2nd Mughal emperor of India.
Reign-(26 December 1530 – 17 May 1540),(22
February 1555 – 27 January 1556).
Humayun was also called Nasin al uddin Muhammad.
Humayun ruled from 1530 to 1540 and again from 1555 to
Religion – Islam.
People in Humayun's family
His mother- Maham Begum
His father- Babur
Spouse –Hamida Banu Begum
Brothers- Hindal , Kamran
Son- Akbar, Mirza Muhammad Hakim
Daughter- Aqiqeh Begum
Administration during Humayun's reign
Humayun was unable to expand the empire further because of his
peaceful patience non protective methods of speech which earned him a
title of insan-I- kamil. He was interested in poetry &fascinated by
astrology & the occult. So he began to reorganize the administration
upon mystically determined principles .The public officers were divided
into four district groups for the four elements the deptt which are earth,
fire,water,air .Earth was incharge of agriculture, agricultures sciences. The
deptt. of fire was incharge of military. Water was incharge of waterways
& canals .Air was responsible for rest of things.
HUMAYUN TOOK PART IN WARS
First battle of Panipat,Battle of
Khanwa,Battle of Ghaghra,Siege of
Sambhal,Second battle of Panipat,Battle of
Thanesar,Siege of Chittorgarh,Siege of
Ranthambore,Battle of Tukaroi,Battle of
Haldighati,Siege of Orchha,Mughal–Safavi
War,Battle of Samugarh,Battle of
Khajwa,Ahom–Mughal conflicts,Siege of
Purandhar,Siege of Bijapur, Siege of
Golconda,Siege of Jinji,Battle of Karnal,Battle
of Sikandarabad,Third battle of
Panipat,Battle of Buxar.
ART AND ARCHITECTURE
Islamic rule in India also introduced Islamic architecture into the Subcontinent, and early
monuments started appearing in and around Delhi, the capital of Delhi Sultanate. Starting
with the Mamluk dynasty which built the Qutb Minar (1192 AD) and its adjacent Quwwat-
ul-Islam mosque (1193 AD). North India was successive ruled foreign dynasties in the
coming centuries giving rise to the Indo-Islamic architecture. While the prevailing style of
architecture was trabeate, employing pillars, beams and lintels, this brought in the arcuate
style of construction, with its arches and beams, which flourished under Mughal patronage
and by incorporating elements of Indian architecture, especially Rajasthani architecture
including decorative corbel brackets, balconies, pendentive decorations and indeed kiosks or
chhatris, to developed a distinct, Mughal architecture style, which was to become a lasting
legacy of the nearly four hundred years of the Mughal rule. The combination of red
sandstone and white marble was previously seen in Delhi Sultanate period tombs and
mosques, most distinctively in the highly decorative Alai Darwaza in the Qutub complex
Mehrauli, built in 1311 AD, under the Khilji dynasty.
Death of Humayun
On 27 January 1556, Humayun, with his arms full of books, was
descending the staircase from his library when the muezzin
announced the adhan (the call to prayer). It was his habit,
wherever he heard the summons, to bow his knee in holy
reverence. Kneeling, he caught his foot in his robe, tumbled
down several steps and hit his temple on a rugged stone
edge. He died three days later, and was succeeded by the 13-
year old Akbar.