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Recognising the value of interdependence through cooperative active learning

Presentation at the Practical Pedagogy Conference. The events of the past 18 months have meant that many educators have had to adapt the way they teach and to undertake this online. For those who had already embraced active flexible learning, the transition online to some extent was made easier. In my session I will share my teaching approaches pre pandemic, during, and my plans for the coming academic year. This will demonstrate how active cooperative learning is an essential component of the student experience and one that complements both individual and competitive learning approaches. Drawing upon Social Interdependence Theory (Brufee 1993, Johnson and Johnson 2010) I will highlight the conditions that are essential for effective cooperation and how this can help to develop students to become confident lifelong learners who are able to work both independently and collaboratively. I will also introduce the Learning Activity Smörgåsbord and the accompanying resources I am currently developing and seek feedback and further suggestions. This will then be shared with a Creative Commons licence and added to the National Teaching Repository.

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Recognising the value
of interdependence
through cooperative
active learning
Sue Beckingham NTF
Sheffield Hallam University
Practical Pedagogy Conference
#PracticalPedagogoy1
In the preface of the Didactica Magna (1628) Comenius writes:
John Amos Comenius (1592-1670)
Keatinge, M. W. (1907) The Great Didactic of John Amos Comenius London: Adam and Charles Black.
https://ia800204.us.archive.org/21/items/cu31924031053709/cu31924031053709.pdf
“Let the main object of this, our
Didactic, be as follows: To seek
and to find a method of
instruction, by which teachers
may teach less, but learners
may learn more.”
A move from students passively listening
But how...
“The inability of students to appreciate the scope,
meaning, and limitations of science reflects our
conventional lecture-oriented curriculum with its
emphasis on passive learning. The student's
traditional role is that of a passive note-taker and
regurgitator of factual information. What is urgently
needed is an educational program in which
students become interested in actively knowing,
rather than passively believing.”
Volpe 1984, as cited in Michael 2006
The demographic highs and lows
English 18-year old population 2009-2034
(Bekhradnia, B. and Beech, D. 2018: 17)
The changing size of the 18 year-old cohort, the dominant age group served by the sector
Recognising the value of interdependence through cooperative active learning
Promoting active learning
“Active learning simply means getting involved with the
information presented – really thinking about it
(analyzing, synthesizing, evacuating) rather than just
passively receiving it and memorising it.”
(King, 1993)
Moving from being the sage on the stage to
guide on the side
Ad

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Recognising the value of interdependence through cooperative active learning

  • 1. Recognising the value of interdependence through cooperative active learning Sue Beckingham NTF Sheffield Hallam University Practical Pedagogy Conference #PracticalPedagogoy1
  • 2. In the preface of the Didactica Magna (1628) Comenius writes: John Amos Comenius (1592-1670) Keatinge, M. W. (1907) The Great Didactic of John Amos Comenius London: Adam and Charles Black. https://ia800204.us.archive.org/21/items/cu31924031053709/cu31924031053709.pdf “Let the main object of this, our Didactic, be as follows: To seek and to find a method of instruction, by which teachers may teach less, but learners may learn more.” A move from students passively listening But how...
  • 3. “The inability of students to appreciate the scope, meaning, and limitations of science reflects our conventional lecture-oriented curriculum with its emphasis on passive learning. The student's traditional role is that of a passive note-taker and regurgitator of factual information. What is urgently needed is an educational program in which students become interested in actively knowing, rather than passively believing.” Volpe 1984, as cited in Michael 2006
  • 4. The demographic highs and lows English 18-year old population 2009-2034 (Bekhradnia, B. and Beech, D. 2018: 17) The changing size of the 18 year-old cohort, the dominant age group served by the sector
  • 6. Promoting active learning “Active learning simply means getting involved with the information presented – really thinking about it (analyzing, synthesizing, evacuating) rather than just passively receiving it and memorising it.” (King, 1993) Moving from being the sage on the stage to guide on the side
  • 7. Learning activities to incorporate into a lecture Think-pair-share Generating examples Developing scenarios Concept mapping Flowcharting Predicting Developing rebuttals Constructing tables/graphs Analogical thinking Problem posing Developing critiques Pair summarising/checking (King, 1993:31)
  • 8. No need to reinvent the wheel! Brown, S. (1996) The Art of Teaching in Small Groups 1. New Academic, 5(3). https://www.seda.ac.uk/new-academic-issue-5-3- 1996/ https://www.seda.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/New- Academics-5.3.pdf Brown, S. (1997) The Art of Teaching in Small Groups 2. New Academic, 6(1). https://www.seda.ac.uk/new-academic-issue-6-1- 1997/ https://www.seda.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/New- Academics-6.1.pdf Brown, S. (2021) Assessment, Learning and Teaching. https://sally- brown.net/
  • 9. Pre-pandemic - Adapted the way I teach 1 hour lecture + 1 hour seminar 2 hour workshop
  • 10. “Laptops in a box”
  • 15. “Active learning is the process of having students engage in some activity that forces them to reflect upon ideas and how they are using those ideas. Requiring students to regularly assess their own degree of understanding and skill at handling concepts or problems in a particular discipline. The attainment of knowledge by participating or contributing. The process of keeping students mentally, and often physically, active in their learning through activities that involve them in gathering information, thinking, and problem solving.” (Collins and O’Brien, 2011)
  • 16. “Collaborative learning is the umbrella term encompassing many forms of learning, from small group projects to more specific forms of learning.” (Collins and O’Brien, 2011) Problem-Based Learning An instructional approach that organizes the curriculum around loosely structured problems that students attempt to solve by using knowledge and skills from several disciplines or subject areas. Faculty members work as facilitators, guides, and coaches, and students take some ownership of the learning process as they work to seek viable solutions to the problem. (Collins and O’Brien, 2011) Cooperative Learning Students work together in small groups on a structured activity. They are individually accountable for their work, and the work of the group as a whole is also assessed. (Collins and O’Brien, 2011) Team based learning An evidence based collaborative learning teaching strategy designed around units of instruction, known as “modules,” that are taught in a three-step cycle: preparation, in-class readiness assurance testing, and application-focused exercise. (TBLC, nd) Inquiry teaching /Inquiry based learning A form of instruction in which teachers provide students with information, experiences, or problems that serve as the focus for the students’ research activities. The students generate hypotheses or tentative solutions, gather relevant data, and evaluate the data to arrive at a conclusion. (Collins and O’Brien, 2011) Collaborative Learning A method of teaching and learning in which students work together to explore a significant question or create a meaningful project. (Collins and O’Brien, 2011)
  • 17. Collaborative Learning “In collaborative learning, the focus is on working with each other (but not necessarily interdependently) toward the same goal… toward discovering, understanding, or production of knowledge” (Davidson & Major, 2014:21) Examples: Reports or presentations in which tasks are split among group members. Cooperative earning “Students work and learn together actively in small groups to accomplish a common goal in a mutually helpful manner” (Davidson & Major, 2014:14) Examples: Jigsaw activities Think / Pair / Share, Three-Step Interview Team-Based Learning “TBL shifts the focus of instruction away from the teacher as dispenser of information and instead places the focus on students actively engaging in activities that require them to use the concepts to solve problems… every aspect of a TBL course is specifically designed to foster the development of self-managed learning teams” (Michaelsen, Davidson, & Major, 2014:58) Examples: Flipped classroom model Problem-Based Learning “In the problem based approach, complex, real-world problems are used to motivate students to identify and research the concepts and principles they need to know to work through these problems. Students work in small learning teams, bringing together collective skill at acquiring, communicating and integrating information. (Duch et al, 2001:6) Examples: Case method, Simulated client interaction client interaction
  • 18. Learning approaches CASE based learning COMMUNITY based learning COMPETENCY based learning EXPERIENTIAL based learning GAME based learning INQUIRY based learning OBJECT based learning PHENOMENON based learning PRACTICE based learning PROBLEM based learning PROJECT based learning SCENARIO based learning TEAM based learning WORK based learning
  • 19. Learning activities Laurillard (2012) sets out six types of learning activity (Acquisition, Inquiry, Discussion, Practice, Collaboration, Production) and suggests that a balanced mix of several or all these different types is important for effective learning. Acquisition Students acquiring knowledge through listening, reading and thinking. Flipped learning Online lecture Inquiry Students explore a question, problem, scenario or task. In class/Online/Hybrid seminar Discussion Students exploring, challenging and evidencing understanding by talking to tutors and peers. In class/Online/Hybrid seminar Practice Students developing practical skills through experimentation and experience. Live practical Remote lab Simulated practice Collaboration Students working together to explore or create something. Group project Group presentation Production Students creating products which are assessed. Report, artefact
  • 20. Cooperative learning “Students work and learn together actively in small groups to accomplish a common goal in a mutually helpful manner” (Davidson & Major, 2014:14)
  • 21. Social interdependence theory Social interdependence exists when the outcomes of individuals are affected by each other’s actions. There are two types of social interdependence: 1. positive: when the actions of individuals promote the achievement of joint goals 2. negative: when the actions of individuals obstruct the achievement of each other’s goals. (Johnson and Johnson, 1989).
  • 22. Interdependence Social interdependence exists when the outcomes of individuals are affected by each other’s actions Dependence Social dependence exists when the goal achievement of Person A is affected by Person B’s actions, but the reverse is not true. Independence Social independence exists when the goal achievement of Person A is unaffected by Person B’s actions and vice versa. The result is individualistic efforts. Helplessness Social helplessness exists when neither the person nor others can influence goal achievement. YES NO YES NO Own actions facilitate one’s goal achievements Other’s actions facilitate one’s goal achievements Adapted from Interrelations among individuals (Johnson and Johnson, 2005:287)
  • 23. Types of Learning • Self-directed - learn independently • Collaborative - learn with others • Cooperative - learn from others • Guided - learn with an expert • Didactic - learn from an expert
  • 25. The inter(active) classroom Interactive learning is building student engagement through scaffolded social interaction. Formative activities and/or assessment support this. Active learning is where students take an active part in the learning process
  • 26. “Active blended learning combines sense-making activities with focused interactions (with content, peers and tutors) in appropriate learning settings – in and outside the classroom” (Armellini et al, 2021:433)
  • 28. ONLINE IN PERSON CLASSROOM ACTIVE PASSIVE MONOLOGUE/TRANSMIT DIALOGUE/INTERACT ASYNCHRONOUS (INDIVIDUAL) FIXED CLASSROOM (ROWS/STATIONS) DIDACTIC STYLE FLEXIBLE CLASSROOM (+ LAPTOPS) (INTER)ACTIVE/BLENDED STYLE SYNCHRONOUS (CLASS) APPLY CONSUME EXPERT VIDEOS ASSESSMENT BRIEF SCREENCAST RECORDED LECTURES VLE MATERIALS ACTIVE LECTURE PODCASTS DISCUSSION BOARDS KNOWLEDGE LECTURES DEMONSTRATIONS SELF-REFLECTION PRINTED HANDOUTS e.g. voice, gestures, coloured cards, poll/quiz, structured notes, skeleton slides. ACTIVE LECTURE e.g. voice, chat, emoticons,, poll/quiz, structured notes, skeleton slides. GROUP WORK e.g. breakout rooms/screenshare, walkthroughs, collab annotation, presentations, note-taking pairs, think-pair-share, peer teaching, discussions, debates, jigsaw, fishbowl, collab docs,, virtual boards, escape rooms, case method, hackathons. GROUP WORK e.g. walkthroughs, collab annotation, presentations, note- taking pairs, think-pair-share, peer teaching, discussions, debates, jigsaw, fishbowl, collab docs, virtual boards, whiteboard/flipchart, escape rooms, scavenger hunt, Lego Serious Play, role play, field trips, case method, hackathons. INDIVIDUAL WORK e.g. mind mapping, concept mapping, reflective e-portfolios, walkthroughs, presentations, mood boards, photo elicitation, 1 min paper, infographics. ‘HOW TO’ VIDEOS INDIVIDUAL WORK e.g., mind mapping, concept mapping, reflective e-portfolios, posters and gallery walk, experiments, walkthroughs, presentations, mood boards, photo elicitation, . 1 min paper, infographics. DIAGNOSTIC TESTS PRACTICE/COMMUNITY/WORK/CASE/PROBLEM/INQUIRY/PROJECT/TEAM/PHENOMENON/ SCENARIO/GAME/COMPETENCY/OBJECT/EXPERIENTIAL BASED LEARNING VIRTUAL SIMULATION LAB WORK STUDIO PRACTICE/COMMUNITY/WORK/CASE/PROBLEM/INQUIRY/PROJECT/TEAM/PHENOMENON/ SCENARIO/GAME/COMPETENCY/OBJECT/EXPERIENTIAL BASED LEARNING CO-CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES These can also be (inter)active STUDY SKILLS SESSIONS LINKEDIN LEARNING COURSE STUDENT REP CAREERS FAIRS AND WORKSHOPS EXTRA- CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES STUDENT RADIO ONLINE JAMS/HACKS STUDENTS AS PARTNERS PART-TIME WORK VOLUNTEERING STUDENT AMBASSADOR COMMUNITY SERVICE SPORT PEER (PAL) MENTORING CHARITY FUNDRAISING LANGUAGES ENGAGE COLLABORATE THRIVE CHALLENGE HEALTH AND SAFETY TRAINING VR/AR PRACTICE TESTS WORKBOOKS/SHEETS TEXT BOOKS PAPERS INTERNSHIPS PLACEMENTS START-UPS SPECIALIST WORKSHOPS ENTERPRISE SCHEMES Formative activities can be linked GO GLOBAL SCHEMES CASE STUDIES + AMBIENT LEARNING SPACES e.g. learning hubs, library, refectory, SU and open spaces + PEER LEARNING SPACES e.g. text, chat apps, social media, email SIMULATION SUITES REMOTE LAB STUDENT NEWSPAPER STUDENT SOCIETIES
  • 29. Co-curricular vs Extracurricular Generally speaking, co-curricular activities are an extension of the formal learning experiences in a course or academic program, while extracurricular activities may be offered or coordinated by a school [college or university], but may not be explicitly connected to academic learning. https://www.edglossary.org/co-curricular/
  • 30. Curricular activities Part of the course curriculum Co-curricular activities Outside of the course curriculum but usually complementary Super-curricular activities Taking subjects studied further, than what has been learnt at school or college in preparation for going to Uni Extracurricular activities No direct ties to the course curriculum
  • 31. The shift to online
  • 37. We (myself and students) have learned a lot Using the technology We have had to learn to use new technology for learning and teaching, and online meetings. Social Isolation Finding new ways we could check on our students wellbeing, as well as peers and family. Online protocols Adopting new rules for online sessions from adding passwords and muting microphones to use of chat and recordings. Self care The need discuss guidance on how to manage the blurred boundaries of remote working and home life, and the importance of time away from the screen. Digital Poverty A realisation that many of our students (and staff) did not all have access to technology or the same level of bandwidth. Social presence Developing a sense of belonging and connectedness. Trying new ways to get to know each other and communicate. We must continue these conversations
  • 38. Back to the drawing board? Adapt what has worked well Learning to become confident flexible educators
  • 39. Communities of practice Communities of practice are groups of people who share a concern or a passion for something they do and learn how to do it better as they interact regularly. (Wenger and Wenger-Trayner, 2015)
  • 40. Essential elements of a community • mutual interdependence • sense of belonging • connectedness • spirit • trust • interactivity • common expectations • shared values and goals • overlapping histories (Rovai, 2002)
  • 41. Plans for the new academic year Students as Partners projects
  • 42. Three takeaways Connect the dots between active learning, formative activities, summative assessment and dialogic feedback. Adapt as needed. Include time for informal interactions. Reach out to the less active students and find out how you can help them. When trying new activities, bring your students on board. Seek and listen to their feedback. Don’t wait until the end of module review!
  • 43. Sue Beckingham | @suebecks National Teaching Fellow and Principal Lecturer at Sheffield Hallam University with a research interest in the use of social media in education. Blog: http://socialmediaforlearning.com/ LinkedIn: linkedin.com/in/suebeckingham Image credit: Where not noted, images used in this presentation are CC0 Creative Commons free for use https://pixabay.com/
  • 44. Recognising the value of interdependence through cooperative active learning The events of the past 18 months have meant that many educators have had to adapt the way they teach and to undertake this online. For those who had already embraced active flexible learning, the transition online to some extent was made easier. In my session I will share my teaching approaches pre pandemic, during, and my plans for the coming academic year. This will demonstrate how active cooperative learning is an essential component of the student experience and one that complements both individual and competitive learning approaches. Drawing upon Social Interdependence Theory (Brufee 1993, Johnson and Johnson 2010) I will highlight the conditions that are essential for effective cooperation and how this can help to develop students to become confident lifelong learners who are able to work both independently and collaboratively. I will also introduce the Learning Activity Smörgåsbord and the accompanying resources I am currently developing and seek feedback and further suggestions. This will then be shared with a Creative Commons licence and added to the National Teaching Repository.
  • 45. References Armellini, A., Teixeira Antunes, V. & Howe, R. (2021) Student Perspectives on Learning Experiences in a Higher Education Active Blended Learning Context. TechTrends https://doi.org/10.1007/s11528- 021-00593-w Bekhradnia, B. and Beech, D. (2018) Demand for Higher Education to 2030. HEPI Report 105. Higher Education Policy Institute. https://www.hepi.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/HEPI-Demand-for- Higher-Education-to-2030-Report-105-FINAL.pdf Brown, S. (1996) The Art of teaching in Small Groups 1. New Academic, 5(3). https://www.seda.ac.uk/new-academic-issue-5-3-1996/ Brown, S. (1997) The Art of teaching in Small Groups 2. New Academic, 6(1). https://www.seda.ac.uk/new-academic-issue-6-1-1997/ Bruffee, K. A. (1999). Collaborative learning: Higher education, interdependence, and the authority of knowledge 2nd Edn. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. Collins, J. W., & O'Brien, N. P. (2011). The Greenwood Dictionary of Education : 2nd edition. ProQuest Ebook Central https://ebookcentral.proquest.com Davidson, N., and Major, C. H. (2014). Boundary crossings: Cooperative learning, collaborative learning, and problem-based learning. Journal on Excellence in College Teaching, 25(3&4), pp. 7-55. http://celt.muohio.edu/ject/issue.php?v=25&n=3%20and%204
  • 46. References Duch, B.J., Groh, S.E., and Allen, D.E., eds. (2001). The power of problem-based learning: A practical ‘how to’ for teaching undergraduate courses in any discipline. Sterling, Virgina: Stylus. Johnson, D. W. and Johnson, R. T. (1999) Making cooperative learning work. Theory into Practice, 38(2) pp, 67-73. https://doi.org/10.1080/00405849909543834 Johnson, D. W. and Johnson, R. T. (2005) New Developments in Social Interdependence Theory. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 131(4), pp. 285-358. https://doi.org/10.3200/MONO.131.4.285-358 Johnson, D.W., Johnson, R.T., and Smith, K.A. (2014). Cooperative learning: Improving university instruction by basing practice on validated theory. Journal on Excellence in College Teaching 25(3 and 4), 85-118. http://celt.muohio.edu/ject/issue.php?v=25&n=3%20and%204 King, A. (1993). From Sage on the Stage to Guide on the Side. College Teaching, 41(1), pp. 30-35. http://www.jstor.org/stable/27558571 Laurillard, D. (2012). Teaching as a design science : building pedagogical patterns for learning and technology. London: Routledge.
  • 47. References Michael, J. (2006) Where's the evidence that active learning works? Advances in Physiology Education, 30, pp. 159-167. https://doi.org/10.1152/advan.00053.2006 Michaelsen, L.K., Davidson, N. & Major, C.H. (2014). Team-based learning practices and principles in comparison with cooperative learning and problem-based learning. Journal on Excellence in College Teaching, 25 (3&4), 57-84. http://celt.muohio.edu/ject/issue.php?v=25&n=3%20and%20 Rovai, A. (2002) Building Sense of Community at a Distance. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 3(1). https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v3i1.79 TBLC (nd) What is team-based learning. Team-Based Learning Collaborative. http://www.teambasedlearning.org/definition/ Wenger and Wenger-Trayner (2015) Introduction to communities of practice. https://wenger- trayner.com/introduction-to-communities-of-practice/

Editor's Notes

  1. Michael, J. (2006) Where's the evidence that active learning works? Advances in Physiology Education, 30, pp. 159-167. https://doi.org/10.1152/advan.00053.2006
  2. Bekhradnia, B. and Beech, D. (2018) Demand for Higher Education to 2030. HEPI Report 105. Higher Education Policy Institute. https://www.hepi.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/HEPI-Demand-for-Higher-Education-to-2030-Report-105-FINAL.pdf More: https://wonkhe.com/blogs/the-great-recruitment-crisis-planning-for-rapid-student-number-growth/
  3. In-person learning: students learn in the classroom, lab, lecture theatre, workshop, studio or other place-based learning space on campus. Distance learning: Students learning is physically removed from a campus. Usually this is online, but can also incl. physical resources. Learning can be synchronous or asynchronous. Hybrid learning: Students have some learning online AND also attend in-person synchronous classes. Online learning may be synchronous or asynchronous. (The online aspect may also be called remote learning or the extended campus.) Hyflex learning: Students have the flexibility to choose to attend in-person or join online. Learning is usually synchronous and both groups learn together at the same time. A third asynchronous group option to learn may be added. Blended learning: Students learn in-person on campus through a blend of digital learning activities (using tech) and other place-based class activities. The activities are usually synchronous, but may also include asynchronous pre-class tasks e.g. flipped learning. Self-directed learning: ALL students engage in additional independent learning activities e.g. class preperation, research, wider reading, practise, groupwork, revision, assessment, using feedback, co/extracurricular activities.
  4. The Learning Activity Smörgåsbord
  5. Super-curricular activities https://www.univ.ox.ac.uk/applying-to-univ/explore-your-subject/ and https://www.undergraduate.study.cam.ac.uk/super-curricular-activities
  6. Plan A We are teaching online Plan B We are teaching at a social distance Plan C We need a plan to consider in class teaching, online synchronous teaching and online asynchronous teaching
  7. https://wenger-trayner.com/introduction-to-communities-of-practice/