Learners should be allowed to and individuality of the child. A child centred and activity based process of learning should be adopted at the primary stage. First generation
National policy of education 1986
National Policy of EducationNational Policy of Education
by Sudha Pandeyaby Sudha Pandeya
Needs of the PolicyNeeds of the Policy
Qualitative Development of Education.Qualitative Development of Education.
Enhancement of Percentage of LiteracyEnhancement of Percentage of Literacy
Checking of Brain-drain.Checking of Brain-drain.
Implementation of Free and CompulsoryImplementation of Free and Compulsory
Removal of Wastage and Stagnation inRemoval of Wastage and Stagnation in
Mordernisation of Curriculum AndMordernisation of Curriculum And
Improvement of Examination System.Improvement of Examination System.
Universalising Elementary Education.Universalising Elementary Education.
Envisaging Free and Compulsory Education for All ChildrenEnvisaging Free and Compulsory Education for All Children
up to the Age of 14 years.up to the Age of 14 years.
Emphasising Gender Perspective in all Aspects of Planning.Emphasising Gender Perspective in all Aspects of Planning.
Sensitising the Minds for Furthering the goals of Socialism,Sensitising the Minds for Furthering the goals of Socialism,
Secularism, and Democracy.Secularism, and Democracy.
Fostering Research and Development to Ensure Self-RelianceFostering Research and Development to Ensure Self-Reliance
in Technology.in Technology.
Re-emphasising the place of Common Core-Curriculum withRe-emphasising the place of Common Core-Curriculum with
Regard to India’s Common Cultural Heritage, Egalitarianism,Regard to India’s Common Cultural Heritage, Egalitarianism,
Protection of Environment, Removal of Social Vices,SmallProtection of Environment, Removal of Social Vices,Small
Family Norm And Inculcation of Scientific Temper.Family Norm And Inculcation of Scientific Temper.
SALIENT FEATURESSALIENT FEATURES
Removal of disparities to equaliseRemoval of disparities to equalise
educational opportunities for those whoeducational opportunities for those who
have been denied from equality.have been denied from equality.
Empowerment of women throughEmpowerment of women through
education through provision ofeducation through provision of
vocational, technical and professionalvocational, technical and professional
education at different levels.education at different levels.
Education of Scheduled Castes byEducation of Scheduled Castes by
providing incentives to poor families toproviding incentives to poor families to
send their children school regularly tillsend their children school regularly till
the age of 14 years.the age of 14 years.
Pre-Matric Scholarship Scheme.Pre-Matric Scholarship Scheme.
Recruitment of teachers from ScheduledRecruitment of teachers from Scheduled
Opening of special schools with hostelOpening of special schools with hostel
facility at District Headquarters forfacility at District Headquarters for
Adequate arrangement will be made toAdequate arrangement will be made to
give them vocational training.give them vocational training.
Re-orientation of teachers trainingRe-orientation of teachers training
programme to deal with specialprogramme to deal with special
difficulties of handicapped children.difficulties of handicapped children.
For Adults: Centres for continuingFor Adults: Centres for continuing
education in rural areas will be opened.education in rural areas will be opened.
Workers education through employersWorkers education through employers
Trade Unions and concerned agenciesTrade Unions and concerned agencies
Challenge ofChallenge of
education: A Policyeducation: A Policy
The Education Policy was divided into 12The Education Policy was divided into 12
The essence and role of educationThe essence and role of education
National system of education.National system of education.
Education for equality.Education for equality.
Reorganization of education at differentReorganization of education at different
Technical and management education.Technical and management education.
Making the system work.Making the system work.
Reorienting the content and process ofReorienting the content and process of
The management of educationThe management of education
Resource and reviewResource and review
The futureThe future
Reorganisation of education atReorganisation of education at
different stages.different stages.
Early childhood care and educationEarly childhood care and education
– (ECCE) Reorganising the holistic– (ECCE) Reorganising the holistic
nature of child development –nature of child development –
nutrition, health, social, mental,nutrition, health, social, mental,
physical, moral and emotionalphysical, moral and emotional
Programme of ECCE will be child-Programme of ECCE will be child-
oriented, focussed around play setoriented, focussed around play set
their own pace and be giventheir own pace and be given
supplementary remedialsupplementary remedial
The policy of non-detention atThe policy of non-detention at
Secondary EducationSecondary Education
Secondary Education begins to exposeSecondary Education begins to expose
students to the differentiated roles ofstudents to the differentiated roles of
science, humanities, and socialscience, humanities, and social
This also gives opportunities toThis also gives opportunities to
students to understand theirstudents to understand their
constitutional duties and rights asconstitutional duties and rights as
Gifted children should be providedGifted children should be provided
opportunities to proceed at fasteropportunities to proceed at faster
pace by giving good quality educationpace by giving good quality education
irrespective of their capacity to payirrespective of their capacity to pay
for it.for it.
Tertiary level courses will be organisedTertiary level courses will be organised
for young graduates for higherfor young graduates for higher
secondary level.secondary level.
Non-formal flexible and needs-basedNon-formal flexible and needs-based
vocational programmes will also bevocational programmes will also be
made available to neo literates schoolmade available to neo literates school
drop-outs, partially employed personsdrop-outs, partially employed persons
and women.and women.
It is proposed that vocational coursesIt is proposed that vocational courses
cover 10% of higher secondarycover 10% of higher secondary
students by 1990 and 25% by 1995.students by 1990 and 25% by 1995.
Pace setting schools should bePace setting schools should be
established with full scope forestablished with full scope for
innovation andinnovation and
experimentation to provideexperimentation to provide
opportunities to talentedopportunities to talented
• The introduction of VocationalThe introduction of Vocational
education should be systematic,education should be systematic,
well-planned to reduce thewell-planned to reduce the
mismatch between demand andmismatch between demand and
Higher educationHigher education
Higher education provides people withHigher education provides people with
an opportunity to reflect on the critical,an opportunity to reflect on the critical,
social cultural, moral and spiritualsocial cultural, moral and spiritual
issues facing humanity.issues facing humanity.
There are 150 universities and 5000There are 150 universities and 5000
colleges in India today. It is proposedcolleges in India today. It is proposed
that; in the near future main emphasisthat; in the near future main emphasis
will be on the expansion of existingwill be on the expansion of existing
institutions. Urgent steps will be takeninstitutions. Urgent steps will be taken
to protect the system from degradation.to protect the system from degradation.
Autonomy and freedom of collegesAutonomy and freedom of colleges
and universities will be accompaniedand universities will be accompanied
by accountability.by accountability.
A major effect will be directedA major effect will be directed
towards the transformation oftowards the transformation of
teaching methods. Audio-visual aidsteaching methods. Audio-visual aids
and electronic equipments will beand electronic equipments will be
introduced, development of scienceintroduced, development of science
and technology curricula andand technology curricula and
material research and teachermaterial research and teacher
Efforts will be made to developEfforts will be made to develop
India’s ancient fund of knowledgeIndia’s ancient fund of knowledge
i.e. Sanskrit and other classicali.e. Sanskrit and other classical
Rural University will be developedRural University will be developed
on the lines of Mahatma Gandhion the lines of Mahatma Gandhi
revolutionary ideas of education.revolutionary ideas of education.
The open university system will beThe open university system will be
augmented as an instrument ofaugmented as an instrument of
democratising education. IGNOUdemocratising education. IGNOU
will be strengthened.will be strengthened.
De-linking degrees from job inDe-linking degrees from job in
• The infrastructure and service
sectors as well as the
unorganised rural structure
need a greater induction of
improved technology and a
supply of technological and
managerial manpower. This will
be attended by the government.
• As computer have become
computer literacy will be
important; a program of
organised on wide scale from
• Appropriate formal and non-formal
programmes of technical institution
will be deviced for the benefit of
women, economically and socially
weak and physically handicap.
• To encourage students to consider
“self-employment” as a career
option. Training on
entrepreneurship will be provided
through optional courses in degree
and diploma programs.
• Research for development will
Teachers will have multiple roles toTeachers will have multiple roles to
perform: Teaching, research,perform: Teaching, research,
development of learning material,development of learning material,
extension and managing theextension and managing the
Staff development program at theStaff development program at the
state and national levels.state and national levels.
Excellence in performance ofExcellence in performance of
institutions and individuals will beinstitutions and individuals will be
recognised and rewarded.recognised and rewarded.
The emergence of sub-standardThe emergence of sub-standard
institutions will be checked.institutions will be checked.
Making The System Work.Making The System Work.
• The country has placed boundless trust in
educational system. The first task is to
make it work.
• Now teachers will have greater
responsibility and accountability.
• Provision of improved students service.
• Provision of better facilities to institutions.
Re-orienting the Content andRe-orienting the Content and
Process of EducationProcess of Education
The modern technologies cannot beThe modern technologies cannot be
allowed to divert our new generationallowed to divert our new generation
from the roots of Indian culture.from the roots of Indian culture.
De-culturalisation, De-humanisation,De-culturalisation, De-humanisation,
Alienation must be avoided at allAlienation must be avoided at all
Education must bring fine synthesisEducation must bring fine synthesis
between change orientedbetween change oriented
technologies and country’s continuitytechnologies and country’s continuity
Value EducationValue Education
• The growing concern over the
erosion of values has brought to
focus the need for re-adjustment
in the curriculum, so that social
and moral values will be
• In our culturally plural society
education should foster universal
Books and LibrariesBooks and Libraries
• The availability of books at lowThe availability of books at low
price is indispensable for people’sprice is indispensable for people’s
education. Measures will be takeneducation. Measures will be taken
to improve the quality of books,to improve the quality of books,
promote the reading habits andpromote the reading habits and
encourage creative writing.encourage creative writing.
• A nation wide movement for theA nation wide movement for the
improvement of existing librariesimprovement of existing libraries
and establishment of new ones willand establishment of new ones will
be taken up.be taken up.
• Educational technology will beEducational technology will be
employed in the spread of usefulemployed in the spread of useful
information, training, and re-information, training, and re-
Contd.Contd. There is paramount need to createThere is paramount need to create
a consciousness among all agesa consciousness among all ages
and all sections of society.and all sections of society.
Mathematics should be visualisedMathematics should be visualised
as a vehicle to train a child to think,as a vehicle to train a child to think,
reason, analyse and to articulatereason, analyse and to articulate
Science education should developScience education should develop
the spirit of enquiry, creativity,the spirit of enquiry, creativity,
objectivity, and the courage toobjectivity, and the courage to
Science should enable the learnerScience should enable the learner
to acquire problem solving andto acquire problem solving and
Sports and physical education are
integral part of learning process. A
nation wide infrastructure for
physical education, sports and
games will be built in educational
Appropriate encouragement will be
given to those talented in sports
Yoga will receive special attention
as a system to promote an
Evaluation Process andEvaluation Process and
Examination should beExamination should be
employed to bring aboutemployed to bring about
qualitative improvement inqualitative improvement in
It should discourage memorisation.It should discourage memorisation.
There should be CONTINUOUSThere should be CONTINUOUS
AND COMPREHENSIVEAND COMPREHENSIVE
EVALUATION (CCE) whichEVALUATION (CCE) which
incorporates both scholastic andincorporates both scholastic and
non-scholastic aspects ofnon-scholastic aspects of
Effective use of evaluation processEffective use of evaluation process
The TeacherThe Teacher
• Teachers should have freedom to
innovate and work independently.
• The method of recruiting teachers
should be re-organised to ensure merit
• Efforts will be made for uniform
emoluments, service condition and
grievance removal mechanism for
teachers throughout the country.
• Guidelines will be formulated
to ensure objectivity in the
posting and transfer of
• Teachers association must
play a significant role in
enhancing the dignity of the
teachers and in curbing
• Teacher education is a
continuous process and it
should be maintained pre-
service and in-service.
• District Institutes of Education
and Training (DIET) will be
established to organise pre-
service and in-service courses
for elementary school teachers
and for the personnel working in
non-formal and adult education.
• The NCTE will be provided the
necessary resources and
capability to accredit institutions
The management of educationThe management of education
• Evolving a long-term planning and
management perspective of education
according to country’s development and
• De-centralisation and creation of
autonomy for educational institutions
• Inducting more women in planning and
management of education.
• The Department of Education at the
Centre and in the State will be
strengthened through the involvement of
• A proper management structure in
education will lead the establishment of
Indian Education Service as All-India
service. The basic principles, functions
and procedures of recruitment to this
service will be decided in consultation of
Contd.Contd.• Special attention will be paid to the
training of education planners,
administrators and head of the institutions.
• District Board of Education will be created
to manage education up to the higher
• Heads of educational institution will be
specially selected and trained.
• Local communities will be assigned major
roles in programs of school improvement
along with the NGOs.
Resources and ReviewResources and Review
Resources to the extent possible will beResources to the extent possible will be
raised by mobilising donations askingraised by mobilising donations asking
beneficiary communities to maintainbeneficiary communities to maintain
school buildings, raising fees at the higherschool buildings, raising fees at the higher
level of education and creating somelevel of education and creating some
savings by the efficient use of facilities.savings by the efficient use of facilities.
Funds will also be created by levying cess.Funds will also be created by levying cess.
Since the actual level of investment onSince the actual level of investment on
education has remained far short of theeducation has remained far short of the
target, it has been ensured that from 8target, it has been ensured that from 8thth
FIVE year plan onward it will exceed toFIVE year plan onward it will exceed to
The implementation of variousThe implementation of various
parameters of NPE 1986 must beparameters of NPE 1986 must be
reviewed after every 5 years.reviewed after every 5 years.
Appraisals at short intervals will alsoAppraisals at short intervals will also
be made to ascertain the progress ofbe made to ascertain the progress of
THE FUTURETHE FUTURE
The future shape of education in India is tooThe future shape of education in India is too
complex to envision with precision but ourcomplex to envision with precision but our
tradition always put a high place totradition always put a high place to
intellectual and spiritual attainment; we areintellectual and spiritual attainment; we are
bound to succeed in achieving ourbound to succeed in achieving our
The main task is to strengthen the base ofThe main task is to strengthen the base of
the pyramid. Equally it is important tothe pyramid. Equally it is important to
ensure that those at the top of the pyramidensure that those at the top of the pyramid
are among the best in the world.are among the best in the world.
NPE – An EvaluationNPE – An Evaluation
““Considering the all round development of theConsidering the all round development of the
country, the structure of Education Policy wascountry, the structure of Education Policy was
erected. Education is not considered within the fourerected. Education is not considered within the four
walls of the schools. Teaching is not limited to thewalls of the schools. Teaching is not limited to the
curriculum but it is a source of developing nationalcurriculum but it is a source of developing national
unity, cultural preservation and indication of moral,unity, cultural preservation and indication of moral,
social and ethical values.” Mr. R.K Trivedisocial and ethical values.” Mr. R.K Trivedi
(Hon’ble Governor of(Hon’ble Governor of
Features of NPE 1986
Role of education – All round
development of the individuals, cultural
assimilation, providing strength to
democracy, secularism, construction of
nation at every level, creating self-
sufficiency and searching new areas of
National System of Education i.e.
Equality – equal opportunities to all
Women education – women are the
keys to nation’s progress.
Education of scheduled castes and
Education for backward classes,
Adult education to remove illiteracy
from the masses.
Re-organisation of education i.e. pre-
primary, secondary and higher.
New dimensions such as distance
education, IGNOU, de-linking the
degree with employment etc.
The new policy gave a new direction
in the field of education in the light of
national unity and development of this
is the preparation to welcome the 21st