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Energy & Environmental issues in India


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Energy & Environmental issues in India

  1. 1. <ul><li>K.Sudhakar, </li></ul><ul><li>Senior Research Fellow, </li></ul><ul><li>Centre for Energy & Environment Science And Technology, </li></ul><ul><li>National Instituted of Technology-620015 </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile:9786299534 </li></ul>Energy & Environmental Issues in India: Possible Solutions
  2. 2. Sustainable Development : Energy and Environment convergence <ul><ul><li>Energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>World is running out of fossil fuel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The last two years has seen highest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Demand for energy is outstripping the growth in generation capacity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Air – Emissions (SOx, NOx, CO, SPM), ozone depletion, global warming </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water-Acid precipitation, degradation, loss of bio-diversity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainable development of “Energy + Ecology + Economy” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Harnessing renewable energy holds the key </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Global Warming <ul><li>Global warming is the increase in the average measured temperature of the Earth's near-surface air and oceans since the mid-20 th century, and its projected continuation. </li></ul><ul><li>The average global air temperature near the Earth's surface increased 0.74 ± 0.18 °C (1.33 ± 0.32 °F) during the 100 years ending in 2005. </li></ul>Source: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
  4. 4. Greenhouse gases <ul><li>Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Methane (CH 4 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) </li></ul><ul><li>Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) </li></ul><ul><li>Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) </li></ul>Source: Kyoto Protocol- Annexure A Natural Manmade
  5. 5. Greenhouse effect Source: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 240 Watt per m 3 343 Watt per m 3 103 Watt per m 3
  6. 6. Co 2 Concentration in 2007 The 2007 rise in global carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations is tied with 2005 as the third highest since atmospheric measurements began in 1958. The red line shows the trend together with seasonal variations. The black line indicates the trend that emerges when the seasonal cycle has been removed. (Credit: NOAA)
  7. 7. Source: Dr L Gohar and Prof K Shine, Dept. of Meteorology, University of Reading Rising levels of greenhouse gases Source: Stern Review
  8. 8. Per-capita Carbon –dioxide emission (Metric Tons) Country in metric tons USA 20.01 Europe 9.40 Japan 9.87 China 3.60 Russia 11.71 India 1.02 World average 4.25
  9. 9. India TN Energy Production COAL RE TN vs India
  10. 10. Impacts of Climate Change Forests Biodiversity Agriculture Coastlines Impact of rise in temperature of 1.8 o C to 4 o C
  11. 11. Likely Impacts of Climate Change
  12. 12. Climate Change Impact in India <ul><li>Rajasthan- Drought </li></ul><ul><li>Rann of Kutch – sea level rise </li></ul><ul><li>Mumbai-Salt water intrusion </li></ul><ul><li>Kerala –Productivity of Forest </li></ul><ul><li>Tamil Nadu-Coral bleaching </li></ul><ul><li>Ganges – Sedimentation problem </li></ul><ul><li>Sunderbans-Sea level raise </li></ul><ul><li>Northwest India-reduction In rice yield </li></ul>
  13. 13. Effect on apple cultivation <ul><li>Kullu Valley, Himachal Pradesh </li></ul><ul><li>Experienced a number of crop failures in the last 15 years </li></ul><ul><li>Apple belt has moved 30 kilometers [northwards] over the last 50 years </li></ul><ul><li>Apple growers, says attributed poor production to reduced snowfall and its changed timing. </li></ul>Case study:1 Impact on Agriculture
  14. 14. <ul><li>Shift in Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Apple cultivation is affected in Kullu Valley </li></ul><ul><li>Apple belt has moved 30 KM nothwards </li></ul><ul><li>Forest resources were removed </li></ul>
  15. 15. 2. Ganga under threat from warming <ul><li>Himalayan source of the Ganga is drying up at a rate of 40 yards a year, nearly twice as fast as two decades ago, and that some of these glaciers might disappear by 2030. </li></ul><ul><li>In the dry summer months, the Gangotri glacier provides up to 70 percent of the water of the Ganga. </li></ul><ul><li>According to a UN climate report, the shrinking glaciers also threaten Asia’s supply of fresh water. </li></ul>Source: New Indian Express
  16. 16. Source: New Indian Express
  17. 17. 3. Impact on Coastal Orissa <ul><li>The Satavaya region, once a cluster of seven villages. </li></ul><ul><li>Only two out of the seven villages exists the other five villages have been submerged. </li></ul><ul><li>The Coastal villages have been affected by cyclone and floods killing more than 30,000 people. </li></ul><ul><li>The sea has ingressed to about 1.5 km into Satavaya and 2.5 km into Kanakpur. Satavaya has also lost 56% of its mangrove vegetation. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Global Impacts <ul><li>The largest glacier on Mount Kenya has lost 92% of its mass </li></ul><ul><li>Sea levels have risen by 10 - 25 cm </li></ul><ul><li>The thickness of sea ice in the arctic has decreased by 40%. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>The Common Murre has advanced breeding by 24 days per decade over the past 50 years in response to higher temperatures. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>The Baltimore oriole is shifting northward and may soon disappear entirely from the Baltimore area. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Polar bear populations are coming under threat as food becomes harder to hunt. </li></ul>
  22. 22. The impacts of climate change are not evenly distributed – the poorest countries and people will suffer earliest and most. And if and when the damages appear it will be too late to reverse the process. Thus we are forced to look a long way ahead.
  23. 23. Global Warming Solutions <ul><li>Limiting use of Traditional fossil fuels( Coal,Natural Gas,petrol,diesel etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Switching over to clean fuels – Renewable energy (Solar,Wind,Biomass,Biodiesel etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Energy efficiency & Energy Conservation </li></ul><ul><li>CO2 Sequestration. </li></ul>Injecting liquefied CO 2 into the deep sea or burying CO 2 underground Biofixation of CO 2 by photosynthetic organisms
  24. 25. Bio Fuels: Energy Trees of India <ul><li>Due to it’s climate, India has been naturally blessed with many varieties of Oil seeds bearing Trees like : </li></ul><ul><li>Trees: </li></ul><ul><li>Pongamia (Honge) </li></ul><ul><li>Simaruoba </li></ul><ul><li>Mahua </li></ul><ul><li>Sal </li></ul><ul><li>Niger, Jatropha, and dozens of such species identified as ideal feedstock for BioDiesel. </li></ul><ul><li>Plants </li></ul><ul><li>Micro-algae </li></ul>
  25. 27. Power Plant / Energy Source Flue Gases NOx + CO 2 from combustion flue gas emissions Algal Biotechnology Photo bioreactor Algal Photo Bioreactors Converts Flue Gases & Sunlight into Biofuels through Photosynthesis “ Used” Algae have Multiple Potential Uses Sunlight Co-Firing Fermentation Esterification Drying Green Power Biodiesel Ethanol Protein Meal National workshop on Emerging horizons in Bio fuel Research and Application , Agra ;July 24-27, 2009 Cleaned Gases
  26. 28. India’s Initiatives <ul><li>India has a well developed policy, legislative regulatory & programmatic regime </li></ul><ul><li>For promotion of Energy efficiency, renewable energy, nuclear power, fuel switching, energy pricing reform addressing GHG emission </li></ul>
  27. 29. <ul><li>Signed UNFCC on 10 th June 1992 </li></ul><ul><li>India ratified the Kyoto protocol </li></ul><ul><li>India has a National Action Plan on Climate Change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National Solar Mission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Mission on Sustainable Habitat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Water Mission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Mission for a “ Green India” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Mission on Strategic Mission on Climate Change </li></ul></ul>
  28. 30. BioDiesel - Energy Trees - <ul><li>Answer to India’s social, environmental and economic woes </li></ul>
  29. 31. Merits of BioDiesel <ul><li>Reduces pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Generates rural employment </li></ul><ul><li>Saves foreign exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Prevents global warming </li></ul><ul><li>Increases forest cover </li></ul><ul><li>Increases ground water table </li></ul><ul><li>Prevents soil erosion </li></ul><ul><li>Provides Energy Security </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable & Renewable Energ y </li></ul>
  30. 32. <ul><li>‘ Can technological developments and the transition to a culture that is more aware of the need to safeguard the environment help create a world powered by the Sun’s Energy ? ‘ </li></ul>
  31. 33. Power Plant / Energy Source Flue Gases NOx + CO 2 from combustion flue gas emissions Algal Biotechnology Photo bioreactor Algae Photo Bioreactors Converts Flue Gases & Sunlight into Biofuels through Photosynthesis “ Used” Algae have Multiple Potential Uses Sunlight Co-Firing Fermentation Esterification Drying Green Power Biodiesel Ethanol Protein Meal Cleaned Gases
  32. 34. Ongoing Research at CEESAT <ul><li>Project Title : </li></ul><ul><li>“ Experimental and Simulation Studies on CO2 Sequestration using algae” </li></ul><ul><li>Funded By : </li></ul><ul><li>Department of Science and Technology ; reference – DST/IS-STAC/CO2-SR12/07 - 55 lakhs </li></ul><ul><li>Start Date : May 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>CO 2 Sequestration Research Group – </li></ul><ul><li>Dr.(Mrs).M.Premalatha , Asst. Professor, CEESAT , NIT </li></ul><ul><li>K.Sudhakar, Senior research fellow </li></ul><ul><li>K.K.Vasumathi, Junior Research fellow </li></ul><ul><li>Nikhil.P.G, M.Tech Student (Energy Engineering) </li></ul>
  33. 35. MILESTONES OF CEESAT <ul><li>Established in 1997 under UK India RECs Project </li></ul><ul><li>“ Energy Theme” – 12 Crores </li></ul><ul><li>Faculty of Architecture, Chemical, Electrical and Mechanical Engineering were trained in UK Universities </li></ul><ul><li>Inter-disciplinary course – M.Tech (Full time) and Ph.D.Energy Engineering being offered from 1996 </li></ul><ul><li>Conducted 2 National Conferences, 15 National workshops, </li></ul><ul><li>1 International Workshop and 1 Short term training programme </li></ul><ul><li>Sophisticated Instruments – TGA,DSC,CHN,GC </li></ul><ul><li>Completed 7 Ph.D. on Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Completed 2 MHRD R & D and 2 Thrust Area Projects </li></ul><ul><li>DST project - Rs 54.72 lakhs in Upcoming technology </li></ul><ul><li>CO 2 Sequestration </li></ul><ul><li>NITT,India – Auburn University, USA Collaborative case study project for National Science Foundation,USA </li></ul>
  34. 36. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future Centre for Energy and Environmental Science And Technology, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli Thank You
  35. 37. THANK YOU