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Education inEducation in
Muslim PeriodMuslim Period
(1200-1757)(1200-1757)
A Power Point PresentationA Power Point Presentation
By Sudha PandeyaBy Sudha Pandeya
Aims of educationAims of education
Spread of learning –The main aim wasSpread of learning –The main aim was
spread of religion among muslimsspread of religion among muslims
because they thought that knowledge isbecause they thought that knowledge is
the only way of salvation .They thoughtthe only way of salvation .They thought
that only knowledge can help a person tothat only knowledge can help a person to
distinguish between right and wrong.distinguish between right and wrong.
They thought that it is better to educateThey thought that it is better to educate
one’s children than giving alms.one’s children than giving alms.
Student’s pen’s ink is better thanStudent’s pen’s ink is better than
martyrs’ blood.martyrs’ blood.
Contd.Contd.
 Spread of Islam- Muslims thoughtSpread of Islam- Muslims thought
spread of religion as their pious duty .spread of religion as their pious duty .
 Spread of muslim culture.Spread of muslim culture.
 Infusion of distinct moralityInfusion of distinct morality
 Formation of character.Formation of character.
 Achievement of worldly pleasure- TheyAchievement of worldly pleasure- They
had no faith in REBIRTH. Therefore theyhad no faith in REBIRTH. Therefore they
believed in enjoying all comforts andbelieved in enjoying all comforts and
wealth.wealth.
Organisation ofOrganisation of
educationeducation
 Patronage of the rulers- Since acquiringPatronage of the rulers- Since acquiring
knowledge was religious obligation. Theknowledge was religious obligation. The
rulers helped in spread of education.rulers helped in spread of education.
They built educational universities andThey built educational universities and
institutions. They endowed them withinstitutions. They endowed them with
funds. The rulers patronised the men offunds. The rulers patronised the men of
learning .There was two systems oflearning .There was two systems of
education :- Primary and Highereducation :- Primary and Higher
education.education.
Primary EducationPrimary Education
 Education centre:- Main centre for primaryEducation centre:- Main centre for primary
education was Maktabs. Maktab was aneducation was Maktabs. Maktab was an
elementary school which was usually attachedelementary school which was usually attached
to a mosque.to a mosque.
 ‘‘Maktab’ is derived from an Arabic word ‘kutab’Maktab’ is derived from an Arabic word ‘kutab’
which means ‘writing’.Thus it was a placewhich means ‘writing’.Thus it was a place
where writing was taught or it was a place ofwhere writing was taught or it was a place of
books.books.
 Teaching was done by ‘Maulvi’ or ‘Maulana’Teaching was done by ‘Maulvi’ or ‘Maulana’
 Here only muslim children were taught.Here only muslim children were taught.
Entrance to primaryEntrance to primary
educationeducation
 In muslim period child’s education was started after aIn muslim period child’s education was started after a
ritual named’. Bismillah khani’ It was performed whenritual named’. Bismillah khani’ It was performed when
the child becomes 4years, 4months and 4 days old.the child becomes 4years, 4months and 4 days old.
The call his child was presented before the Maulvi in newThe call his child was presented before the Maulvi in new
attire in the presence of all relatives. Maulvi used toattire in the presence of all relatives. Maulvi used to
read AYATS of Holy Quran and child had to repeat it.Ifread AYATS of Holy Quran and child had to repeat it.If
the child was unable to repeat that then he had to saythe child was unable to repeat that then he had to say
only BISMILLAH.only BISMILLAH.
Other centers of primary education were KHANQUAHOther centers of primary education were KHANQUAH
and DARGAHAS.and DARGAHAS.
CURRICULUMCURRICULUM
 In Maktabs students were taught 3 R’s i.e Reading,In Maktabs students were taught 3 R’s i.e Reading,
Writing and Arithmetic.Writing and Arithmetic.
 At first they had taught the letters of alphabet.At first they had taught the letters of alphabet.
 Students had to learn by heart those portions of QuranStudents had to learn by heart those portions of Quran
that would be necessary to perform there religiousthat would be necessary to perform there religious
duties.duties.
 It was not essential to understand the meanigs butIt was not essential to understand the meanigs but
correct pronunciation and memorisation werecorrect pronunciation and memorisation were
emphasised.emphasised.
 Students were taught grammar ,Persian ,ArabicStudents were taught grammar ,Persian ,Arabic
.Urdu..Urdu.
Special attention was paid to good handwriting.Special attention was paid to good handwriting.
 Arithmetic, conversation .poetry.goodArithmetic, conversation .poetry.good
manners were included in the curriculum.manners were included in the curriculum.
 Gulistan and Sadi’s famous book BostanGulistan and Sadi’s famous book Bostan
was prescribed as text books for moralwas prescribed as text books for moral
education.education.
 Children of rich people get educationChildren of rich people get education
from home tutors.from home tutors.
TEACHING METHODTEACHING METHOD
 In Maktabs teaching method was directIn Maktabs teaching method was direct
and oral.and oral.
 Memorisation and rote- learning wasMemorisation and rote- learning was
main factor of teaching method.main factor of teaching method.
 Children used wooden piece for writingChildren used wooden piece for writing
initially and after practice they write oninitially and after practice they write on
papers.papers.
HIGHER EDUCATIONHIGHER EDUCATION
 The centre for higher education is calledThe centre for higher education is called
Madrasa. The word Madrasa is derivedMadrasa. The word Madrasa is derived
from an Arabic word ‘Dars’ which meansfrom an Arabic word ‘Dars’ which means
‘lecture’. Thus it was a place where‘lecture’. Thus it was a place where
lecture is given.lecture is given.
 A Madrasa was an educational institutionA Madrasa was an educational institution
which imparted higher educationwhich imparted higher education
especially Islamic.especially Islamic.
Contd.Contd.
 After completing primary education studentsAfter completing primary education students
used to go Madrasa.used to go Madrasa.
 Centers for higher learning were spread allCenters for higher learning were spread all
over the country. Among them Agra,over the country. Among them Agra,
Delhi,Lahore,Multan, Ajmer,Lahore, Syalkot,Delhi,Lahore,Multan, Ajmer,Lahore, Syalkot,
Murshidabad were famous.Murshidabad were famous.
 Students from other muslim countries alsoStudents from other muslim countries also
studied here.studied here.
 Institutions of higher learning were establishedInstitutions of higher learning were established
in principle cities because specialised scholarsin principle cities because specialised scholars
in good numbers being available there only.in good numbers being available there only.
CURRICULUMCURRICULUM
 Curriculum was both religious and secular.Curriculum was both religious and secular.
 The period of higher education was 10 to 12The period of higher education was 10 to 12
years.years.
 The curriculum was divided into two parts:The curriculum was divided into two parts:
 1) Religious education- It includes deep study1) Religious education- It includes deep study
of Quran,Islamic law and Sufism.of Quran,Islamic law and Sufism.
 2)Worldly education- It includes study of2)Worldly education- It includes study of
Literature, Logic, History, GeographyLiterature, Logic, History, Geography
,Astronomy ,Arithmetic ,Agriculture and,Astronomy ,Arithmetic ,Agriculture and
Medicine.Medicine.
Contd.Contd.
 All subjects were not taught in all madrasas.All subjects were not taught in all madrasas.
 Generally only two subjects are taught in eachGenerally only two subjects are taught in each
Madrasa. For e.g. Poetry and music wereMadrasa. For e.g. Poetry and music were
taught in Delhi, mathematics and astronmy intaught in Delhi, mathematics and astronmy in
Syalkot etc.Syalkot etc.
 Some Madrasas had hostels attached to themSome Madrasas had hostels attached to them
which provided free boarding and lodging.which provided free boarding and lodging.
 In some big towns like Gopuram, Oudh, AgraIn some big towns like Gopuram, Oudh, Agra
Lahore ,Multan, Delhi etc there wereLahore ,Multan, Delhi etc there were
arrangements for studying advanced subjects.arrangements for studying advanced subjects.
Method of teachingMethod of teaching
 The method of teaching was oral in higherThe method of teaching was oral in higher
education .Teachers used lecture method.education .Teachers used lecture method.
 There was Monitorial –System in the class.There was Monitorial –System in the class.
 The inductive and deductive methods wereThe inductive and deductive methods were
used for teaching Religion,Philosophy ,Logicused for teaching Religion,Philosophy ,Logic
and Political Science.and Political Science.
 There was proper arrangement of practicalThere was proper arrangement of practical
teaching for Music,Handicraft, Drawing andteaching for Music,Handicraft, Drawing and
Medical Science.Medical Science.
Contd.Contd.
 Students were encouraged for self- studyStudents were encouraged for self- study
 Their problems were solved by teachers.Their problems were solved by teachers.
 Writing was more preffered than reading.Writing was more preffered than reading.
 The medium of instruction was PersianThe medium of instruction was Persian
because this was the court language.because this was the court language.
 Knowledge of Persian was essential for gettingKnowledge of Persian was essential for getting
Royal job.Royal job.
 Arabic was compulsory for muslims.Arabic was compulsory for muslims.
 Hindus could study their religious books.Hindus could study their religious books.
Examinations andExaminations and
degreesdegrees
 There were no definite system of examinations.There were no definite system of examinations.
 Teachers gave right to higher education by evaluation.Teachers gave right to higher education by evaluation.
 All students were not conferred degrees but studentsAll students were not conferred degrees but students
with extra ordinary caliber were given degrees like-with extra ordinary caliber were given degrees like-
 KABIL for literatureKABIL for literature
 AALIM for religionAALIM for religion
 FAZIL for philosophy and logic.FAZIL for philosophy and logic.
 The degrees were conferred in specially organisedThe degrees were conferred in specially organised
function.function.
Other aspects ofOther aspects of
educationeducation
Women’s education- Due to purda-system onlyWomen’s education- Due to purda-system only
small girls were allowed to get education insmall girls were allowed to get education in
Maktabs. There was no facility for higherMaktabs. There was no facility for higher
education for women because state had noteducation for women because state had not
established separate institution for women.established separate institution for women.
Lower class women had to forgo education.Lower class women had to forgo education.
Rich class women’s education were arrangedRich class women’s education were arranged
either at home or they go to Maktabs oreither at home or they go to Maktabs or
Madrasas run by women.They learn religionMadrasas run by women.They learn religion
,literature, dance ,music and other fine arts.,literature, dance ,music and other fine arts.
Contd.Contd.
 Famous educated ladies of that time are-Famous educated ladies of that time are-
Raziya Sultana,Chand Sultana, GulbadanRaziya Sultana,Chand Sultana, Gulbadan
Begum who had written Humayun-Nama,Begum who had written Humayun-Nama,
Noorjahan ,Jubbennisan .Noorjahan ,Jubbennisan .
The ruler of Malwa Giyasuddin Tugluq hadThe ruler of Malwa Giyasuddin Tugluq had
established a Madrasa at Sarangpur forestablished a Madrasa at Sarangpur for
women of all classes.women of all classes.
Even though women education was in poorEven though women education was in poor
condition.condition.
Vocational educationVocational education
 Muslim rulers were interested in vocational educationMuslim rulers were interested in vocational education
in one way or the other, therefore, vocational educationin one way or the other, therefore, vocational education
was developed. They were-was developed. They were-
 Military education- The aim of all Muslim rulers was toMilitary education- The aim of all Muslim rulers was to
make their kingdom strong and permanent, so theymake their kingdom strong and permanent, so they
stressed on military education. This education wasstressed on military education. This education was
different for ordinary people and princes.different for ordinary people and princes.
 Soldiers were trained to use arrow ,spears,Soldiers were trained to use arrow ,spears,
 fighting sitting on horses and elephants and fortifyingfighting sitting on horses and elephants and fortifying
Contd.Contd.
 They were also trained for shooting.They were also trained for shooting.
 Princes were trained to co-ordinate, organisePrinces were trained to co-ordinate, organise
and to lead the military along with aboveand to lead the military along with above
mentioned training. This education wasmentioned training. This education was
provided by experienced military men.provided by experienced military men.
 Muslim rulers did not believe Hindus becauseMuslim rulers did not believe Hindus because
they were foreigners and of different religion.they were foreigners and of different religion.
Contd.Contd.
 Medical education – In order to provide properMedical education – In order to provide proper
education Sanskrit books were translated intoeducation Sanskrit books were translated into
Persian. Medical education was provided inPersian. Medical education was provided in
Madrasa or special institutions of Agra andMadrasa or special institutions of Agra and
Rampur.Rampur.
 Education in handicraft- Most of muslim rulersEducation in handicraft- Most of muslim rulers
spend the life of luxury which led to immensespend the life of luxury which led to immense
development of life related handicrafts likedevelopment of life related handicrafts like
embroidery, wooden and elephant’s tuskembroidery, wooden and elephant’s tusk
work ,silk ,malmal, curtains,jewellery etc.work ,silk ,malmal, curtains,jewellery etc.
 There were thousand of workshops where boysThere were thousand of workshops where boys
were trained in particular art and craft.were trained in particular art and craft.
Contd.Contd.
 Education in fine art- All muslim rulersEducation in fine art- All muslim rulers
had wonderful aesthetic sense.Theyhad wonderful aesthetic sense.They
were eager to increase the beauties ofwere eager to increase the beauties of
their castles which led to development oftheir castles which led to development of
fine arts. Music ,Drawing and Dancefine arts. Music ,Drawing and Dance
were taught by experts.were taught by experts.
Types of educationalTypes of educational
institutionsinstitutions
 Other educational institutions were-Other educational institutions were-
 Khanquahs – They were elementary educationKhanquahs – They were elementary education
centres. Only muslim children could getcentres. Only muslim children could get
education here. Its expenditure was managededucation here. Its expenditure was managed
by charity.by charity.
 Dargahas-It was similar to KhankahsDargahas-It was similar to Khankahs
 Quran school- In this school only Quran wasQuran school- In this school only Quran was
taught. Such schools were attached totaught. Such schools were attached to
mosques.mosques.
Contd.Contd.
 Persian school-In such schools both Hindus andPersian school-In such schools both Hindus and
Muslims who were eager to get royal job were impartedMuslims who were eager to get royal job were imparted
Persian education .Here students were taught poetriesPersian education .Here students were taught poetries
of Sadi and Hafij and Muslim culture. The standard ofof Sadi and Hafij and Muslim culture. The standard of
education was very high.education was very high.
 Persian Quran school- Here Persian and Quran bothPersian Quran school- Here Persian and Quran both
were taught.were taught.
 Arabic school- The main aim of this school was toArabic school- The main aim of this school was to
prepare learned people of literature and Arabic.Theprepare learned people of literature and Arabic.The
standard of education was very high.standard of education was very high.
Characteristics ofCharacteristics of
Medieval EducationMedieval Education
 Practical education- Muslims did notPractical education- Muslims did not
believe in rebirth so they believed thatbelieve in rebirth so they believed that
aim of education was to prepare men foraim of education was to prepare men for
the life through practical education .Sothe life through practical education .So
the subjects like geography, historythe subjects like geography, history
,military education were given stress.,military education were given stress.
 Free education- In Maktab and MadrasaFree education- In Maktab and Madrasa
education was free along with foodingeducation was free along with fooding
and lodging.and lodging.
Contd.Contd.
 Individual contact-There was personalIndividual contact-There was personal
contact between teacher and taught ,andcontact between teacher and taught ,and
teacher had to live with his pupils.teacher had to live with his pupils.
 Monitorial system- Here able students ofMonitorial system- Here able students of
higher classes helped teachers byhigher classes helped teachers by
teaching lower classes.teaching lower classes.
 Status of teacher-Teachers occupiedStatus of teacher-Teachers occupied
high position in society .Theirhigh position in society .Their
emoluments were very small but theyemoluments were very small but they
command universal respect andcommand universal respect and
Contd.Contd.
 Teacher pupil relation ship- TeacherTeacher pupil relation ship- Teacher
commanded high respect from students.commanded high respect from students.
Students obey their teachers. TeachersStudents obey their teachers. Teachers
also loved their students as their son andalso loved their students as their son and
guide them through praise andguide them through praise and
punishment.punishment.
 Patronage of education- MuslimPatronage of education- Muslim
education was free and patronaged byeducation was free and patronaged by
king and. Kingdom.king and. Kingdom.
Contd.Contd.
 Indispensability of education- MuslimsIndispensability of education- Muslims
believed that education is indispensablebelieved that education is indispensable
for three reasons:-for three reasons:-
 1)It was the duty of every one to get1)It was the duty of every one to get
knowledge of Quran.knowledge of Quran.
 2)Statement of Prophet Mohammad-The2)Statement of Prophet Mohammad-The
student who searches for knowledgestudent who searches for knowledge
,Allah gives him high place in JANNAT.,Allah gives him high place in JANNAT.
 3)He who acquires knowledge, performs3)He who acquires knowledge, performs
act of piety, speaks or praise the Lordact of piety, speaks or praise the Lord
,adores the God.,adores the God.
Contd.Contd.
Promotion of cultural unity-When Sikander Lodi removedPromotion of cultural unity-When Sikander Lodi removed
the restrictions on the entry of Hindus in Maktab andthe restrictions on the entry of Hindus in Maktab and
Madrasa then caste barrier removed and cultural unityMadrasa then caste barrier removed and cultural unity
enhanced.enhanced.
Encouragement to language and science.Encouragement to language and science.
Development of literature and history-Systematic writingDevelopment of literature and history-Systematic writing
of history started e.g are-Rajatrangini of Kalhan,of history started e.g are-Rajatrangini of Kalhan,
Akbarnama of Abul Fazal etc.Akbarnama of Abul Fazal etc.
Synthesis of religious and secular education-Learning ofSynthesis of religious and secular education-Learning of
Ayats of Quran along with subjects useful for life likeAyats of Quran along with subjects useful for life like
arithmetic, grammar, letter writing etc were taught.arithmetic, grammar, letter writing etc were taught.
Demerits of MuslimDemerits of Muslim
EducationEducation
 Neglect of women education.Neglect of women education.
 Neglect of vernaculars.Neglect of vernaculars.
 Neglect of women education.Neglect of women education.
 Lack of stability in education.Lack of stability in education.
 Lack of universality.Lack of universality.
 Severe corporal punishment.Severe corporal punishment.
 Student’s love of luxury.Student’s love of luxury.
 Non development of mental power.Non development of mental power.
 Rigid and non creative education.Rigid and non creative education.
 Bookish knowledge.Bookish knowledge.
 THANK YOUTHANK YOU

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Muslim education

  • 1. Education inEducation in Muslim PeriodMuslim Period (1200-1757)(1200-1757) A Power Point PresentationA Power Point Presentation By Sudha PandeyaBy Sudha Pandeya
  • 2. Aims of educationAims of education Spread of learning –The main aim wasSpread of learning –The main aim was spread of religion among muslimsspread of religion among muslims because they thought that knowledge isbecause they thought that knowledge is the only way of salvation .They thoughtthe only way of salvation .They thought that only knowledge can help a person tothat only knowledge can help a person to distinguish between right and wrong.distinguish between right and wrong. They thought that it is better to educateThey thought that it is better to educate one’s children than giving alms.one’s children than giving alms. Student’s pen’s ink is better thanStudent’s pen’s ink is better than martyrs’ blood.martyrs’ blood.
  • 3. Contd.Contd.  Spread of Islam- Muslims thoughtSpread of Islam- Muslims thought spread of religion as their pious duty .spread of religion as their pious duty .  Spread of muslim culture.Spread of muslim culture.  Infusion of distinct moralityInfusion of distinct morality  Formation of character.Formation of character.  Achievement of worldly pleasure- TheyAchievement of worldly pleasure- They had no faith in REBIRTH. Therefore theyhad no faith in REBIRTH. Therefore they believed in enjoying all comforts andbelieved in enjoying all comforts and wealth.wealth.
  • 4. Organisation ofOrganisation of educationeducation  Patronage of the rulers- Since acquiringPatronage of the rulers- Since acquiring knowledge was religious obligation. Theknowledge was religious obligation. The rulers helped in spread of education.rulers helped in spread of education. They built educational universities andThey built educational universities and institutions. They endowed them withinstitutions. They endowed them with funds. The rulers patronised the men offunds. The rulers patronised the men of learning .There was two systems oflearning .There was two systems of education :- Primary and Highereducation :- Primary and Higher education.education.
  • 5. Primary EducationPrimary Education  Education centre:- Main centre for primaryEducation centre:- Main centre for primary education was Maktabs. Maktab was aneducation was Maktabs. Maktab was an elementary school which was usually attachedelementary school which was usually attached to a mosque.to a mosque.  ‘‘Maktab’ is derived from an Arabic word ‘kutab’Maktab’ is derived from an Arabic word ‘kutab’ which means ‘writing’.Thus it was a placewhich means ‘writing’.Thus it was a place where writing was taught or it was a place ofwhere writing was taught or it was a place of books.books.  Teaching was done by ‘Maulvi’ or ‘Maulana’Teaching was done by ‘Maulvi’ or ‘Maulana’  Here only muslim children were taught.Here only muslim children were taught.
  • 6. Entrance to primaryEntrance to primary educationeducation  In muslim period child’s education was started after aIn muslim period child’s education was started after a ritual named’. Bismillah khani’ It was performed whenritual named’. Bismillah khani’ It was performed when the child becomes 4years, 4months and 4 days old.the child becomes 4years, 4months and 4 days old. The call his child was presented before the Maulvi in newThe call his child was presented before the Maulvi in new attire in the presence of all relatives. Maulvi used toattire in the presence of all relatives. Maulvi used to read AYATS of Holy Quran and child had to repeat it.Ifread AYATS of Holy Quran and child had to repeat it.If the child was unable to repeat that then he had to saythe child was unable to repeat that then he had to say only BISMILLAH.only BISMILLAH. Other centers of primary education were KHANQUAHOther centers of primary education were KHANQUAH and DARGAHAS.and DARGAHAS.
  • 7. CURRICULUMCURRICULUM  In Maktabs students were taught 3 R’s i.e Reading,In Maktabs students were taught 3 R’s i.e Reading, Writing and Arithmetic.Writing and Arithmetic.  At first they had taught the letters of alphabet.At first they had taught the letters of alphabet.  Students had to learn by heart those portions of QuranStudents had to learn by heart those portions of Quran that would be necessary to perform there religiousthat would be necessary to perform there religious duties.duties.  It was not essential to understand the meanigs butIt was not essential to understand the meanigs but correct pronunciation and memorisation werecorrect pronunciation and memorisation were emphasised.emphasised.  Students were taught grammar ,Persian ,ArabicStudents were taught grammar ,Persian ,Arabic .Urdu..Urdu. Special attention was paid to good handwriting.Special attention was paid to good handwriting.
  • 8.  Arithmetic, conversation .poetry.goodArithmetic, conversation .poetry.good manners were included in the curriculum.manners were included in the curriculum.  Gulistan and Sadi’s famous book BostanGulistan and Sadi’s famous book Bostan was prescribed as text books for moralwas prescribed as text books for moral education.education.  Children of rich people get educationChildren of rich people get education from home tutors.from home tutors.
  • 9. TEACHING METHODTEACHING METHOD  In Maktabs teaching method was directIn Maktabs teaching method was direct and oral.and oral.  Memorisation and rote- learning wasMemorisation and rote- learning was main factor of teaching method.main factor of teaching method.  Children used wooden piece for writingChildren used wooden piece for writing initially and after practice they write oninitially and after practice they write on papers.papers.
  • 10. HIGHER EDUCATIONHIGHER EDUCATION  The centre for higher education is calledThe centre for higher education is called Madrasa. The word Madrasa is derivedMadrasa. The word Madrasa is derived from an Arabic word ‘Dars’ which meansfrom an Arabic word ‘Dars’ which means ‘lecture’. Thus it was a place where‘lecture’. Thus it was a place where lecture is given.lecture is given.  A Madrasa was an educational institutionA Madrasa was an educational institution which imparted higher educationwhich imparted higher education especially Islamic.especially Islamic.
  • 11. Contd.Contd.  After completing primary education studentsAfter completing primary education students used to go Madrasa.used to go Madrasa.  Centers for higher learning were spread allCenters for higher learning were spread all over the country. Among them Agra,over the country. Among them Agra, Delhi,Lahore,Multan, Ajmer,Lahore, Syalkot,Delhi,Lahore,Multan, Ajmer,Lahore, Syalkot, Murshidabad were famous.Murshidabad were famous.  Students from other muslim countries alsoStudents from other muslim countries also studied here.studied here.  Institutions of higher learning were establishedInstitutions of higher learning were established in principle cities because specialised scholarsin principle cities because specialised scholars in good numbers being available there only.in good numbers being available there only.
  • 12. CURRICULUMCURRICULUM  Curriculum was both religious and secular.Curriculum was both religious and secular.  The period of higher education was 10 to 12The period of higher education was 10 to 12 years.years.  The curriculum was divided into two parts:The curriculum was divided into two parts:  1) Religious education- It includes deep study1) Religious education- It includes deep study of Quran,Islamic law and Sufism.of Quran,Islamic law and Sufism.  2)Worldly education- It includes study of2)Worldly education- It includes study of Literature, Logic, History, GeographyLiterature, Logic, History, Geography ,Astronomy ,Arithmetic ,Agriculture and,Astronomy ,Arithmetic ,Agriculture and Medicine.Medicine.
  • 13. Contd.Contd.  All subjects were not taught in all madrasas.All subjects were not taught in all madrasas.  Generally only two subjects are taught in eachGenerally only two subjects are taught in each Madrasa. For e.g. Poetry and music wereMadrasa. For e.g. Poetry and music were taught in Delhi, mathematics and astronmy intaught in Delhi, mathematics and astronmy in Syalkot etc.Syalkot etc.  Some Madrasas had hostels attached to themSome Madrasas had hostels attached to them which provided free boarding and lodging.which provided free boarding and lodging.  In some big towns like Gopuram, Oudh, AgraIn some big towns like Gopuram, Oudh, Agra Lahore ,Multan, Delhi etc there wereLahore ,Multan, Delhi etc there were arrangements for studying advanced subjects.arrangements for studying advanced subjects.
  • 14. Method of teachingMethod of teaching  The method of teaching was oral in higherThe method of teaching was oral in higher education .Teachers used lecture method.education .Teachers used lecture method.  There was Monitorial –System in the class.There was Monitorial –System in the class.  The inductive and deductive methods wereThe inductive and deductive methods were used for teaching Religion,Philosophy ,Logicused for teaching Religion,Philosophy ,Logic and Political Science.and Political Science.  There was proper arrangement of practicalThere was proper arrangement of practical teaching for Music,Handicraft, Drawing andteaching for Music,Handicraft, Drawing and Medical Science.Medical Science.
  • 15. Contd.Contd.  Students were encouraged for self- studyStudents were encouraged for self- study  Their problems were solved by teachers.Their problems were solved by teachers.  Writing was more preffered than reading.Writing was more preffered than reading.  The medium of instruction was PersianThe medium of instruction was Persian because this was the court language.because this was the court language.  Knowledge of Persian was essential for gettingKnowledge of Persian was essential for getting Royal job.Royal job.  Arabic was compulsory for muslims.Arabic was compulsory for muslims.  Hindus could study their religious books.Hindus could study their religious books.
  • 16. Examinations andExaminations and degreesdegrees  There were no definite system of examinations.There were no definite system of examinations.  Teachers gave right to higher education by evaluation.Teachers gave right to higher education by evaluation.  All students were not conferred degrees but studentsAll students were not conferred degrees but students with extra ordinary caliber were given degrees like-with extra ordinary caliber were given degrees like-  KABIL for literatureKABIL for literature  AALIM for religionAALIM for religion  FAZIL for philosophy and logic.FAZIL for philosophy and logic.  The degrees were conferred in specially organisedThe degrees were conferred in specially organised function.function.
  • 17. Other aspects ofOther aspects of educationeducation Women’s education- Due to purda-system onlyWomen’s education- Due to purda-system only small girls were allowed to get education insmall girls were allowed to get education in Maktabs. There was no facility for higherMaktabs. There was no facility for higher education for women because state had noteducation for women because state had not established separate institution for women.established separate institution for women. Lower class women had to forgo education.Lower class women had to forgo education. Rich class women’s education were arrangedRich class women’s education were arranged either at home or they go to Maktabs oreither at home or they go to Maktabs or Madrasas run by women.They learn religionMadrasas run by women.They learn religion ,literature, dance ,music and other fine arts.,literature, dance ,music and other fine arts.
  • 18. Contd.Contd.  Famous educated ladies of that time are-Famous educated ladies of that time are- Raziya Sultana,Chand Sultana, GulbadanRaziya Sultana,Chand Sultana, Gulbadan Begum who had written Humayun-Nama,Begum who had written Humayun-Nama, Noorjahan ,Jubbennisan .Noorjahan ,Jubbennisan . The ruler of Malwa Giyasuddin Tugluq hadThe ruler of Malwa Giyasuddin Tugluq had established a Madrasa at Sarangpur forestablished a Madrasa at Sarangpur for women of all classes.women of all classes. Even though women education was in poorEven though women education was in poor condition.condition.
  • 19. Vocational educationVocational education  Muslim rulers were interested in vocational educationMuslim rulers were interested in vocational education in one way or the other, therefore, vocational educationin one way or the other, therefore, vocational education was developed. They were-was developed. They were-  Military education- The aim of all Muslim rulers was toMilitary education- The aim of all Muslim rulers was to make their kingdom strong and permanent, so theymake their kingdom strong and permanent, so they stressed on military education. This education wasstressed on military education. This education was different for ordinary people and princes.different for ordinary people and princes.  Soldiers were trained to use arrow ,spears,Soldiers were trained to use arrow ,spears,  fighting sitting on horses and elephants and fortifyingfighting sitting on horses and elephants and fortifying
  • 20. Contd.Contd.  They were also trained for shooting.They were also trained for shooting.  Princes were trained to co-ordinate, organisePrinces were trained to co-ordinate, organise and to lead the military along with aboveand to lead the military along with above mentioned training. This education wasmentioned training. This education was provided by experienced military men.provided by experienced military men.  Muslim rulers did not believe Hindus becauseMuslim rulers did not believe Hindus because they were foreigners and of different religion.they were foreigners and of different religion.
  • 21. Contd.Contd.  Medical education – In order to provide properMedical education – In order to provide proper education Sanskrit books were translated intoeducation Sanskrit books were translated into Persian. Medical education was provided inPersian. Medical education was provided in Madrasa or special institutions of Agra andMadrasa or special institutions of Agra and Rampur.Rampur.  Education in handicraft- Most of muslim rulersEducation in handicraft- Most of muslim rulers spend the life of luxury which led to immensespend the life of luxury which led to immense development of life related handicrafts likedevelopment of life related handicrafts like embroidery, wooden and elephant’s tuskembroidery, wooden and elephant’s tusk work ,silk ,malmal, curtains,jewellery etc.work ,silk ,malmal, curtains,jewellery etc.  There were thousand of workshops where boysThere were thousand of workshops where boys were trained in particular art and craft.were trained in particular art and craft.
  • 22. Contd.Contd.  Education in fine art- All muslim rulersEducation in fine art- All muslim rulers had wonderful aesthetic sense.Theyhad wonderful aesthetic sense.They were eager to increase the beauties ofwere eager to increase the beauties of their castles which led to development oftheir castles which led to development of fine arts. Music ,Drawing and Dancefine arts. Music ,Drawing and Dance were taught by experts.were taught by experts.
  • 23. Types of educationalTypes of educational institutionsinstitutions  Other educational institutions were-Other educational institutions were-  Khanquahs – They were elementary educationKhanquahs – They were elementary education centres. Only muslim children could getcentres. Only muslim children could get education here. Its expenditure was managededucation here. Its expenditure was managed by charity.by charity.  Dargahas-It was similar to KhankahsDargahas-It was similar to Khankahs  Quran school- In this school only Quran wasQuran school- In this school only Quran was taught. Such schools were attached totaught. Such schools were attached to mosques.mosques.
  • 24. Contd.Contd.  Persian school-In such schools both Hindus andPersian school-In such schools both Hindus and Muslims who were eager to get royal job were impartedMuslims who were eager to get royal job were imparted Persian education .Here students were taught poetriesPersian education .Here students were taught poetries of Sadi and Hafij and Muslim culture. The standard ofof Sadi and Hafij and Muslim culture. The standard of education was very high.education was very high.  Persian Quran school- Here Persian and Quran bothPersian Quran school- Here Persian and Quran both were taught.were taught.  Arabic school- The main aim of this school was toArabic school- The main aim of this school was to prepare learned people of literature and Arabic.Theprepare learned people of literature and Arabic.The standard of education was very high.standard of education was very high.
  • 25. Characteristics ofCharacteristics of Medieval EducationMedieval Education  Practical education- Muslims did notPractical education- Muslims did not believe in rebirth so they believed thatbelieve in rebirth so they believed that aim of education was to prepare men foraim of education was to prepare men for the life through practical education .Sothe life through practical education .So the subjects like geography, historythe subjects like geography, history ,military education were given stress.,military education were given stress.  Free education- In Maktab and MadrasaFree education- In Maktab and Madrasa education was free along with foodingeducation was free along with fooding and lodging.and lodging.
  • 26. Contd.Contd.  Individual contact-There was personalIndividual contact-There was personal contact between teacher and taught ,andcontact between teacher and taught ,and teacher had to live with his pupils.teacher had to live with his pupils.  Monitorial system- Here able students ofMonitorial system- Here able students of higher classes helped teachers byhigher classes helped teachers by teaching lower classes.teaching lower classes.  Status of teacher-Teachers occupiedStatus of teacher-Teachers occupied high position in society .Theirhigh position in society .Their emoluments were very small but theyemoluments were very small but they command universal respect andcommand universal respect and
  • 27. Contd.Contd.  Teacher pupil relation ship- TeacherTeacher pupil relation ship- Teacher commanded high respect from students.commanded high respect from students. Students obey their teachers. TeachersStudents obey their teachers. Teachers also loved their students as their son andalso loved their students as their son and guide them through praise andguide them through praise and punishment.punishment.  Patronage of education- MuslimPatronage of education- Muslim education was free and patronaged byeducation was free and patronaged by king and. Kingdom.king and. Kingdom.
  • 28. Contd.Contd.  Indispensability of education- MuslimsIndispensability of education- Muslims believed that education is indispensablebelieved that education is indispensable for three reasons:-for three reasons:-  1)It was the duty of every one to get1)It was the duty of every one to get knowledge of Quran.knowledge of Quran.  2)Statement of Prophet Mohammad-The2)Statement of Prophet Mohammad-The student who searches for knowledgestudent who searches for knowledge ,Allah gives him high place in JANNAT.,Allah gives him high place in JANNAT.  3)He who acquires knowledge, performs3)He who acquires knowledge, performs act of piety, speaks or praise the Lordact of piety, speaks or praise the Lord ,adores the God.,adores the God.
  • 29. Contd.Contd. Promotion of cultural unity-When Sikander Lodi removedPromotion of cultural unity-When Sikander Lodi removed the restrictions on the entry of Hindus in Maktab andthe restrictions on the entry of Hindus in Maktab and Madrasa then caste barrier removed and cultural unityMadrasa then caste barrier removed and cultural unity enhanced.enhanced. Encouragement to language and science.Encouragement to language and science. Development of literature and history-Systematic writingDevelopment of literature and history-Systematic writing of history started e.g are-Rajatrangini of Kalhan,of history started e.g are-Rajatrangini of Kalhan, Akbarnama of Abul Fazal etc.Akbarnama of Abul Fazal etc. Synthesis of religious and secular education-Learning ofSynthesis of religious and secular education-Learning of Ayats of Quran along with subjects useful for life likeAyats of Quran along with subjects useful for life like arithmetic, grammar, letter writing etc were taught.arithmetic, grammar, letter writing etc were taught.
  • 30. Demerits of MuslimDemerits of Muslim EducationEducation  Neglect of women education.Neglect of women education.  Neglect of vernaculars.Neglect of vernaculars.  Neglect of women education.Neglect of women education.  Lack of stability in education.Lack of stability in education.  Lack of universality.Lack of universality.  Severe corporal punishment.Severe corporal punishment.  Student’s love of luxury.Student’s love of luxury.  Non development of mental power.Non development of mental power.  Rigid and non creative education.Rigid and non creative education.  Bookish knowledge.Bookish knowledge.