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Internal Security Challenges of Nepal and Intregated Efforts

This presentation covers the contemporary security issues of Nepal. The gives the solutions and some idea to curb the security situation of Nepal.

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Internal Security Challenges of Nepal and Intregated Efforts

  1. 1. INTERNAL SECURITY CHALLENGES OF NEPAL AND INTEGRATED EFFORTS Presented By Sudip Pandit, Tribhuvan University, Law Faculty, 2016
  2. 2. "...In the Arthashastra, Kautilya wrote that a state could be at risk from four types of threats - internal, external, externally-aided internal, and internally-aided external. He advised that of these four types, internal threats should be taken care of immediately, for internal troubles, like the fear of the lurking snake, are far more serious than external threats. The most dangerous enemy is the enemy within..."
  3. 3. • The Security dilemma, as pointed out by John Herz (1950) and later Jack Snyder (1989) emerges when every nations security becomes a cause of insecurity to another nation or a group of nations.
  4. 4. Nepal: Some Historical Glimpses • Prior to 2006, Nepal was a kingdom. • Nepal is now a Federal Democratic Republic. • From 1996 until 2006, Nepal Suffered from a Civil War between Government Forces and Guerrillas of the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist).
  5. 5. • On December 28, 2007, The Interim Parliament passed a bill and declared Nepal to be a Federal Democratic Republic. • The First Meeting of the Constituent Assembly Officially Implemented that Declaration on May 28, 2008. • Country Nepal: संघीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतरि नेपाल (Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal)
  6. 6. • Government Republic : –President- Bidya Devi Bhandari –Vice President- Nanda Kishor Pun –Prime Minister - KP Sharma Oli • Unification : - Kingdom declared December 21, 1768, - State declared January 15, 2007 , - Republic declared May 28, 2008
  7. 7. • Area: - Total 147,181 km² ( 56,827 sq mi ) - Water (%) 2.8 • Population: - July 2008 estimate 29,519,114 (40th) - 2007 census 28,875,140 - Density 184/km² (56th) 477/sq mi
  8. 8. Concept of Security  A multi-dimensional view and response towards protecting its citizens against threat, both external and internal.  Barry Buzan states that security is a complicated and multidimensional subject and thus, the nature of security defies pursuit of agreed definitions.  Despite the fact that it is a contested concept, it is nevertheless a very important and sensitive issue for a country and its citizens as it is directly related to people’s security and national sovereignty
  9. 9. Security actors in 21st Century - States - MNCs - Terroristes - Criminal Organisations - Civil Society - Media - Multilatéral Institutions • The growth in numbers • The multiplication of functions • The expansion of powers to regulate interstate transactions and the internal policies of states
  10. 10. Where Do Threats Come From? • Threats are multidirectional (from outside and from within) • There are increasing numbers of global threats (terror, crime, illicit migration, proliferation) • Natural threats are increasingly important • Transnational organized crime • Nuclear, radiological, chemical, biological weapons • Conflict within states
  11. 11. Internal security matters of Nepal 1. Geopolitics and geo-strategy 2. Disaster Risk reduction & Management 2. Small arms proliferation 3. Migration and threat 4. Organized crime 5. Environment security 6. Terai (open border)
  12. 12. Geo-politics and geo-strategy  Internal Chaos, insecurity and instability of a neighbouring country becomes an internal security threat to another neighbouring country.  In developing state like Nepal, there is defence, security and development paradox
  13. 13. Disaster Management • Culture of Preparedness, • Culture of Quick Response, • Culture of Strategic Thinking, • Culture of Prevention.
  14. 14. Pre-Disaster (Awareness and Information Campaigns, Training of local volunteers, Training of security personnel, technological advancement, Advocacy and Planning); During Disaster (Immediate rescue and first aid and psychological help and counseling; supply of food, water, medicine, other materials; ensuring Sanitation and hygiene; Damage assessment); Post Disaster (Reconstruction aid; Financial Aid; Monitoring, ) Disaster Risk Reduction Strategies must be able to perform the following functions:
  15. 15. Develop Integrated Disaster Management Framework Technological Advancement in Disaster Management system Human Resource Development and Training on Disaster Management Enhance Research and Development Enhance Knowledge Management and Educations Role of security agencies in disaster management
  16. 16. Small arms Proliferation Small arms and Light Weapons (SALWS) kill around 500,000 people annually and because of this former UN Secretary General, Kofi Annan described them as “slow weapons of mass destruction.”
  17. 17. Challenges due to Small Arms Easily available, low in cost, highly portable and easy to hide. In Nepal  Porous border  Criminal groups  Correlation between the use of illegal SALW and underdevelopment  Poverty  unemployment
  18. 18. Migration and Threat to Internal Security 1. Refuges and Internally Displaced Persons 2. Tibetan and Bhutanese Refugees
  19. 19. How Migration a Security Issues..??? • According to Goodhart (2004), international migration produces social stability risks, leads to demographic security, creates cultural identity issues and poses a threat to social security system and welfare state philosophy and generates many internal security challenges as:
  20. 20. human rights violation, ethnic conflict, internal war massive, uncontrolled character xenophobia and racial violence In Nepal Women and children are most vulnerable For the propose of sexual and labor exploitation Issues of Free Tibet by Tibetan refuges Security challenges near the refugee camps in Jhapa and Morang
  21. 21. How could it control..??? At the national level, migration policies can make important contributions to security by addressing the international mobility of those posing security risks.
  22. 22. Organized Crime Organized crime is “any group having some manner of a formalized structure and whose primary objective is to obtain money through illegal activities”. Activities: Human Trafficking Drug trafficking Piracy
  23. 23. Gambling Money Laundering White collar crime Corruption How to defeat ??? ....Improve Policing ....Improve the law system .....Intelligence
  24. 24. Environmental Security  preventing or mitigating environmental degradation;  managing the global commons;  preventing and managing global risks; and  collecting and exchanging information on schemes of global environmental co-operation
  25. 25. To achieve environmental security, it requires support action in the following areas: education, training and exchange of information; capacity building in elaboration of national and international law. This would be best achieved through defining eco-geographical regions and international institutions.
  26. 26. TERAI  Interchangeably called ‘Madhes’  Terai incorporates 20 of Nepal’s 75 districts  "Pahadi vs. Madhesi" dichotomy (security Die llama and increasing Polarization)  Grievances (social, political and economic issues)  Porous International Border  Easy access of weapons and cross border crime  More than 100 undergrounds groups
  27. 27. How to address...???  Political solutions of grievances  Coordination and cooperation among counter forces  Intelligence sharing  Extensive border patrol  Security awareness programs (encouraging to support security forces)  Special Task Force designed specifically to track down ‘separatist’ and violent Terai movements by force
  28. 28. Implications for Policy responses States must cooperate to fight against threats Issues are interrelated – e.g. money-laundering, trafficking in drugs and persons, and corruption. Security policy engages a larger number of actors within states (military, home affairs, police) New threats create an increasing and changing demand for institutions and for multilateral cooperation – Institutional frameworks may need substantial reform – Current frameworks may not be appropriate ones for addressing the imperatives of security policy
  29. 29. Conclusions and Recommendations We confront a wide array of complex internal security problems and threats. Each of these need to be dealt with in different ways. Wide cooperation among the security forces with good civil-military relations . The role of non- state actors also play a key role. At this transition situation we rethink some of our past practices in security matters and limitations.
  30. 30.  Integrated security policy needs to set-up where law and order is a State subject, empower of the security agencies with key development of scientific tools and technology and information technology are required, and lastly we must find ways and means to deal on these.
  31. 31. Without security and effective law and order, economic development of a state would be impossible. We must not, therefore, neglect this aspect. The problem of internal security challenges can be solved to formulate security policy issues
  32. 32. Recommendations Security is not a luxury and is not merely a function of the state; it is a way of life.  Nepal has to and can overcome the general inability of democracies to put together the political will, the resources and the strategies that are necessary to prevail over all internal security threats.
  33. 33. Real reforms that would remove or minimize economic and religion/caste-based inequalities, good and honest governance and effective policing are pre-requisites for the marshalling the total resources of the nation in these efforts. The Govt of Nepal should also be prepared to lower the threshold of tolerance in relation to cross- border terrorism and to serve credible notice that Nepal has the capabilities and the determination to inflict prohibitively high and unacceptable cost on the state sponsors of terrorist acts against Nepalese interests.
  34. 34. At the political level, it should focuses on the degree of autonomy within the framework of national integration; At the economic level, the problem of decentralization of economic power; and at the socio-cultural level, the issue of the state and civil society
  35. 35. Hope that Peace, Progress and Prosperity comes together!

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