPR Coalition Ireland
  73. 73. The 5Rights framework 1. The Right to Remove 2. The Right to Know 3. The Right to Safety and Support 4. The Right to Informed and Conscious Use 5. The Right to Digital Literacy
  74. 74. What are the implications for education? The biggest change is that institutions will be held far more accountable for the data they hold. As well as records of what personal data exist within the organisation, the GDPR requires a documented understanding of: • why information is held, • how it is collected, • when it will be deleted or anonymised, • and who may gain access to it. Andrew Cormack, Jisc 2017
  75. 75. Transparency
  76. 76. DIALOGUE
  77. 77. AND to continue this dialogue face to face CREATORS CURATORS CRITICS CONVERSATIONALISTS COLLABORATORS COMMUNICATORS Social Media EMPOWERS individuals to become digital: Beckingham 2013
  78. 78. Social is a behaviour, not a channel Most people visit social networking sites to connect with others: to stay in touch with friends and family; to share things with colleagues and peers; and even to meet strangers with similar interests and needs. There are times when technology plays an important part in facilitating these connections; the filters on Instagram, or the sharing features common to most social networks, are important parts of the social networking experience. However, for most people, social media are just means to an end, with that ‘end’ being social interaction. Simon Kemp 2014:21
  79. 79. NodeXL map of FoTE 2011 Future of Technology in Education Frank Steiner @fstoner
  80. 80. #ScientistsWhoSelfie – How sharing selfies can build trust in science Selfies – don’t just capture an in-the-moment experience. For scientists, taking and sharing selfies has the potential to dissolve stereotypes. One stereotype in particular that plagues scientists, is that of the ‘mad scientist’, a caricature of Albert Einstein – an old, white, man in a lab coat, intelligent, but also awkward, aloof, alone. This stereotype may seem innocuous, but it can also be harmful, as it sets scientists and science apart from society, limiting both public understanding and trust in science. Carmichael 2019 LSE Impact Blog
  81. 81. 1) communities can be intended as a set of people who have something in common; 2) communities can be intended as groups of people who interact. Tardini and Cantoni 2005 Developing a sense of belonging within communities
  82. 82. A sense of belonging is deeply important to emotional health and personal wellbeing. Individuals develop a sense of belonging when they feel that they are part of a larger community that they believe in - a community that welcomes them, a community that respects and represents their values, and a community that helps them to fulfil their aspirations. Individuals develop a sense of belonging when they feel connected to other people, especially those who share their distinct life experiences, interests, or goals The Belonging Project, Stanford University ???
  83. 83. The concept of space and place Space becomes place when it acquires symbolic meaning and a concrete definition, marking the whole spectrum of identity and sense of belonging. Tsatsou 2009
  84. 84. Belong can also equate to be rightly classified be in the right place or situation be suitable or acceptable be owned
  85. 85. The antonym of belong free independent self-governing autonomous self-sufficient liberated
  86. 86. Belonging Distanced
  87. 87. Raising awareness needs to be taught
  88. 88. Graphic literacy i.e. infographics Navigation literacy i.e. internet geography Context and connections literacy i.e. PLNs Focus literacy i.e. time for solitude switch Multitasking literacy i.e.. appliances, people Scepticism literacy i.e. ‘crap detection’ Ethical literacy i.e. trust RainieandWellman(2012:272-274) Learning new literacies
  89. 89. Plutchik's wheel of emotions Easily missed when online
  90. 90. What is said, not said or how it is said Responses
  91. 91. Toxic Twitter "Being harassed online can be upsetting and frightening, and online harassment can amount to a criminal offence. Far too many people, from public figures to schoolchildren, have experienced this kind of behaviour. A poll conducted for Amnesty International found that 21% of the women surveyed in the UK (504 women) had experienced online harassment or abuse, with 17% having experienced this on social media." Amnesty International (2018). Toxic Twitter – Women’s Experiences of Violence and Abuse on Twitter. Available at: women-chapter-3/
  92. 92. Disinformation: information which is created or disseminated with the deliberate intent to mislead; this could be to cause harm, or for personal, political or financial gain Misinformation: inaccurate information distributed by accident. Fake news: a news item which is claimed to have been fabricated. Allegations of ‘fake news’ have been used to discredit accurate news items.
  93. 93. "Roughly three-in-ten U.S. adults say they are ‘almost constantly’ online" Pew Research 2019
  94. 94. Pew Research 2019
  95. 95. Social-media addiction is getting worse The Economist 2019 “FACEBOOK users in America spend about 42 minutes a day on the social-media platform, according to eMarketer.” “If Josh Hawley has his way, this figure will be capped at 30 minutes. On July 30th the junior senator from Missouri unveiled the Social Media Addiction Reduction Technology Act, or SMART Act. ”
  96. 96. On July 30th the junior senator Josh Hawley from Missouri unveiled the “Social Media Addiction Reduction Technology Act”, or SMART Act.
  97. 97. Beginning 3 months after the date of enactment of this Act, it shall be unlawful for a social media company to operate a social media platform that uses any of the following practices: (1) INFINITE SCROLL OR AUTO REFILL (2) ELIMINATION OF NATURAL STOPPING (3) AUTOPLAY (4) BADGES AND OTHER AWARDS LINKED TO ENGAGEMENT WITH THE PLATFORM The SMART Act
  98. 98. In short… The SMART Act would: • remove the auto play feature from YouTube • end infinite scrolling on Twitter and Facebook feeds • limit scrolling time to three-minute sessions • set default limits on the use of platforms to 30 minutes a day • outlaw Snapchat streaks (rewards for consecutive days of contact with friends) and most “gamification” (badges, rewards) for any online service. • displays a conspicuous pop-up to a user not less than once every 30 minutes that the user spends on those platforms, regardless of whether the user spent the 30 minutes on multiple devices, that shows how much time the user has spent on those platforms that day.
  99. 99. However sadly not email… (b) LIMITATION.—Subsection (a) shall not apply to any portion of a social media platform that consists only of a predominantly text-based, direct message service such as email or a service that is substantially similar to email.
  100. 100. The infinite scroll and red alerts Social media companies are deliberately addicting users to their products for financial gain, Silicon Valley insiders have told the BBC's Panorama programme. "Behind every screen on your phone, there are generally like literally a thousand engineers that have worked on this thing to try to make it maximally addicting" he added. BBC News - Technology 2019
  101. 101. How Twitter needs to change Questioning the implications of the 'like buttons' Jack Dorsey tter_needs_to_change#t-568255 David Hopkins sharing-2/
  102. 102. Royal Society for Public Health 2018 Inquiry into Managing the Impact of Social Media on Young People's Mental Health and Wellbeing Research
  103. 103. Education for a connected world UK Council for Internet Safety 2018
  104. 104. HM Government 2019:31 Online Harms White Paper
  105. 105.
  106. 106. DOING
  107. 107. Student recruitment Promote research University events Student and staff achievements Crisis communications Business partnerships Graduation Alumni engagement Uses of social media by universities 1. student recruitment 2. promote research 3. university events 4. achievements 5. crisis communications 6. business partnerships 7. graduation 8. alumni engagement
  108. 108. Using Social Media with students in HE Dialogue Interactive activities Collaboration and groupwork Tutor support Careers support Peer support Showcasing work Networking Student recruitment Promote research University events Student and staff achievements Crisis communications Business partnerships Graduation Alumni engagement UNIVERSITY PEOPLE/TEAMS
  109. 109. Using Social Media with students in HE Dialogue community building, sense of belonging Interactive activities In and out of the classroom Collaboration and groupwork shared workspace Academic support Q&A, office hours, personal tutor/academic adviser Career support part-time, placements, internships and graduate jobs Peer support academic and social Showcasing work Portfolios, websites and blogs Professional networking making connections Crisis communications
  110. 110. Using Social Media in HE Dialogue Interactive activities Collaboration and groupwork Tutor support Careers support Peer support Showcasing work Networking Responsibility
  111. 111. Spaces choosing the right social media space adjust communication for each space x Protocols social media policy social media guidance x Shared responsibility engagement social media champions/student takeovers community managers social media scheduling x Evaluating online presence impact x Wellbeing safeguarding time online Responsibility
  112. 112. community.pdf/ 7 pages of tweets captured
  113. 113. @hopkinsdavid
  114. 114. Helen Webster's @scholastic_rat 10 Days of Twitter
  115. 115. Snapchat is a multimedia messaging app. One of the principal features of Snapchat is that pictures and messages are usually only available for a short time before they become inaccessible to their recipients, unless you use the Group chat function and photos from your camera roll rather than through the app. Using Snapchat as a tutorial tool Suzanne Faulkner @SFaulknerPandO • Snapchat is where your students ‘are’, meet them there! • Your students can see when you are available to Snap. • Instant communication with your whole tutorial group at once. • Your students can support each other, under your supervision.
  116. 116. Using Snapchat as a tutorial tool Suzanne Faulkner @SFaulknerPandO “It’s a lot less formal so can ask a question and have a conversation about something without a well planned out question and having to structure it all.” “You don’t just see your questions, you see everyone’s and sometimes it’s things you didn’t think about before.” “I find it to be less formal, and more comfortable to ask multiple questions compared to e-mails. ” “Snapchat tutorial is good because I actually enjoy reading the info, and I can absorb key information on the go, without feeling as though I have to sit down and study.” “Because of a quick response, it gives the impression of a conversation and can get a better rapport with both lecturer and class mates.”
  117. 117. Number of daily active Snapchat users from 1st quarter 2014 to 2nd quarter 2019 (in millions) Statista 2019
  118. 118. WeChat WeChat is a Chinese multi-purpose messaging, social media and mobile payment app. First released in 2011. It became one of the world's largest standalone mobile apps in 2018,with over 1 billion monthly active users. Professor Carless - University of Hong Kong
  119. 119. Connecting with Confidence Communicating and (Digital) Capability Curating and Copyright Collaborating and Community Creating and Celebrating The Team Sheila MacNeill @sheilmcn Alex Spiers @alexgspiers Nei Withnell @neilwithnell Debb Baff @debbbaff Suzanne Faulkner @SFaulknerPandO
  120. 120. Follow @LTHEchat
  121. 121.
  122. 122. Recent Guests (with #altc connections) • Maren Deepwell @MarenDeepwell • Mia Zamora @MiaZamora (Co-Chair of OER20) • Audrey Watters @audreywatters (ALT 2014 keynote) • Maha Bali @Bali_Maha (OER 2017 keynote and Virtually Connecting) • Martin Weller @mweller (President of ALT)
  123. 123. Helping staff to identify and use social media tools for communication and collaboration within and beyond the classroom. Learning Activities Showcasing Learning Helping students to prepare digital portfolios to openly share outcomes and projects to develop a professional online presence. Organising Learning Helping students and staff to identify and use relevant social media tools to curate and organise information relating to learning. Student led special interest group (rebranded as SMASH by the students!)
  124. 124. Curating Learning Mind Mapping Networking Presentations Storage To Do Lists Card activity Guest blog posts
  125. 125. The cards were inspired by 7 Things you should know about... Each brief focuses on a single practice or technology and describes what it is, how it works, where it is going, and why it matters to teaching and learning.
  126. 126. The importance of sharing the ups and downs
  127. 127. How might our students share their stories and inspire others?
  128. 128. A word of caution Although using social media, particularly twitter, can be a great way to amplify and disseminate your blog posts, it’s important to be aware that social media can be a hostile environment, particularly for women, people of colour and marginalised groups, who may experience targeted harassment. You should never feel obliged to engage with social media, particularly if you feel unsafe or attacked. Your online safety is of paramount importance. Lorna teaches a monthly workshop on Blogging to Build your Professional Profile The webpage of resources includes this section
  129. 129. Engagement is not a goal, it's an outcome of trust and responsibility Sylvia Libow Martinez @smartinez
  130. 130. knowledge networks online presence PERSONAL IMPACT what you say emotional connection energy empathy experience