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BLOOM TAXONOMYBLOOM TAXONOMY
 Taxonomy means a system of classification.Taxonomy means a system of classification.
Therefore, Bloom Taxonomy is a system ofTherefore, Bloom Taxonomy is a system of
classification of objective.classification of objective.
 Teaching, Learning process is an attempt to changeTeaching, Learning process is an attempt to change
the behaviour of pupil with respect to some learningthe behaviour of pupil with respect to some learning
experiences.experiences.
 Objectives are the starting point of all educationalObjectives are the starting point of all educational
ventures and instructional objectives are crucial toventures and instructional objectives are crucial to
all educational venture.all educational venture.
 In education objective is a desired change inIn education objective is a desired change in
behaviour of the pupil.behaviour of the pupil.
 Educational objectives are related to the philosophyEducational objectives are related to the philosophy
of a nation.of a nation.
 Bloom and Associate in the University of Chicago haveBloom and Associate in the University of Chicago have
introduced the most important classification or Taxonomy.introduced the most important classification or Taxonomy.
They have divided the behaviour in three domains.They have divided the behaviour in three domains.
They are:They are:
 1. THE COGNITIVE DOMAIN (KNOWING)1. THE COGNITIVE DOMAIN (KNOWING)
 2. AFFECTIVE DOMAIN (FEELING)2. AFFECTIVE DOMAIN (FEELING)
 3 PSYCHOMOTOR DOMAIN (DOING)3 PSYCHOMOTOR DOMAIN (DOING)
COGNITIVE OBJECTIVECOGNITIVE OBJECTIVE
 It comprises acquisition and manipulation of factualIt comprises acquisition and manipulation of factual
information.information.
 It is concerned with intellectual skills and abilities ofIt is concerned with intellectual skills and abilities of
students.students.
 The cognitive objectives are divided into three levels.The cognitive objectives are divided into three levels.
These are:These are:
1.Low Level1.Low Level
2. Medium Level2. Medium Level
3. High Level3. High Level
 There are altogether six categories.There are altogether six categories.
(i)(i) Knowledge, comprehension and application are in lowKnowledge, comprehension and application are in low
level;level;
(ii)(ii) Analysis and synthesis in the medium level andAnalysis and synthesis in the medium level and
(iii)(iii) Valuation is the category in high level.Valuation is the category in high level.
KNOWLEDGEKNOWLEDGE
 Knowledge includes associated verbs like define, list,Knowledge includes associated verbs like define, list,
measure, name, recall, select etc.measure, name, recall, select etc.
 KNOWLEDGE OF SPECIFICKNOWLEDGE OF SPECIFIC: This involves the recall of: This involves the recall of
specific information .e.g. the students will recall the date ofspecific information .e.g. the students will recall the date of
first world war.first world war.
 KNOWLEDGE OF WAYS AND MEANSKNOWLEDGE OF WAYS AND MEANS: This includes: This includes
knowledge of the ways of organising, judging andknowledge of the ways of organising, judging and
criticising. e.g. The student will understand thecriticising. e.g. The student will understand the
development of Indian culture as exemplified in Indian life.development of Indian culture as exemplified in Indian life.
 KNOWLEDGE OF UNIVERSAL AND ABSTRACTION:KNOWLEDGE OF UNIVERSAL AND ABSTRACTION: ThisThis
level includes the large structures ,theories andlevel includes the large structures ,theories and
generalisations which dominate the field. e.g.generalisations which dominate the field. e.g. The studentThe student
will recall major generalisations about a particular culture .will recall major generalisations about a particular culture .
COMPREHENSIONCOMPREHENSION
 It represents the lowest level of understanding. It includesIt represents the lowest level of understanding. It includes
associated verbs like change, classify, distinguish,associated verbs like change, classify, distinguish,
formulate, identify, justify etc.formulate, identify, justify etc.
 TRANSLATION : It is judged on the basis faithfulness andTRANSLATION : It is judged on the basis faithfulness and
accuracyaccuracy
e.g. Students will be able to translate mathematicale.g. Students will be able to translate mathematical
material into symbolics.material into symbolics.
 INTERPRETATION: It includes recording , rearrangement ,INTERPRETATION: It includes recording , rearrangement ,
new view of a communication.new view of a communication.
e.g. Students will be able to interpret various types ofe.g. Students will be able to interpret various types of
social data.social data.
 EXTRAPOLATION: It involves prediction of the trends.EXTRAPOLATION: It involves prediction of the trends.
e.g. Students will be able to predict continuation of trends.e.g. Students will be able to predict continuation of trends.
APPLICATIONAPPLICATION
 It includes the use of abstraction to concrete situations. ItIt includes the use of abstraction to concrete situations. It
may be in the form of general ideas, rules or procedures.may be in the form of general ideas, rules or procedures.
 It includes the associated verbs like assess, choose,It includes the associated verbs like assess, choose,
construct, select,discover, establish, generate, predict etc.construct, select,discover, establish, generate, predict etc.
e.g. students will apply the knowledge of mathematics ine.g. students will apply the knowledge of mathematics in
purchasing of things in the market.purchasing of things in the market.
ANALYSISANALYSIS
 This is medium level of cognitive domain which includesThis is medium level of cognitive domain which includes
objectives that relate to the breaking of whole into parts toobjectives that relate to the breaking of whole into parts to
enable the students to see the underlying educationalenable the students to see the underlying educational
structure of complex ideas. Associated verbs are analyze,structure of complex ideas. Associated verbs are analyze,
criticise, justify, separate etc. ,criticise, justify, separate etc. ,
 Analysis of elements:- It involves identification of:- It involves identification of
elements in a communication. e.g. The student will be ableelements in a communication. e.g. The student will be able
to distinguish facts from hypothesis.to distinguish facts from hypothesis.
 Analysis of relationshipAnalysis of relationship:-It involves breakdown of:-It involves breakdown of
connections between elements. e.g.-The student will beconnections between elements. e.g.-The student will be
able to comprehend the idea of passage.able to comprehend the idea of passage.
 Analysis of organisational principlesAnalysis of organisational principles:- e.g –The student:- e.g –The student
will be able to recognise form and pattern of literacywill be able to recognise form and pattern of literacy
SYNTHESISSYNTHESIS
 This level includes objectives that relate to puttingThis level includes objectives that relate to putting
together parts in a new form or creation of some thingtogether parts in a new form or creation of some thing
that did not exist before. The associated verbs arethat did not exist before. The associated verbs are
summmarise , relate ,organize, argue, etcsummmarise , relate ,organize, argue, etc
 Production of unique communicationProduction of unique communication:- It involves:- It involves
development of communication in which speakerdevelopment of communication in which speaker
attempts to convey the ideas of others .e.g. Theattempts to convey the ideas of others .e.g. The
students will be able to convey the ideas of Vinobastudents will be able to convey the ideas of Vinoba
Bhave on Bhoodan Movement.Bhave on Bhoodan Movement.
 Production of planProduction of plan:- It involves development on plan:- It involves development on plan
proposals. e.g. The student will be able to propose theproposals. e.g. The student will be able to propose the
ways of testing hypothesis.ways of testing hypothesis.
 Derivation of a set of abstract relationsDerivation of a set of abstract relations.:-e.g. The.:-e.g. The
student will be able to make mathematical discoveriesstudent will be able to make mathematical discoveries
and generalization.and generalization.
EVALUATIONEVALUATION
 This is the highest level in cognitive domain. This objectivesThis is the highest level in cognitive domain. This objectives
require making value judgment against some criterion.require making value judgment against some criterion.
The associated verbs are determine, choose ,verify ,judge,The associated verbs are determine, choose ,verify ,judge,
identify etc.identify etc.
 Judgment in terms of internal evidencesJudgment in terms of internal evidences:-It involves:-It involves
evaluation of accuracy ,consistency etcevaluation of accuracy ,consistency etc
 Judgment in terms of external criteriaJudgment in terms of external criteria:- It involves:- It involves
evaluation of material with reference to certain selected orevaluation of material with reference to certain selected or
recommended criteriarecommended criteria
e.g. The student will be able compare the variouse.g. The student will be able compare the various
civilizations.civilizations.
AFFECTIVE DOMAINAFFECTIVE DOMAIN
 Emotions, attitude ,interests ,values ,morals exist and affect allEmotions, attitude ,interests ,values ,morals exist and affect all
human behaviour. It is the school where various values andhuman behaviour. It is the school where various values and
feelings are developed. It is the duty of the teacher to develop thefeelings are developed. It is the duty of the teacher to develop the
affective domain of the students. It is developed by Bloom, Karthaffective domain of the students. It is developed by Bloom, Karth
and Massia in 1964.and Massia in 1964.
There are two levels of objectives:-There are two levels of objectives:-
 1.Low level objective:-1.Low level objective:-
It includes-a) Receiving b) Responding c) valuing.It includes-a) Receiving b) Responding c) valuing.
 2.High level objective:-2.High level objective:-
It includes- a) organisation b) characterization of complex values.It includes- a) organisation b) characterization of complex values.
LOW LEVEL OBJECTIVELOW LEVEL OBJECTIVE
 RECEIVING:-RECEIVING:- This is the first crucial step the learner isThis is the first crucial step the learner is
to be oriented to learn what does teacher intend to do. Theto be oriented to learn what does teacher intend to do. The
associated verbs are –learn ,perceive, observe, receive etc.associated verbs are –learn ,perceive, observe, receive etc.
 AWARENESS:- At this Level the learner will be mere consciousAWARENESS:- At this Level the learner will be mere conscious
about a situation or object. e.g, The student develops awarenessabout a situation or object. e.g, The student develops awareness
of aesthetic factors in dress .architecture etc.of aesthetic factors in dress .architecture etc.

 WILLINGNESS TO RECEIVE:- This level involves behaviour willingWILLINGNESS TO RECEIVE:- This level involves behaviour willing
to tolerate a given stimulus not to avoid it. e.g.The studentto tolerate a given stimulus not to avoid it. e.g.The student
develops appreciation for other culture.develops appreciation for other culture.
 CONTROLLED ATTENTION:- At this level student selects aCONTROLLED ATTENTION:- At this level student selects a
favoured stimulus, despite competing or distracting stimuli at afavoured stimulus, despite competing or distracting stimuli at a
conscious or pre-conscious level. e. g The student listens musicconscious or pre-conscious level. e. g The student listens music
with some discrimination as to its mood and meaning.with some discrimination as to its mood and meaning.
 RESPONDING: The student ,at this level, indicates aRESPONDING: The student ,at this level, indicates a
willingness to participate in a given activity, accepts certainwillingness to participate in a given activity, accepts certain
ideas. This includes the associated verbs like write ,record,ideas. This includes the associated verbs like write ,record,
state answer etc. This level refers to learner’s attention tostate answer etc. This level refers to learner’s attention to
stimuli such as-stimuli such as-
 ACQUIESENCE:-At this level students make response butACQUIESENCE:-At this level students make response but
not fully accept the necessity of doing so. e.g. Thenot fully accept the necessity of doing so. e.g. The
students exhibit willingness to comply with healthstudents exhibit willingness to comply with health
regulations.regulations.
 WILLINGNESS TO RESPOND:- Here learner is willing toWILLINGNESS TO RESPOND:- Here learner is willing to
exhibit the behaviour voluntarily .e.g. The student acceptsexhibit the behaviour voluntarily .e.g. The student accepts
the responsibility of his own health.the responsibility of his own health.
 SATISFACTION IN RESPONSE:- At this level there is feelingSATISFACTION IN RESPONSE:- At this level there is feeling
of pleasure in response. e.g. The students find pleasure inof pleasure in response. e.g. The students find pleasure in
reading for recreation.reading for recreation.
 VALUING: This term is employed in the sense that a thing ,VALUING: This term is employed in the sense that a thing ,
phenomenon or behaviour has worth. It is associated with actionphenomenon or behaviour has worth. It is associated with action
verbs like accept, indicate ,complete, choose, decide etc .Itverbs like accept, indicate ,complete, choose, decide etc .It
includes-includes-
 ACCEPTANCE OF VALUE:- Here learner exhibits consistency ofACCEPTANCE OF VALUE:- Here learner exhibits consistency of
response to the class of objects, phenomena etc. e.g. Theresponse to the class of objects, phenomena etc. e.g. The
student grows his sense of kinship with human beings of allstudent grows his sense of kinship with human beings of all
nations.nations.
 PREFERENCE FOR A VALUE:- The learner is committed to thePREFERENCE FOR A VALUE:- The learner is committed to the
value to pursue it. e.g.-The student will deliberately examines avalue to pursue it. e.g.-The student will deliberately examines a
variety of news paper to form opinion about corruption.variety of news paper to form opinion about corruption.
 COMMITMENT:- belief at this level require high degree ofCOMMITMENT:- belief at this level require high degree of
certainty .Loyalty to a position , group or cause would also becertainty .Loyalty to a position , group or cause would also be
classified here. e.g.-The student is devoted to those ideas andclassified here. e.g.-The student is devoted to those ideas and
ideals which are the foundations of democracy.ideals which are the foundations of democracy.
HIGH LEVEL OBJECTIVEHIGH LEVEL OBJECTIVE
 ORGANISATION: At this level, the learner integrate andORGANISATION: At this level, the learner integrate and
reconcile different values and develop value system. Thereconcile different values and develop value system. The
associated action verbs are –find, determine, correlate,associated action verbs are –find, determine, correlate,
compare, complete ,judge etc. Objectives at this levelcompare, complete ,judge etc. Objectives at this level
include-include-
 CONCEPTUALISATION OF A VALUE:-It refers toCONCEPTUALISATION OF A VALUE:-It refers to
internalization of values. e.g. The student forms judgmentinternalization of values. e.g. The student forms judgment
as to the responsibility of society for conserving human andas to the responsibility of society for conserving human and
material resources.material resources.
 ORGANISATION OF VALUE SYSTEM:- The goal of suchORGANISATION OF VALUE SYSTEM:- The goal of such
objectives seeks that students formulate a philosophy ofobjectives seeks that students formulate a philosophy of
life. e.g.- The students will be able to correlate the variouslife. e.g.- The students will be able to correlate the various
measures of poverty and inequality.measures of poverty and inequality.
 CHARACTERISATION BY A VALUE:- This is the highest levelCHARACTERISATION BY A VALUE:- This is the highest level
of internalization in the taxonomy. A set of values becomesof internalization in the taxonomy. A set of values becomes
a way of life. This objective includes action verbs like –a way of life. This objective includes action verbs like –
characterization ,demonstrate, discriminate, verify, developcharacterization ,demonstrate, discriminate, verify, develop
revise etc Objectives at this level relate to the behaviour-revise etc Objectives at this level relate to the behaviour-
 A GENERALISED SET OF VALUES- here students respondA GENERALISED SET OF VALUES- here students respond
very selectively at a very high level. e.g.- Students exhibitvery selectively at a very high level. e.g.- Students exhibit
readiness to revise judgment and to change behaviour inreadiness to revise judgment and to change behaviour in
the light of the evidence.the light of the evidence.
 A CHARACTERISATION OR PHILOSOPHY OF LIFE :- This isA CHARACTERISATION OR PHILOSOPHY OF LIFE :- This is
the highest level of the process of internalization of value.the highest level of the process of internalization of value.
It is concerned with one’s philosophy of life. e.g.-TheIt is concerned with one’s philosophy of life. e.g.-The
student develops a consistent philosophy of life.student develops a consistent philosophy of life.
PSYCHO MOTOR DOMAINPSYCHO MOTOR DOMAIN
• These objectives are concerned with the training of theThese objectives are concerned with the training of the
students’ physical activities and the development of skills.students’ physical activities and the development of skills.
This domain has received less emphasis. Anita. J .HarrowThis domain has received less emphasis. Anita. J .Harrow
has developed this in the following categories:-has developed this in the following categories:-
• REFLEX MOVEMENT- It includes associated verbs likeREFLEX MOVEMENT- It includes associated verbs like
relax, stop, bite, stretch etc. It may be segmental andrelax, stop, bite, stretch etc. It may be segmental and
inter-segmental. e.g.-The students will be able to make theinter-segmental. e.g.-The students will be able to make the
structure of the Earth.structure of the Earth.
• FUNDAMENTAL MOVEMENT:- It includes associated verbsFUNDAMENTAL MOVEMENT:- It includes associated verbs
like jump, walk, pull ,run, push, catch ,creep ,manipulatelike jump, walk, pull ,run, push, catch ,creep ,manipulate
etc e.g. The students will be able to move on the exterioretc e.g. The students will be able to move on the exterior
of the earth.of the earth.
• PERCEPTUAL ABILITIES:- Objectives in this divisionPERCEPTUAL ABILITIES:- Objectives in this division
address-a) Kinesthetic b) Visual c) Auditory d) Tactileaddress-a) Kinesthetic b) Visual c) Auditory d) Tactile
e) Co-ordination abilities.e) Co-ordination abilities.
Its associated action verbs are memory tracing, bear bend,Its associated action verbs are memory tracing, bear bend,
conduct, touch, sketch, construct etc. e.g. The students willconduct, touch, sketch, construct etc. e.g. The students will
be able to memorise and trace the interior of the earth.be able to memorise and trace the interior of the earth.
• PHYSICAL ABILITIES:- This level objectives included arePHYSICAL ABILITIES:- This level objectives included are
endurance, strength, flexibility, agility , reaction –respondendurance, strength, flexibility, agility , reaction –respond
time, dexterity. The associated action verbs are starttime, dexterity. The associated action verbs are start
,increase, stand etc . e.g. –The student will be able to,increase, stand etc . e.g. –The student will be able to
stand on the exterior of the earth.stand on the exterior of the earth.
• SKILLED MOVEMENTS:- Objectives at this level isSKILLED MOVEMENTS:- Objectives at this level is
concerned with games, sports ,dance, fine arts. Theconcerned with games, sports ,dance, fine arts. The
associated action verbs are dive ,drive, swim, shoot, digassociated action verbs are dive ,drive, swim, shoot, dig
etc. e.g.-The student will be able to draw the sketch of theetc. e.g.-The student will be able to draw the sketch of the
structure of the earth.structure of the earth.
• NO DISCUSSIVE COMMUNICATION:- Objectives at thisNO DISCUSSIVE COMMUNICATION:- Objectives at this
final level of taxonomy relate to expressive movements likefinal level of taxonomy relate to expressive movements like
posture, gesture, facial expression, creative movements.posture, gesture, facial expression, creative movements.
The associated action verbs are pose ,tease, stand, sketchThe associated action verbs are pose ,tease, stand, sketch
etc. e.g.- The student will be able to pose as Indian saint.etc. e.g.- The student will be able to pose as Indian saint.
ConclusionConclusion
• The general aims of education must be translated intoThe general aims of education must be translated into
specific objectives if we are to know that to strive for in thespecific objectives if we are to know that to strive for in the
behaviour of observable activity of students. The teachingbehaviour of observable activity of students. The teaching
objectives are identified after analysing the content to beobjectives are identified after analysing the content to be
taught because teaching is a meaningful and purposefultaught because teaching is a meaningful and purposeful
activity. Many objectives are a combination of cognitive,activity. Many objectives are a combination of cognitive,
affective and psychomotor objective, but it also involvesaffective and psychomotor objective, but it also involves
knowledge of the principles and conceptions about theknowledge of the principles and conceptions about the
model or graph and also the attitude and interests of themodel or graph and also the attitude and interests of the
learner.learner.

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Bloom taxonomy presentation

  • 1. BLOOM TAXONOMYBLOOM TAXONOMY  Taxonomy means a system of classification.Taxonomy means a system of classification. Therefore, Bloom Taxonomy is a system ofTherefore, Bloom Taxonomy is a system of classification of objective.classification of objective.  Teaching, Learning process is an attempt to changeTeaching, Learning process is an attempt to change the behaviour of pupil with respect to some learningthe behaviour of pupil with respect to some learning experiences.experiences.  Objectives are the starting point of all educationalObjectives are the starting point of all educational ventures and instructional objectives are crucial toventures and instructional objectives are crucial to all educational venture.all educational venture.  In education objective is a desired change inIn education objective is a desired change in behaviour of the pupil.behaviour of the pupil.  Educational objectives are related to the philosophyEducational objectives are related to the philosophy of a nation.of a nation.
  • 2.  Bloom and Associate in the University of Chicago haveBloom and Associate in the University of Chicago have introduced the most important classification or Taxonomy.introduced the most important classification or Taxonomy. They have divided the behaviour in three domains.They have divided the behaviour in three domains. They are:They are:  1. THE COGNITIVE DOMAIN (KNOWING)1. THE COGNITIVE DOMAIN (KNOWING)  2. AFFECTIVE DOMAIN (FEELING)2. AFFECTIVE DOMAIN (FEELING)  3 PSYCHOMOTOR DOMAIN (DOING)3 PSYCHOMOTOR DOMAIN (DOING)
  • 3. COGNITIVE OBJECTIVECOGNITIVE OBJECTIVE  It comprises acquisition and manipulation of factualIt comprises acquisition and manipulation of factual information.information.  It is concerned with intellectual skills and abilities ofIt is concerned with intellectual skills and abilities of students.students.  The cognitive objectives are divided into three levels.The cognitive objectives are divided into three levels. These are:These are: 1.Low Level1.Low Level 2. Medium Level2. Medium Level 3. High Level3. High Level  There are altogether six categories.There are altogether six categories. (i)(i) Knowledge, comprehension and application are in lowKnowledge, comprehension and application are in low level;level; (ii)(ii) Analysis and synthesis in the medium level andAnalysis and synthesis in the medium level and (iii)(iii) Valuation is the category in high level.Valuation is the category in high level.
  • 4. KNOWLEDGEKNOWLEDGE  Knowledge includes associated verbs like define, list,Knowledge includes associated verbs like define, list, measure, name, recall, select etc.measure, name, recall, select etc.  KNOWLEDGE OF SPECIFICKNOWLEDGE OF SPECIFIC: This involves the recall of: This involves the recall of specific information .e.g. the students will recall the date ofspecific information .e.g. the students will recall the date of first world war.first world war.  KNOWLEDGE OF WAYS AND MEANSKNOWLEDGE OF WAYS AND MEANS: This includes: This includes knowledge of the ways of organising, judging andknowledge of the ways of organising, judging and criticising. e.g. The student will understand thecriticising. e.g. The student will understand the development of Indian culture as exemplified in Indian life.development of Indian culture as exemplified in Indian life.  KNOWLEDGE OF UNIVERSAL AND ABSTRACTION:KNOWLEDGE OF UNIVERSAL AND ABSTRACTION: ThisThis level includes the large structures ,theories andlevel includes the large structures ,theories and generalisations which dominate the field. e.g.generalisations which dominate the field. e.g. The studentThe student will recall major generalisations about a particular culture .will recall major generalisations about a particular culture .
  • 5. COMPREHENSIONCOMPREHENSION  It represents the lowest level of understanding. It includesIt represents the lowest level of understanding. It includes associated verbs like change, classify, distinguish,associated verbs like change, classify, distinguish, formulate, identify, justify etc.formulate, identify, justify etc.  TRANSLATION : It is judged on the basis faithfulness andTRANSLATION : It is judged on the basis faithfulness and accuracyaccuracy e.g. Students will be able to translate mathematicale.g. Students will be able to translate mathematical material into symbolics.material into symbolics.  INTERPRETATION: It includes recording , rearrangement ,INTERPRETATION: It includes recording , rearrangement , new view of a communication.new view of a communication. e.g. Students will be able to interpret various types ofe.g. Students will be able to interpret various types of social data.social data.  EXTRAPOLATION: It involves prediction of the trends.EXTRAPOLATION: It involves prediction of the trends. e.g. Students will be able to predict continuation of trends.e.g. Students will be able to predict continuation of trends.
  • 6. APPLICATIONAPPLICATION  It includes the use of abstraction to concrete situations. ItIt includes the use of abstraction to concrete situations. It may be in the form of general ideas, rules or procedures.may be in the form of general ideas, rules or procedures.  It includes the associated verbs like assess, choose,It includes the associated verbs like assess, choose, construct, select,discover, establish, generate, predict etc.construct, select,discover, establish, generate, predict etc. e.g. students will apply the knowledge of mathematics ine.g. students will apply the knowledge of mathematics in purchasing of things in the market.purchasing of things in the market.
  • 7. ANALYSISANALYSIS  This is medium level of cognitive domain which includesThis is medium level of cognitive domain which includes objectives that relate to the breaking of whole into parts toobjectives that relate to the breaking of whole into parts to enable the students to see the underlying educationalenable the students to see the underlying educational structure of complex ideas. Associated verbs are analyze,structure of complex ideas. Associated verbs are analyze, criticise, justify, separate etc. ,criticise, justify, separate etc. ,  Analysis of elements:- It involves identification of:- It involves identification of elements in a communication. e.g. The student will be ableelements in a communication. e.g. The student will be able to distinguish facts from hypothesis.to distinguish facts from hypothesis.  Analysis of relationshipAnalysis of relationship:-It involves breakdown of:-It involves breakdown of connections between elements. e.g.-The student will beconnections between elements. e.g.-The student will be able to comprehend the idea of passage.able to comprehend the idea of passage.  Analysis of organisational principlesAnalysis of organisational principles:- e.g –The student:- e.g –The student will be able to recognise form and pattern of literacywill be able to recognise form and pattern of literacy
  • 8. SYNTHESISSYNTHESIS  This level includes objectives that relate to puttingThis level includes objectives that relate to putting together parts in a new form or creation of some thingtogether parts in a new form or creation of some thing that did not exist before. The associated verbs arethat did not exist before. The associated verbs are summmarise , relate ,organize, argue, etcsummmarise , relate ,organize, argue, etc  Production of unique communicationProduction of unique communication:- It involves:- It involves development of communication in which speakerdevelopment of communication in which speaker attempts to convey the ideas of others .e.g. Theattempts to convey the ideas of others .e.g. The students will be able to convey the ideas of Vinobastudents will be able to convey the ideas of Vinoba Bhave on Bhoodan Movement.Bhave on Bhoodan Movement.  Production of planProduction of plan:- It involves development on plan:- It involves development on plan proposals. e.g. The student will be able to propose theproposals. e.g. The student will be able to propose the ways of testing hypothesis.ways of testing hypothesis.  Derivation of a set of abstract relationsDerivation of a set of abstract relations.:-e.g. The.:-e.g. The student will be able to make mathematical discoveriesstudent will be able to make mathematical discoveries and generalization.and generalization.
  • 9. EVALUATIONEVALUATION  This is the highest level in cognitive domain. This objectivesThis is the highest level in cognitive domain. This objectives require making value judgment against some criterion.require making value judgment against some criterion. The associated verbs are determine, choose ,verify ,judge,The associated verbs are determine, choose ,verify ,judge, identify etc.identify etc.  Judgment in terms of internal evidencesJudgment in terms of internal evidences:-It involves:-It involves evaluation of accuracy ,consistency etcevaluation of accuracy ,consistency etc  Judgment in terms of external criteriaJudgment in terms of external criteria:- It involves:- It involves evaluation of material with reference to certain selected orevaluation of material with reference to certain selected or recommended criteriarecommended criteria e.g. The student will be able compare the variouse.g. The student will be able compare the various civilizations.civilizations.
  • 10. AFFECTIVE DOMAINAFFECTIVE DOMAIN  Emotions, attitude ,interests ,values ,morals exist and affect allEmotions, attitude ,interests ,values ,morals exist and affect all human behaviour. It is the school where various values andhuman behaviour. It is the school where various values and feelings are developed. It is the duty of the teacher to develop thefeelings are developed. It is the duty of the teacher to develop the affective domain of the students. It is developed by Bloom, Karthaffective domain of the students. It is developed by Bloom, Karth and Massia in 1964.and Massia in 1964. There are two levels of objectives:-There are two levels of objectives:-  1.Low level objective:-1.Low level objective:- It includes-a) Receiving b) Responding c) valuing.It includes-a) Receiving b) Responding c) valuing.  2.High level objective:-2.High level objective:- It includes- a) organisation b) characterization of complex values.It includes- a) organisation b) characterization of complex values.
  • 11. LOW LEVEL OBJECTIVELOW LEVEL OBJECTIVE  RECEIVING:-RECEIVING:- This is the first crucial step the learner isThis is the first crucial step the learner is to be oriented to learn what does teacher intend to do. Theto be oriented to learn what does teacher intend to do. The associated verbs are –learn ,perceive, observe, receive etc.associated verbs are –learn ,perceive, observe, receive etc.  AWARENESS:- At this Level the learner will be mere consciousAWARENESS:- At this Level the learner will be mere conscious about a situation or object. e.g, The student develops awarenessabout a situation or object. e.g, The student develops awareness of aesthetic factors in dress .architecture etc.of aesthetic factors in dress .architecture etc.   WILLINGNESS TO RECEIVE:- This level involves behaviour willingWILLINGNESS TO RECEIVE:- This level involves behaviour willing to tolerate a given stimulus not to avoid it. e.g.The studentto tolerate a given stimulus not to avoid it. e.g.The student develops appreciation for other culture.develops appreciation for other culture.  CONTROLLED ATTENTION:- At this level student selects aCONTROLLED ATTENTION:- At this level student selects a favoured stimulus, despite competing or distracting stimuli at afavoured stimulus, despite competing or distracting stimuli at a conscious or pre-conscious level. e. g The student listens musicconscious or pre-conscious level. e. g The student listens music with some discrimination as to its mood and meaning.with some discrimination as to its mood and meaning.
  • 12.  RESPONDING: The student ,at this level, indicates aRESPONDING: The student ,at this level, indicates a willingness to participate in a given activity, accepts certainwillingness to participate in a given activity, accepts certain ideas. This includes the associated verbs like write ,record,ideas. This includes the associated verbs like write ,record, state answer etc. This level refers to learner’s attention tostate answer etc. This level refers to learner’s attention to stimuli such as-stimuli such as-  ACQUIESENCE:-At this level students make response butACQUIESENCE:-At this level students make response but not fully accept the necessity of doing so. e.g. Thenot fully accept the necessity of doing so. e.g. The students exhibit willingness to comply with healthstudents exhibit willingness to comply with health regulations.regulations.  WILLINGNESS TO RESPOND:- Here learner is willing toWILLINGNESS TO RESPOND:- Here learner is willing to exhibit the behaviour voluntarily .e.g. The student acceptsexhibit the behaviour voluntarily .e.g. The student accepts the responsibility of his own health.the responsibility of his own health.  SATISFACTION IN RESPONSE:- At this level there is feelingSATISFACTION IN RESPONSE:- At this level there is feeling of pleasure in response. e.g. The students find pleasure inof pleasure in response. e.g. The students find pleasure in reading for recreation.reading for recreation.
  • 13.  VALUING: This term is employed in the sense that a thing ,VALUING: This term is employed in the sense that a thing , phenomenon or behaviour has worth. It is associated with actionphenomenon or behaviour has worth. It is associated with action verbs like accept, indicate ,complete, choose, decide etc .Itverbs like accept, indicate ,complete, choose, decide etc .It includes-includes-  ACCEPTANCE OF VALUE:- Here learner exhibits consistency ofACCEPTANCE OF VALUE:- Here learner exhibits consistency of response to the class of objects, phenomena etc. e.g. Theresponse to the class of objects, phenomena etc. e.g. The student grows his sense of kinship with human beings of allstudent grows his sense of kinship with human beings of all nations.nations.  PREFERENCE FOR A VALUE:- The learner is committed to thePREFERENCE FOR A VALUE:- The learner is committed to the value to pursue it. e.g.-The student will deliberately examines avalue to pursue it. e.g.-The student will deliberately examines a variety of news paper to form opinion about corruption.variety of news paper to form opinion about corruption.  COMMITMENT:- belief at this level require high degree ofCOMMITMENT:- belief at this level require high degree of certainty .Loyalty to a position , group or cause would also becertainty .Loyalty to a position , group or cause would also be classified here. e.g.-The student is devoted to those ideas andclassified here. e.g.-The student is devoted to those ideas and ideals which are the foundations of democracy.ideals which are the foundations of democracy.
  • 14. HIGH LEVEL OBJECTIVEHIGH LEVEL OBJECTIVE  ORGANISATION: At this level, the learner integrate andORGANISATION: At this level, the learner integrate and reconcile different values and develop value system. Thereconcile different values and develop value system. The associated action verbs are –find, determine, correlate,associated action verbs are –find, determine, correlate, compare, complete ,judge etc. Objectives at this levelcompare, complete ,judge etc. Objectives at this level include-include-  CONCEPTUALISATION OF A VALUE:-It refers toCONCEPTUALISATION OF A VALUE:-It refers to internalization of values. e.g. The student forms judgmentinternalization of values. e.g. The student forms judgment as to the responsibility of society for conserving human andas to the responsibility of society for conserving human and material resources.material resources.  ORGANISATION OF VALUE SYSTEM:- The goal of suchORGANISATION OF VALUE SYSTEM:- The goal of such objectives seeks that students formulate a philosophy ofobjectives seeks that students formulate a philosophy of life. e.g.- The students will be able to correlate the variouslife. e.g.- The students will be able to correlate the various measures of poverty and inequality.measures of poverty and inequality.
  • 15.  CHARACTERISATION BY A VALUE:- This is the highest levelCHARACTERISATION BY A VALUE:- This is the highest level of internalization in the taxonomy. A set of values becomesof internalization in the taxonomy. A set of values becomes a way of life. This objective includes action verbs like –a way of life. This objective includes action verbs like – characterization ,demonstrate, discriminate, verify, developcharacterization ,demonstrate, discriminate, verify, develop revise etc Objectives at this level relate to the behaviour-revise etc Objectives at this level relate to the behaviour-  A GENERALISED SET OF VALUES- here students respondA GENERALISED SET OF VALUES- here students respond very selectively at a very high level. e.g.- Students exhibitvery selectively at a very high level. e.g.- Students exhibit readiness to revise judgment and to change behaviour inreadiness to revise judgment and to change behaviour in the light of the evidence.the light of the evidence.  A CHARACTERISATION OR PHILOSOPHY OF LIFE :- This isA CHARACTERISATION OR PHILOSOPHY OF LIFE :- This is the highest level of the process of internalization of value.the highest level of the process of internalization of value. It is concerned with one’s philosophy of life. e.g.-TheIt is concerned with one’s philosophy of life. e.g.-The student develops a consistent philosophy of life.student develops a consistent philosophy of life.
  • 16. PSYCHO MOTOR DOMAINPSYCHO MOTOR DOMAIN • These objectives are concerned with the training of theThese objectives are concerned with the training of the students’ physical activities and the development of skills.students’ physical activities and the development of skills. This domain has received less emphasis. Anita. J .HarrowThis domain has received less emphasis. Anita. J .Harrow has developed this in the following categories:-has developed this in the following categories:- • REFLEX MOVEMENT- It includes associated verbs likeREFLEX MOVEMENT- It includes associated verbs like relax, stop, bite, stretch etc. It may be segmental andrelax, stop, bite, stretch etc. It may be segmental and inter-segmental. e.g.-The students will be able to make theinter-segmental. e.g.-The students will be able to make the structure of the Earth.structure of the Earth. • FUNDAMENTAL MOVEMENT:- It includes associated verbsFUNDAMENTAL MOVEMENT:- It includes associated verbs like jump, walk, pull ,run, push, catch ,creep ,manipulatelike jump, walk, pull ,run, push, catch ,creep ,manipulate etc e.g. The students will be able to move on the exterioretc e.g. The students will be able to move on the exterior of the earth.of the earth.
  • 17. • PERCEPTUAL ABILITIES:- Objectives in this divisionPERCEPTUAL ABILITIES:- Objectives in this division address-a) Kinesthetic b) Visual c) Auditory d) Tactileaddress-a) Kinesthetic b) Visual c) Auditory d) Tactile e) Co-ordination abilities.e) Co-ordination abilities. Its associated action verbs are memory tracing, bear bend,Its associated action verbs are memory tracing, bear bend, conduct, touch, sketch, construct etc. e.g. The students willconduct, touch, sketch, construct etc. e.g. The students will be able to memorise and trace the interior of the earth.be able to memorise and trace the interior of the earth. • PHYSICAL ABILITIES:- This level objectives included arePHYSICAL ABILITIES:- This level objectives included are endurance, strength, flexibility, agility , reaction –respondendurance, strength, flexibility, agility , reaction –respond time, dexterity. The associated action verbs are starttime, dexterity. The associated action verbs are start ,increase, stand etc . e.g. –The student will be able to,increase, stand etc . e.g. –The student will be able to stand on the exterior of the earth.stand on the exterior of the earth.
  • 18. • SKILLED MOVEMENTS:- Objectives at this level isSKILLED MOVEMENTS:- Objectives at this level is concerned with games, sports ,dance, fine arts. Theconcerned with games, sports ,dance, fine arts. The associated action verbs are dive ,drive, swim, shoot, digassociated action verbs are dive ,drive, swim, shoot, dig etc. e.g.-The student will be able to draw the sketch of theetc. e.g.-The student will be able to draw the sketch of the structure of the earth.structure of the earth. • NO DISCUSSIVE COMMUNICATION:- Objectives at thisNO DISCUSSIVE COMMUNICATION:- Objectives at this final level of taxonomy relate to expressive movements likefinal level of taxonomy relate to expressive movements like posture, gesture, facial expression, creative movements.posture, gesture, facial expression, creative movements. The associated action verbs are pose ,tease, stand, sketchThe associated action verbs are pose ,tease, stand, sketch etc. e.g.- The student will be able to pose as Indian saint.etc. e.g.- The student will be able to pose as Indian saint.
  • 19. ConclusionConclusion • The general aims of education must be translated intoThe general aims of education must be translated into specific objectives if we are to know that to strive for in thespecific objectives if we are to know that to strive for in the behaviour of observable activity of students. The teachingbehaviour of observable activity of students. The teaching objectives are identified after analysing the content to beobjectives are identified after analysing the content to be taught because teaching is a meaningful and purposefultaught because teaching is a meaningful and purposeful activity. Many objectives are a combination of cognitive,activity. Many objectives are a combination of cognitive, affective and psychomotor objective, but it also involvesaffective and psychomotor objective, but it also involves knowledge of the principles and conceptions about theknowledge of the principles and conceptions about the model or graph and also the attitude and interests of themodel or graph and also the attitude and interests of the learner.learner.