Kuliah5 strategi pengajaran & pembelajaran

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Kuliah5 strategi pengajaran & pembelajaran

  1. 1. Strategi Pengajaran & Pembelajaran PM Dr. Zaidatun Tasir Jabatan Multimedia Pendidikan Fakulti Pendidikan, UTM Skudai.
  2. 2. Strategi P&P Berkesan <ul><li>Apakah strategi pembelajaran? </li></ul><ul><li>Strategi pembelajaran (Learning strategies) – melibatkan aktiviti pembelajaran yang berbentuk “self-initiated” (bergantung kepada daya usaha pelajar) yang dilalui oleh pelajar untuk memudahkan pembelajaran mereka. (Alessi & Trollip, 2001) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Strategi P&P Berkesan <ul><li>Apakah perbezaan antara strategi pembelajaran dengan strategi pengajaran? </li></ul><ul><li>Strategi pembelajaran – diamalkan oleh pelajar manakala strategi pengajaran diamalkan oleh pengajar. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Strategi P&P Berkesan <ul><li>Apakah kaitan antara strategi pembelajaran dengan pedagogi? </li></ul><ul><li>Pedagogi berkait rapat dengan strategi pembelajaran. </li></ul><ul><li>Pedagogi boleh menentukan hala strategi pembelajaran. </li></ul><ul><li>Berikan contoh strategi P&P yang ada. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Strategi P&P Berkesan <ul><li>Apakah model proses P&P yang sering digunakan dan dianggap berkesan. </li></ul><ul><li>Model P&P yang lazim: (Urutan proses) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Persembahan informasi – media/teacher centered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bimbing pelajar – lebih interaktif </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Latihan – learner centered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Penilaian/ujian </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Strategi P&P Berkesan <ul><li>Adakah kita masing perlu berpegang kepada model proses P&P ini? </li></ul><ul><li>Jika tidak, apakah pendekatan yang boleh kita gunakan?? </li></ul><ul><li>Mungkin urutan yang tidak linear spt: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Latihan – learner centered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bimbing pelajar – lebih interaktif </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Persembahan informasi – media/teacher centered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Penilaian/ujian </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Strategi P&P Berkesan <ul><li>Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan pendekatan P&P TUTORIAL? </li></ul><ul><li>LATIH-TUBI? </li></ul><ul><li>(untuk tujuan latihan) </li></ul><ul><li>SIMULASI </li></ul><ul><li>(persembahan maklumat, bimbing, latihan dan nilai pelajar) </li></ul><ul><li>PERMAINAN </li></ul>tamat
  8. 8. Tutorial <ul><li>Tutorial – menyampaikan maklumat kepada pelajar dan bimbing pelajar untuk mempelajari sesuatu perkara </li></ul>
  9. 9. Tutorial <ul><li>Features of Effective Tutorials </li></ul><ul><li>Include lesson orientation at the beginning of the tutorial. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide learner guidance throughout the lesson. </li></ul><ul><li>Give appropriate feedback and remediation. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide strategies for making the instruction more meaningful. </li></ul><ul><li>Make attractive use of graphics and sound. </li></ul><ul><li>Learners are kept informed of the skills required. </li></ul><ul><li>Key information is highlighted. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Tutorial <ul><li>Features of Effective Tutorials </li></ul><ul><li>Several techniques are used to aid learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent interaction between the tutorial and the learner. </li></ul><ul><li>Learner responses are required and judged. </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback is provided to confirm correct responses or correct incorrect ones. </li></ul><ul><li>An evaluation of the learners' progress is given. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide different strategies for processing information. </li></ul><ul><li>Make instruction as meaningful and relevant as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Employ intrinsic motivators. </li></ul><ul><li>Include aids for the assimilation of old and new information. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Tutorial <ul><li>Tutorials: Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Useful for teaching factual information, simple discriminations, rules and simple application of rules. </li></ul><ul><li>Permit learners to move through the information at their own rate. </li></ul><ul><li>Most useful for verbal learning tasks where large amounts of information are presented. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Tutorial <ul><li>Tutorials: Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>The time needed to develop lessons. </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to design tutorials for higher order objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Tutorials often duplicate learning programs that already exist making them expensive. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Latih-tubi <ul><li>Features of Effective Drills </li></ul><ul><li>Provide extensive opportunities for practicing skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Assume that teaching has already taken place. </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforce and strengthen correct responses. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and correct incorrect responses. </li></ul><ul><li>Minimise unrelated information and procedural complexity. </li></ul><ul><li>Response is brief and is produced rapidly. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on one or two well-defined skills rather than many skills. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Latih-tubi <ul><li>Features of Effective Drills </li></ul><ul><li>Should offer individual response feedback and feedback to gauge performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Should maintain a high level of user motivation. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide the user and the instructor with options to control the learning process. </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities to alter drill format (animation, colour, etc.). </li></ul><ul><li>Good drills account for user's age, sophistication and preferences. </li></ul><ul><li>Control of drill features such as speed, response rate, data storage and printing results. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Latih-tubi <ul><li>Drills & Practice: Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Intensive controlled opportunities for learners to refine their skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Computer drills more appealing than traditional paper / teacher drills. </li></ul><ul><li>Can detect error patterns. </li></ul><ul><li>Adapt the level of difficulty. </li></ul><ul><li>Record keeping is instantaneous. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Latih-tubi <ul><li>Drills & Practice: Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Did not help - deep understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Often appear more like tests than instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Many drills are poorly conceived (difahami), limited in their application and boring. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Simulasi <ul><li>Features of Effective Simulations: </li></ul><ul><li>A scenario or set of events is presented. </li></ul><ul><li>Clear options for student participation are indicated. </li></ul><ul><li>A range of plausible consequences to student actions is given. </li></ul><ul><li>Effective guidance is given. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Simulasi <ul><li>Features of Effective Simulations: </li></ul><ul><li>The simulation is believable, with reasonable response options and logical consequences to options. </li></ul><ul><li>Clear guidelines must be given for participation and termination. </li></ul><ul><li>The situation should change realistically in line with student responses. </li></ul><ul><li>A qualitative summary of student performance should be provided. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Simulasi <ul><li>Simulations: Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Represent the thinking and evaluative capabilities of computers. </li></ul><ul><li>Permit the study of processes, procedures and phenomena that would either be too difficult, too costly or too dangerous. </li></ul><ul><li>Permit the study of phenomena that would not be visible in real time. </li></ul><ul><li>Can save a lot of money. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Simulasi <ul><li>Simulations: Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Require sophisticated hardware in many cases. </li></ul><ul><li>Require sophisticated programming techniques. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Permainan <ul><li>Features of Effective Games: </li></ul><ul><li>The student must understand the goal of the game. </li></ul><ul><li>Procedure for participation should be well defined. </li></ul><ul><li>Responses should be frequent and easily generated. </li></ul><ul><li>It must attract and engender enthusiasm in the student. </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporation of animation, colour and sound. </li></ul><ul><li>Guidelines for game participation must be provided. </li></ul><ul><li>Identifiable cause and effect relationship between student actions and game responses. </li></ul><ul><li>Summaries of game performance. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Permainan <ul><li>Games: Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalise on the competitiveness of students. </li></ul><ul><li>High in entertainment value. </li></ul><ul><li>Varied methods of learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Unique formats. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Permainan <ul><li>Games: Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Entertaining consequences for incorrect responses. </li></ul><ul><li>Unwittingly incorrect answers can sometimes be more entertaining than correct ones. </li></ul><ul><li>Vision and sound effects often become the focal point. </li></ul><ul><li>Indiscriminate use of computer capabilities can distract from the purpose of the game. </li></ul>

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