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The causes of the civil war


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The causes of the civil war

  1. 1. The Causes of the Civil War The Long Parliament 1640-41
  2. 2. MPs aims <ul><li>Stop Church becoming more Catholic </li></ul><ul><li>Reverse Laudian changes </li></ul><ul><li>Punish kings evil counsellors </li></ul><ul><li>Restore old constitutional balance </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate financial changes of personal rule </li></ul><ul><li>Abolish prerogative courts – Star Chamber and High Commission </li></ul><ul><li>Free the king from Catholic conspiracy </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Evil Counsellors <ul><li>Finsch and Windebank fled abroad </li></ul><ul><li>Laud sent to tower </li></ul><ul><li>Strafford seen as the major threat – Ireland </li></ul><ul><li>Stafford impeached – going to use Irish army to support personal rule </li></ul><ul><li>Act of Attainder </li></ul>
  4. 5. John Pym
  5. 6. The Destruction of the Machinery of Personal Rule <ul><li>Courts of Star Chamber and High Commission abolished </li></ul><ul><li>Ship Money declared illegal </li></ul><ul><li>Boundaries of royal forests </li></ul><ul><li>Distraint of Knighthood illegal </li></ul><ul><li>Court of Wards abolished </li></ul><ul><li>Triennial Act </li></ul><ul><li>Act for a Perpetual Parliament </li></ul>
  6. 7. The Ten Propositions <ul><li>request to the King to commit 'his own business and the affairs of the Kingdom to such councillors and officers as the Parliament may have cause to confide in' </li></ul><ul><li>Parliament to choose the king’s counsellors </li></ul>
  7. 8. Future Problems <ul><li>The role of parliament in relation to the royal prerogative </li></ul><ul><li>The Root and Branch Petition </li></ul>
  8. 9. Cause of the Civil War Part Two – Crisis and Confrontation The Long Parliament 1641-42
  9. 10. Scotland <ul><li>Charles travels to Scotland to ratify peace </li></ul><ul><li>Parliament didn’t trust Charles’ intentions </li></ul><ul><li>Events only fuelled fears about Charles’ trustworthiness </li></ul>
  10. 11. Henrietta Maria <ul><li>Pym saw her as the most dangerous influence on Charles </li></ul><ul><li>Did not believe in parliament </li></ul><ul><li>Kings ruled, subjects obeyed </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraged Charles to resist </li></ul>
  11. 12. Constitutional Royalists vs Anti-Court Consenus
  12. 13. The Grand Remonstrance <ul><li>Pym feared Charles’ motives </li></ul><ul><li>Remonstrance went over passed ground </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evidence of Roman Catholic Conspiracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laws against RC be strictly enforced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HOC should be able to remove king’s ministers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Led to the break-up of anti-court consensus </li></ul><ul><li>Heated debate, but passed </li></ul><ul><li>Then printed which was the last straw for many </li></ul><ul><li>King’s reply was moderate </li></ul>
  13. 14. BUT…
  14. 15. The Irish Rebellion 1641 <ul><li>Catholic Irish rebelled against Ulster Presbyterians </li></ul><ul><li>1000s massacred </li></ul><ul><li>Atrocities exaggerated, but created climate of fear in England </li></ul><ul><li>Rebels claimed to be acting in Charles’ name </li></ul><ul><li>Army needed, but could MPs trust Charles </li></ul><ul><li>Increased belief in RC conspiracy </li></ul>
  15. 16. Turning Point!
  16. 17. The Five Members Coup 1642 <ul><li>Charles believed parliament planning to impeach Henrietta Maria </li></ul><ul><li>Impeached Lord Mandeville and the MPs Pym Hampden, Strode, Heselrige and Holles ‑ the so‑called Five Members </li></ul><ul><li>Impeachment not acted on by Lords </li></ul><ul><li>On 5 January 1642 Charles entered the House of Commons with 300 troops to arrest the Five Members. They had prior knowledge of his intentions and were safely in the City. </li></ul><ul><li>Created uproar </li></ul><ul><li>Charles left London </li></ul>