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National policy of education 1986

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National policy of education 1986

  1. 1. National Policy of EducationNational Policy of Education 19861986 PresentationPresentation by Sudha Pandeyaby Sudha Pandeya
  2. 2. Needs of the PolicyNeeds of the Policy Qualitative Development of Education.Qualitative Development of Education. Enhancement of Percentage of LiteracyEnhancement of Percentage of Literacy Checking of Brain-drain.Checking of Brain-drain. Implementation of Free and CompulsoryImplementation of Free and Compulsory Education.Education. Removal of Wastage and Stagnation inRemoval of Wastage and Stagnation in Education.Education. Mordernisation of Curriculum AndMordernisation of Curriculum And Improvement of Examination System.Improvement of Examination System.
  3. 3. PrioritiesPriorities  Universalising Elementary Education.Universalising Elementary Education.  Envisaging Free and Compulsory Education for All ChildrenEnvisaging Free and Compulsory Education for All Children up to the Age of 14 years.up to the Age of 14 years.  Emphasising Gender Perspective in all Aspects of Planning.Emphasising Gender Perspective in all Aspects of Planning.  Sensitising the Minds for Furthering the goals of Socialism,Sensitising the Minds for Furthering the goals of Socialism, Secularism, and Democracy.Secularism, and Democracy.  Fostering Research and Development to Ensure Self-RelianceFostering Research and Development to Ensure Self-Reliance in Technology.in Technology.  Re-emphasising the place of Common Core-Curriculum withRe-emphasising the place of Common Core-Curriculum with Regard to India’s Common Cultural Heritage, Egalitarianism,Regard to India’s Common Cultural Heritage, Egalitarianism, Protection of Environment, Removal of Social Vices,SmallProtection of Environment, Removal of Social Vices,Small Family Norm And Inculcation of Scientific Temper.Family Norm And Inculcation of Scientific Temper.
  4. 4. SALIENT FEATURESSALIENT FEATURES  Removal of disparities to equaliseRemoval of disparities to equalise educational opportunities for those whoeducational opportunities for those who have been denied from equality.have been denied from equality.  Empowerment of women throughEmpowerment of women through education through provision ofeducation through provision of vocational, technical and professionalvocational, technical and professional education at different levels.education at different levels.  Education of Scheduled Castes byEducation of Scheduled Castes by providing incentives to poor families toproviding incentives to poor families to send their children school regularly tillsend their children school regularly till the age of 14 years.the age of 14 years.  Pre-Matric Scholarship Scheme.Pre-Matric Scholarship Scheme.  Recruitment of teachers from ScheduledRecruitment of teachers from Scheduled Castes.Castes.
  5. 5.  Opening of special schools with hostelOpening of special schools with hostel facility at District Headquarters forfacility at District Headquarters for handicapped.handicapped.  Adequate arrangement will be made toAdequate arrangement will be made to give them vocational training.give them vocational training.  Re-orientation of teachers trainingRe-orientation of teachers training programme to deal with specialprogramme to deal with special difficulties of handicapped children.difficulties of handicapped children.  For Adults: Centres for continuingFor Adults: Centres for continuing education in rural areas will be opened.education in rural areas will be opened.  Workers education through employersWorkers education through employers Trade Unions and concerned agenciesTrade Unions and concerned agencies
  6. 6. Challenge ofChallenge of education: A Policyeducation: A Policy PerspectivePerspective  The Education Policy was divided into 12The Education Policy was divided into 12 parts:-parts:-  DeclarationDeclaration  The essence and role of educationThe essence and role of education  National system of education.National system of education.  Education for equality.Education for equality.  Reorganization of education at differentReorganization of education at different stages.stages.
  7. 7. contd.contd.  Technical and management education.Technical and management education.  Making the system work.Making the system work.  Reorienting the content and process ofReorienting the content and process of education.education.  TeacherTeacher  The management of educationThe management of education  Resource and reviewResource and review  The futureThe future
  8. 8. Reorganisation of education atReorganisation of education at different stages.different stages. Early childhood care and educationEarly childhood care and education – (ECCE) Reorganising the holistic– (ECCE) Reorganising the holistic nature of child development –nature of child development – nutrition, health, social, mental,nutrition, health, social, mental, physical, moral and emotionalphysical, moral and emotional development.development. Programme of ECCE will be child-Programme of ECCE will be child- oriented, focussed around play setoriented, focussed around play set their own pace and be giventheir own pace and be given supplementary remedialsupplementary remedial instructions.instructions. The policy of non-detention atThe policy of non-detention at
  9. 9. Secondary EducationSecondary Education  Secondary Education begins to exposeSecondary Education begins to expose students to the differentiated roles ofstudents to the differentiated roles of science, humanities, and socialscience, humanities, and social sciences.sciences.  This also gives opportunities toThis also gives opportunities to students to understand theirstudents to understand their constitutional duties and rights asconstitutional duties and rights as citizens.citizens.  Gifted children should be providedGifted children should be provided opportunities to proceed at fasteropportunities to proceed at faster pace by giving good quality educationpace by giving good quality education irrespective of their capacity to payirrespective of their capacity to pay for it.for it.
  10. 10. cc  Tertiary level courses will be organisedTertiary level courses will be organised for young graduates for higherfor young graduates for higher secondary level.secondary level.  Non-formal flexible and needs-basedNon-formal flexible and needs-based vocational programmes will also bevocational programmes will also be made available to neo literates schoolmade available to neo literates school drop-outs, partially employed personsdrop-outs, partially employed persons and women.and women.  It is proposed that vocational coursesIt is proposed that vocational courses cover 10% of higher secondarycover 10% of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25% by 1995.students by 1990 and 25% by 1995.
  11. 11. Contd.Contd. Pace setting schools should bePace setting schools should be established with full scope forestablished with full scope for innovation andinnovation and experimentation to provideexperimentation to provide opportunities to talentedopportunities to talented children.children. • The introduction of VocationalThe introduction of Vocational education should be systematic,education should be systematic, well-planned to reduce thewell-planned to reduce the mismatch between demand andmismatch between demand and
  12. 12. Higher educationHigher education Higher education provides people withHigher education provides people with an opportunity to reflect on the critical,an opportunity to reflect on the critical, social cultural, moral and spiritualsocial cultural, moral and spiritual issues facing humanity.issues facing humanity. There are 150 universities and 5000There are 150 universities and 5000 colleges in India today. It is proposedcolleges in India today. It is proposed that; in the near future main emphasisthat; in the near future main emphasis will be on the expansion of existingwill be on the expansion of existing institutions. Urgent steps will be takeninstitutions. Urgent steps will be taken to protect the system from degradation.to protect the system from degradation.
  13. 13.  Autonomy and freedom of collegesAutonomy and freedom of colleges and universities will be accompaniedand universities will be accompanied by accountability.by accountability.  A major effect will be directedA major effect will be directed towards the transformation oftowards the transformation of teaching methods. Audio-visual aidsteaching methods. Audio-visual aids and electronic equipments will beand electronic equipments will be introduced, development of scienceintroduced, development of science and technology curricula andand technology curricula and material research and teachermaterial research and teacher
  14. 14. Contd.Contd.  Efforts will be made to developEfforts will be made to develop India’s ancient fund of knowledgeIndia’s ancient fund of knowledge i.e. Sanskrit and other classicali.e. Sanskrit and other classical languages.languages.  Rural University will be developedRural University will be developed on the lines of Mahatma Gandhion the lines of Mahatma Gandhi revolutionary ideas of education.revolutionary ideas of education.  The open university system will beThe open university system will be augmented as an instrument ofaugmented as an instrument of democratising education. IGNOUdemocratising education. IGNOU will be strengthened.will be strengthened.  De-linking degrees from job inDe-linking degrees from job in
  15. 15. Technical Management Education • The infrastructure and service sectors as well as the unorganised rural structure need a greater induction of improved technology and a supply of technological and managerial manpower. This will be attended by the government. • As computer have become computer literacy will be important; a program of organised on wide scale from The infrastructure
  16. 16. contd,.contd,. • Appropriate formal and non-formal programmes of technical institution will be deviced for the benefit of women, economically and socially weak and physically handicap. • To encourage students to consider “self-employment” as a career option. Training on entrepreneurship will be provided through optional courses in degree and diploma programs. • Research for development will
  17. 17. Contd.Contd. Teachers will have multiple roles toTeachers will have multiple roles to perform: Teaching, research,perform: Teaching, research, development of learning material,development of learning material, extension and managing theextension and managing the institution.institution. Staff development program at theStaff development program at the state and national levels.state and national levels. Excellence in performance ofExcellence in performance of institutions and individuals will beinstitutions and individuals will be recognised and rewarded.recognised and rewarded. The emergence of sub-standardThe emergence of sub-standard institutions will be checked.institutions will be checked.
  18. 18. Making The System Work.Making The System Work. • The country has placed boundless trust in educational system. The first task is to make it work. • Now teachers will have greater responsibility and accountability. • Provision of improved students service. • Provision of better facilities to institutions.
  19. 19. Re-orienting the Content andRe-orienting the Content and Process of EducationProcess of Education The modern technologies cannot beThe modern technologies cannot be allowed to divert our new generationallowed to divert our new generation from the roots of Indian culture.from the roots of Indian culture. De-culturalisation, De-humanisation,De-culturalisation, De-humanisation, Alienation must be avoided at allAlienation must be avoided at all costs.costs. Education must bring fine synthesisEducation must bring fine synthesis between change orientedbetween change oriented technologies and country’s continuitytechnologies and country’s continuity
  20. 20. Value EducationValue Education • The growing concern over the erosion of values has brought to focus the need for re-adjustment in the curriculum, so that social and moral values will be cultivated. • In our culturally plural society education should foster universal
  21. 21. Books and LibrariesBooks and Libraries • The availability of books at lowThe availability of books at low price is indispensable for people’sprice is indispensable for people’s education. Measures will be takeneducation. Measures will be taken to improve the quality of books,to improve the quality of books, promote the reading habits andpromote the reading habits and encourage creative writing.encourage creative writing. • A nation wide movement for theA nation wide movement for the improvement of existing librariesimprovement of existing libraries and establishment of new ones willand establishment of new ones will be taken up.be taken up. • Educational technology will beEducational technology will be employed in the spread of usefulemployed in the spread of useful information, training, and re-information, training, and re-
  22. 22. Contd.Contd. There is paramount need to createThere is paramount need to create a consciousness among all agesa consciousness among all ages and all sections of society.and all sections of society.  Mathematics should be visualisedMathematics should be visualised as a vehicle to train a child to think,as a vehicle to train a child to think, reason, analyse and to articulatereason, analyse and to articulate logically.logically.  Science education should developScience education should develop the spirit of enquiry, creativity,the spirit of enquiry, creativity, objectivity, and the courage toobjectivity, and the courage to question.question.  Science should enable the learnerScience should enable the learner to acquire problem solving andto acquire problem solving and
  23. 23. Contd.  Sports and physical education are integral part of learning process. A nation wide infrastructure for physical education, sports and games will be built in educational field.  Appropriate encouragement will be given to those talented in sports and games.  Yoga will receive special attention as a system to promote an
  24. 24. Evaluation Process andEvaluation Process and ExaminationExamination Examination should beExamination should be employed to bring aboutemployed to bring about qualitative improvement inqualitative improvement in education.education. It should discourage memorisation.It should discourage memorisation. There should be CONTINUOUSThere should be CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVEAND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) whichEVALUATION (CCE) which incorporates both scholastic andincorporates both scholastic and non-scholastic aspects ofnon-scholastic aspects of education.education. Effective use of evaluation processEffective use of evaluation process
  25. 25. The TeacherThe Teacher • Teachers should have freedom to innovate and work independently. • The method of recruiting teachers should be re-organised to ensure merit and objectivity. • Efforts will be made for uniform emoluments, service condition and grievance removal mechanism for teachers throughout the country.
  26. 26. Contd.Contd. • Guidelines will be formulated to ensure objectivity in the posting and transfer of teachers. • Teachers association must play a significant role in enhancing the dignity of the teachers and in curbing professional misconduct. • Teacher education is a continuous process and it should be maintained pre- service and in-service.
  27. 27. Contd.Contd. • District Institutes of Education and Training (DIET) will be established to organise pre- service and in-service courses for elementary school teachers and for the personnel working in non-formal and adult education. • The NCTE will be provided the necessary resources and capability to accredit institutions
  28. 28. The management of educationThe management of education • Evolving a long-term planning and management perspective of education according to country’s development and man-power needs. • De-centralisation and creation of autonomy for educational institutions • Inducting more women in planning and management of education.
  29. 29. Contd.Contd. • The Department of Education at the Centre and in the State will be strengthened through the involvement of professionals. • A proper management structure in education will lead the establishment of Indian Education Service as All-India service. The basic principles, functions and procedures of recruitment to this service will be decided in consultation of
  30. 30. Contd.Contd.• Special attention will be paid to the training of education planners, administrators and head of the institutions. • District Board of Education will be created to manage education up to the higher secondary level. • Heads of educational institution will be specially selected and trained. • Local communities will be assigned major roles in programs of school improvement along with the NGOs.
  31. 31. Resources and ReviewResources and Review  Resources to the extent possible will beResources to the extent possible will be raised by mobilising donations askingraised by mobilising donations asking beneficiary communities to maintainbeneficiary communities to maintain school buildings, raising fees at the higherschool buildings, raising fees at the higher level of education and creating somelevel of education and creating some savings by the efficient use of facilities.savings by the efficient use of facilities.  Funds will also be created by levying cess.Funds will also be created by levying cess.  Since the actual level of investment onSince the actual level of investment on education has remained far short of theeducation has remained far short of the target, it has been ensured that from 8target, it has been ensured that from 8thth FIVE year plan onward it will exceed toFIVE year plan onward it will exceed to
  32. 32.  The implementation of variousThe implementation of various parameters of NPE 1986 must beparameters of NPE 1986 must be reviewed after every 5 years.reviewed after every 5 years.  Appraisals at short intervals will alsoAppraisals at short intervals will also be made to ascertain the progress ofbe made to ascertain the progress of implementation.implementation.
  33. 33. THE FUTURETHE FUTURE  The future shape of education in India is tooThe future shape of education in India is too complex to envision with precision but ourcomplex to envision with precision but our tradition always put a high place totradition always put a high place to intellectual and spiritual attainment; we areintellectual and spiritual attainment; we are bound to succeed in achieving ourbound to succeed in achieving our objectives.objectives.  The main task is to strengthen the base ofThe main task is to strengthen the base of the pyramid. Equally it is important tothe pyramid. Equally it is important to ensure that those at the top of the pyramidensure that those at the top of the pyramid are among the best in the world.are among the best in the world.
  34. 34. NPE – An EvaluationNPE – An Evaluation  ““Considering the all round development of theConsidering the all round development of the country, the structure of Education Policy wascountry, the structure of Education Policy was erected. Education is not considered within the fourerected. Education is not considered within the four walls of the schools. Teaching is not limited to thewalls of the schools. Teaching is not limited to the curriculum but it is a source of developing nationalcurriculum but it is a source of developing national unity, cultural preservation and indication of moral,unity, cultural preservation and indication of moral, social and ethical values.” Mr. R.K Trivedisocial and ethical values.” Mr. R.K Trivedi (Hon’ble Governor of(Hon’ble Governor of Gujrat)Gujrat)
  35. 35. Features of NPE 1986 Role of education – All round development of the individuals, cultural assimilation, providing strength to democracy, secularism, construction of nation at every level, creating self- sufficiency and searching new areas of development.
  36. 36. National System of Education i.e. 10+2+3 system. Equality – equal opportunities to all for education. Women education – women are the keys to nation’s progress. Education of scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. Education for backward classes, minorities. Adult education to remove illiteracy from the masses.
  37. 37. Contd. Re-organisation of education i.e. pre- primary, secondary and higher. New dimensions such as distance education, IGNOU, de-linking the degree with employment etc. The new policy gave a new direction in the field of education in the light of national unity and development of this is the preparation to welcome the 21st century.
  38. 38. THE END

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