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  1. 1. UNRAVELING Bit-Torrent Guided by : Presented by : Ms. Nibedita Jagdev Assistant Professor Department of CSE Sudhansu Sekhar Dash CSE – D, 7th Semester Regd.no-1011012190
  2. 2.  Introduction  Background Study  Peer-to-Peer Architecture  Implementation Of P2P Network  Introduction To Bit-Torrent  Terminologies In Bit-Torrent  Working Of Bit-Torrent  Recent Developments  Conclusion
  3. 3.  Bit Torrent was created by Bram Cohen in 2001.  It is a file transferring system that allows peer to peer (P2P) data communication .  It is used to transfer very huge files.  All torrent clients use the Bit Torrent Protocol.  This is the most popular and efficient file transferring system.  More efficient than the Client–Server System. Figure 1: Author Of Bit-Torrent Protocol
  4. 4.  Client sends the GET Message to Server.  Server sends the required files.  Transfer is handled by FTP and HTTP. Advantages :  Most widely used model.  Easy to implement. Disadvantages :  Traffic congestion.  Whole system crashes, when server fails. Figure 2: Common Client–Server Model
  5. 5. • A peer-to-peer (P2P) network is a type of decentralized and distributed network architecture . • In this architecture, individual nodes in the network are called as the ”peers”. • All nodes act as both suppliers and consumers of resources, in contrast to the centralized Client–Server Model where client nodes request access to resources provided by central servers. Figure 3 : A Common P2P Network
  6. 6.  The P2P architecture was first pioneered by NAPSTER (a famous online music provider in MP3 format) in 1999.  Further development in this field was later made by KaZaA (FastTrack) which helped in the sharing of music as well as the video files.  It was best implemented by Gnutella which is a fully distributed alternative to the semi-centralized systems such as the KaZaA & Napster.
  7. 7. Figure 4 : Original Napster Figure 5 : KAZAA Figure 6 : Bit-Torrent
  8. 8.  Bit-torrents (also known as the "torrents") work by downloading small segments of files from different web sources at the same time.  It enables fast downloading of large files using minimum internet bandwidth. Figure 7 : A Bit-Torrent Network
  9. 9.  Seed:  A seed refers to a machine possessing the complete data.  A downloader that obtains 100% of the data also becomes a seed.  Leech:  Leecher , (synonymous with downloader), is a peer or any client that does not have 100% of the data.  Leech also refers to a peer (or peers) that has a negative effect on the swarm by having a very poor share ratio. Figure 8 : Seeds & Peers In A Bit-torrent Client
  10. 10.  Swarm: • All the peers (including seeds), sharing a torrent are called as the swarms. For example, six ordinary peers and two seeds make a swarm of eight.  .torrent File: • A torrent can mean either a .torrent metadata file or all files described by it, depending on context. • The torrent file contains metadata about all the files it makes downloadable, including their names and sizes and checksums of all pieces in the torrent.
  12. 12.  Tracker: • A tracker is a server that keeps track of those seeds & peers that are in the swarm. • The tracker is not directly involved in the data transfer and does not have a copy of the file. Figure 11: Working Of Tracker
  13. 13. Client: • A Bit Torrent client is an executable program which implements the BitTorrent protocol in it. • It runs together with the operating system on a user‟s machine, and handles interactions with the tracker and peers. Figure 12: Working of Client
  14. 14.  Piece (of a file):  The file which is to be downloaded is divided into similar size of pieces but last piece size varies.  These pieces parallel.  Each piece is different peers. are downloaded downloaded in from Example : A 1.4Mb file could be split into the following pieces: 5 * 256kb pieces, and a final piece of 120kb.
  15. 15.  The torrent file functions as a special pointer to locate a specific file and the swarm of people currently sharing that file.  The torrent client software, then talks to a tracker server for 2 to 10 minutes, while it scours the internet for people to swarm with.  As the tracker locates torrent users to swarm with, each user will be automatically labeled as either a “leech/peer” or as a “seed”.  Then the client software then begins the transfer depending upon the connection type.  Once the transfer is complete, seeding starts automatically.
  16. 16. Web page with link to .torrent Tracker Web Server C A Peer [Leech] Downloader Peer B Peer [Leech] [Seed]
  17. 17. Web page with link to .torrent Tracker Web Server C A Peer [Leech] Downloader Peer B Peer [Leech] [Seed]
  18. 18. Web page with link to .torrent Tracker Web Server C A Peer [Leech] Downloader Peer B Peer [Leech] [Seed]
  19. 19. Web page with link to .torrent Tracker Web Server C A Peer [Leech] Downloader Peer B Peer [Leech] [Seed]
  20. 20. Web page with link to .torrent Tracker Web Server C A Peer [Leech] Downloader Peer B Peer [Leech] [Seed]
  21. 21. Web page with link to .torrent Tracker Web Server C A Peer [Leech] Downloader Peer B Peer [Leech] [Seed]
  22. 22. Web page with link to .torrent Tracker Web Server C A Peer [Leech] Downloader Peer B Peer [Leech] [Seed]
  24. 24. The behavior of a peer running the Bit-Torrent peer-to-peer protocol is mostly determined by two algorithms:  Peer Selection Algorithm : Determines who the local peer will cooperate with i.e. who it will download from and upload to.  Piece Selection Algorithm : Determines which pieces of the file being downloaded should be obtained from which peer as the download progresses.
  25. 25. Piece selection is divided into 3 steps: • Random First Piece 1. A piece is selected at random to get the download started. 2. Random pieces are then chosen until the first piece is completed • Rarest First When a peer selects which piece to download next, the rarest piece will be chosen from the current swarm. • Endgame mode 1. Defense against the “last-block problem” 2. Send requests for missing sub-pieces to all peers in our peer list 3. Send cancel messages upon receipt of a sub-piece
  26. 26. Peer selection is divided into 3 parts: • Choking: 1. When a peer receives a request for a piece from another peer, it can opt to refuse to transmit that piece. If this happens, the peer is said to be choked. 2. The most common option is that by default, a client will only maintain a default number of simultaneous uploads (max_uploads). 3. All further requests to the client will be marked as choked.
  27. 27. • Optimistic Unchoking: 1. To ensure that connections with the best data transfer rates are not favoured, each peer has a reserved „optimistic unchoke‟ which is left unchoked regardless of the current transfer rate. 2. The peer which is assigned to this is rotated every 30 seconds. This is enough time for the upload / download rates to reach maximum capacity. 3. The peers then cooperate using the tit for tat strategy, where the downloader responds in one period with the same action the uploader used in the last period.
  28. 28. Advantages: • Bit Torrent is one of the most common protocols for transferring large files and peer-to-peer networks. • As of February 2013, BitTorrent was responsible for 3.35% of all worldwide bandwidth, more than half of the 6% of total bandwidth dedicated to file sharing. • Demand of torrent file sharing has doubled due to latest smartphones and tablets. Disadvantages: • Possibility of sharing any file type has led bit torrent to Legal issues with Piracy & Copyright Infringement Laws which has hampered its credibility.
  29. 29. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS  Bit Torrent Sync: A file synchronizing tool to sync files between devices on a local network, or between remote devices over the Internet via secure, distributed P2P technology.( Launched since August 2013)  Bit Torrent plus: Upgraded bit torrent client for premium customers providing additional features such as inbuilt virus protection , hd playback,Faster downloads ,etc.  Bit Torrent live - A New Way to Live Broadcast 1. Bit Torrent Live is a powerful new web-based live streaming technology. 2. Designed to eliminate barriers to, Live is an entirely new protocol, designed to deliver high quality video to large audiences - with significant reduction in infrastructure cost and network delays.
  30. 30.  Bit torrent is a very widely used peer to peer protocol in current network scenario  A growing number of individuals and organizations are using BitTorrent to distribute their own or licensed material.  Because of its simplicity & flexibility bit torrent has become the most widely used to transfer files like music,videos,games, etc.  As of January 2012, BitTorrent is utilized by 150 million active users (according to BitTorrent, Inc.)
  31. 31. REFERENCES [1] http://www.morehawes.co.uk/the-bittorrent-protocol.html [2] http://www.howtogeek.com/141257/htg-explains-how-does-bittorrent-work [3] www.slideshare.net/gsantosh031/bit-torrent-ppt [4] A. R. Bharambe, C. Herley and V. N. Padmanabhan, “Analyzing and Improving Bit Torrent Performance”, Technical Report MSR-TR-2005-03, Microsoft Research, USA, Feb 2005 [5] www.cs.cornell.edu/courses/cs514/2008sp/bittorrent.ppt [6] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bit_torrent [7] http://www.bittorrent.org/protocol.html