M De C Malaysia


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  • M De C Malaysia

    1. 1. Principles of Strategy and Design for Effective Implementation of KM Dr. J.K. Suresh Associate Vice-President and Principal Knowledge Manager, Infosys Technologies, INDIA [email_address] EG2KM, Kuala Lumpur, Sep. 12, 2006
    2. 2. Infosys: Company background <ul><li>Business: IT consulting and services (Founded in 1981) </li></ul><ul><li>HQ, Bangalore, India; U.S HQ: Fremont, CA. </li></ul><ul><li>Growth: CAGR of 50% over the last decade; MCap: ~25 B US$ </li></ul><ul><li>FY 2005-06 revenues: ~US $2.1 billion with around 50, 000 employees </li></ul><ul><li>1999 – 2005: Growth of1400%, revenue terms;1000%, employee numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Global Operations, primarily servicing Fortune 500 and Global 1000 clients located in the Americas, Europe and the Asia-Pacific </li></ul><ul><li>Development Centers: India (8), NA (5), 1 in each U.K., East Asia and APAC </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing offices: ~ 36 all over the world </li></ul><ul><li>Quest for excellence integral to its social/ cultural fabric from early years </li></ul><ul><li>Pioneers of the Global Delivery Model (GDM) for development of customized IT solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Level 5: SEI CMM (Capability Maturity Model), PCMM (People Capability Maturity Model) and CMMI (Capability Maturity Model Integration) </li></ul><ul><li>Accorded many recognitions in the fields of corporate governance, financial reporting, and human resource and environment management </li></ul>
    3. 3. Infosys: Company background (contd.) <ul><li>Structure: Corporate functions (Finance, Planning, Marketing, Quality, HR, Education & Research, and Information Systems) based at Bangalore, with small teams at other centers </li></ul><ul><li>Software delivery apparatus: Geos (geographical units), IBUs (Integrated Business Units), ECUs (Enterprise Capability Units) and other units that exclusively focus on individual global client accounts </li></ul><ul><li>Solutions & services to enable customer business: Domain specialists in each of the BU’s, and the central Domain Competency Group (DCG) </li></ul><ul><li>SETLabs (Software Engineering and Technology Labs): Competency building for horizontal technology areas (e.g., enterprise architecture, infrastructure, performance and security) </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure: Education, learning and development (~ 5% of revenues) </li></ul><ul><li>Quality processes: A major focus area; central Quality department defines and owns processes for execution of customer engagements. A network of quality managers is charged with deploying these processes in the software delivery units (Geos/ IBUs/ ECUs) and ensuring their adherence </li></ul><ul><li>Process Council: Oversight of entire process definition & deployment </li></ul>
    4. 4. Infosys: Company background (contd.) <ul><li>Global locations extensively networked via dedicated communication links, monitored from the network operations center in Bangalore and multiple network hubs located worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>VPN (Virtual Private Network) links connect the company’s network to those of clients </li></ul><ul><li>Each employee has a dedicated desktop computer, and those who travel extensively, or are based at a location other than a development center, also have company-provided laptop computers and PDAs </li></ul><ul><li>E-mail, instant messaging, and video and audio conferencing are some of the common communication modes used by employees </li></ul><ul><li>Employees can access the Infosys network through secure connections from client locations as well as their homes and hotels anywhere in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Environment: High flux in Business needs , Technology and Market </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>Central focus on Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Black box approaches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Content Management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enterprise integration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Presentation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People, Process </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guided by return on investment (ROI) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on intranets, web-sites, repositories, portals, etc. </li></ul>Knowledge Management: the initial years “ In theory, there is no difference between theory and practice; (however,) in practice, there is...” - Jan LA van de Snepscheut
    6. 6. The Field of Knowledge Management Theory of value Exchange
    7. 7. The Core KM Solution <ul><li>Store knowledge representations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>encoding of knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>meta-data about knowledge (sources) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>with the right set of “knowledge attributes” </li></ul><ul><li>to enable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>efficient matching of contexts </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. The Nature of Knowledge <ul><li>It is difficult to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>represent knowledge in a formal language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>capture the context of knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>determine the relevance of knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>determine if two representations are the same </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>acquire knowledge from its representation </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. When is KM Needed? Why, when I only wanted to hire a pair of hands, do I get a whole person? - Henry Ford
    10. 10. The KM Journey
    11. 11. Vision of the Infosys KM Program <ul><li>To be an organization.. </li></ul><ul><li>where every employee is empowered by the knowledge of every other employee; </li></ul><ul><li>which believes in leveraging knowledge for innovation; </li></ul><ul><li>which is a globally respected knowledge leader; </li></ul><ul><li>which believes in knowledge-partnering with customers for mutual benefit </li></ul>
    12. 12. E.g.: Evolution of KM at Infosys 1992: Body of Knowledge 1995: Technical bulletin, online learning 1996: Corporate Intranet (Sparsh) 1997: Marketing system, process assets, ... 1998: Project leaders’ toolkit 1999: People Knowledge Map, corporate KM initiative 2000: Integrated KPortal , Satellite servers 2001: Customization, Subscription, Process level changes 2002: Process level changes, Skills Central, Integrated Search 2003: Implicit knowledge sharing, KM in Projects, Benefit Measurements, KMail … 2004: KPortal on Extranet, quantification of KM benefits, KM for Client Facing Infoscions, KDesktop Geographic fragmentation Attrition Market Share Technology Flux New Markets New Services Profitability Size High Growth Time Variability Complexity 2005… : KM and Business Value…
    13. 13. KM @ Infosys: Architecture
    14. 14. Infosys KM Solution Architecture <ul><li>Content types </li></ul><ul><li>4-Level Taxonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Access Restrictions </li></ul><ul><li>Target Audience </li></ul><ul><li>Content Gradation </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative Content </li></ul>Processes <ul><li>Taxonomy management </li></ul><ul><li>Content Publication </li></ul><ul><li>Workflows </li></ul><ul><li>Incentivization </li></ul><ul><li>Metrics </li></ul><ul><li>Process Engg. </li></ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul>People <ul><li>Facilitated decentralized architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness, Facilitation, Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Roles: Users, Experts, reviewers, Authors, Champions </li></ul><ul><li>Building a sharing culture </li></ul><ul><li>Self Organizing communities </li></ul>KNOWLEDGE Technology KPortal <ul><li>Multiple integrated repositories </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion forums </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced Search </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced KM Tools - prototypes </li></ul><ul><li>Technology-assisted reward and recognition mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>Explicit & Tacit knowledge leverage </li></ul>Knowledge Representation
    15. 15. KPortal Technology Architecture Infosys KM leverages technology to provide an ‘Integrated Access’ to organization-wide Knowledge Knowledge Taxonomy: The organizational information Backbone KPortal Skills Database Process Assets System Data Doc upload Integrated “Search” through KPortal Search Results <ul><li>Content-rich auto-generated Project Profiles </li></ul><ul><li>Process Assets belonging to projects with matching project profiles </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Assets contributed by projects with matching project profiles </li></ul>Search Query Satellite repositories & Intranet Websites Project Mgt Tools
    16. 16. KM Process Architecture Infosys has integrated KM process within the business workflow <ul><li>KM woven into the project execution process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>KM Processes for specific business functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project Primes identified at project level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitated by the KM Champions, Senior Manager, Quality Manager and Process Consultant networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contribution and usage of knowledge assets tracked </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usage metrics analyzed for business benefits – Quality &Productivity numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Global KM Processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process for administering reward and recognition programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process for content publication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IPR </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Review mechanism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Content grading and retirement scheme </li></ul></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Knowledge Quality Core Process Rating in a Self-Assessing Knowledge Community R Composite <ul><li>Embodiment Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Clarity </li></ul><ul><li>………… </li></ul><ul><li>Content Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Verifiability </li></ul><ul><li>Perceived Utility </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><li>……… .. </li></ul>R Usage + R Recency +... R Reviewer R Member <ul><ul><li>Asset Usage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Within Community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other Communities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>……… </li></ul></ul>Members rate Knowledge asset by awarding points Reviewers rate Knowledge asset by awarding points Awarded points are stored along with comments Member Rating Usage Data Modulation of Asset Ratings Community Rating Rating for Knowledge Asset
    18. 18. Users Create, validate and consume knowledge Enablers Hold full-time or part-time responsibility for implementing the program Owners Own the initiative within each org. unit – SPOCs for IBUs/ECUs Sponsors Fund and sustain the program KM People Architecture: To promote knowledge sharing
    19. 19. KM Maturity  Draw in using Curiosity factor, Build awareness, Generate trial Incentives Promotional tools … KM People Architecture: WIIFM? – the key to KM success K-Sharing  Incentives cannot be removed altogether. Different flavors of incentives at various stages are needed to promote KM Increase trials. Hold existing users Incentives, Visibility / recognition Increase usage / involvement Demonstrate benefits Visibility / Recognition Nurture Demonstrate benefits Visibility / Recognition Make Testimonials mandatory
    20. 20. Knowledge Management – Trends <ul><li>Threads in discussion forums </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge artifacts derived through other collaborative tools </li></ul><ul><li>Project artifacts </li></ul><ul><li>Mentoring sessions, knowledge-contacts, enabling sessions facilitated </li></ul><ul><li>... </li></ul>
    21. 21. KM: Benefits Realized &quot;Not everything that can be counted counts and not everything that counts can be counted&quot; - Albert Einstein
    22. 22. Quantitative Benefits: Approach <ul><li>Staged introduction of metrics: health, participation, performance, effectiveness and self-sustenance </li></ul><ul><li>KM surveys administered every year </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acceptance, acculturation, participation, interest, potential and benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Average effort savings through KM practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pain points to be remedied through KM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phased data analyses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Health and participation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conformance and performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>KM effectiveness and business benefits </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Project <ul><li>KM contribution and usage metrics </li></ul><ul><li>KM effort metrics </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative benefit measures </li></ul>Delivery Unit <ul><li>KM contribution and usage metrics </li></ul><ul><li>KM effort metrics </li></ul><ul><li>Correlation between KM metrics and project performance measures (Q&P metrics) </li></ul>Practice Unit <ul><li>KM contribution and usage metrics </li></ul><ul><li>KM effort metrics </li></ul><ul><li>Correlation between KM metrics and project performance measures (Q&P metrics) </li></ul>Org. level <ul><li>KM contribution and usage metrics </li></ul><ul><li>KM effort metrics </li></ul><ul><li>Correlation between KM metrics and project performance measures (Q&P metrics) </li></ul>Metrics to assess KM performance KM prime PM Process Consultant KM Group Delivery Managers KM Group Process Consultant Delivery Manager KM Group Level Metrics Responsibility
    24. 24. Data Analysis: Health, Performance and Conformance Knowledge Assets across Domains Asset Supply 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Qtr 1 Qtr2 Qtr3 Qtr4 No. of Assets or Times Accessed Technology Industry Segment Service Offering Project Mgt. Asset Demand Knowledge Assets Captured Number of Users over Time Successful Queries Failed Queries Availability of Assets Demanded ( PM: Project Management, IS: Industry Segment, SO: Service Offering, Tec: Technology )
    25. 25. KM has resulted in significant internal benefits <ul><li>Credentials </li></ul><ul><li>“ A prospect wanted a case on Call Center Support for a Product. I was aware that BM was providing the same - but what I was looking for was details. </li></ul><ul><li>I tried sending several mails out to PL's … got a few lines… … turned to KPortal … found an extremely detailed Infosys & BM Engagement write up. … I got all the info I needed and more” </li></ul>Better quality metrics in high KM-aware projects! <ul><li>Analytical Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Influence of Skills (Supply/Demand) and Knowledge Reuse on Project Performance (Productivity, COQ, Defect Density) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Study shows expected correlations with Productivity & COQ respectively </li></ul></ul>109 97 Low K-Sharing 100 84 Cost of Quality Baseline High K-sharing Parameter 100 96 Defects/kFP
    26. 26. Perceived benefits from KM <ul><li>Results of an annual KM Survey (sample size: 400) … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>79% said the knowledge-sharing environment in the company encouraged the documentation of knowledge for future use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>87% asserted that whenever possible, they tried to reuse existing organizational knowledge rather than start from scratch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More than 80% believe that their team’s quality of work and productivity have improved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>70% said good knowledge-sharing practices had helped in delivering tangible benefit to customers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>73% felt they saved more than 1 person-day in the last six months by using the existing knowledge architecture, with 14% saying they saved more than 8 person-days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three-quarters said that when needed, they were easily able to tap organizational knowledge in doing their work </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. KM and productivity: Statistical Correlations Fig. 11.11. Effect of Knowledge Re-Use on Productivity
    28. 28. Business Unit-wise KM Metrics 0 5.9 0.011 2.77 257 23.3 23.9 10 0 NA 0.006 0.95 153 23.6 9.4 9 12 9.1 0.006 2.29 391 30.9 12.8 8 0 5.3 0.008 1.26 164 27.6 10.5 7 2 3.2 0.01 1.34 140 31.1 13.7 6 1 8.8 0.009 2.62 295 28.9 15.8 5 39 4.8 0.022 2.78 128 26.8 13.8 4 2 8.5 0.008 2.1 249 26.3 15.0 3 9 7.5 0.015 2.09 137 26.7 11.9 2 0 19.7 0.003 1.87 600 24.1 12.9 1 Person days Saved through Reuse % of KMail users ** Per Person Contribution Per Person Usage Leverage % of Experts           Content Relevance Index (%) Biz Units
    29. 29. Business Unit-wise KM Metrics (continued) Number of person days saved as reported Person days saved # of actual KMail users/ # of eligible KMail users in the unit Percentage of KMail users # K-Assets submitted during the month / # employees in the unit Content contribution Index # K-Assets accessed during the month / # employees in the unit Content usage Index Percentage of employees registered as experts Expertise percentage #K-Assets accessed during the month / Total #  K-Assets contributed during the month
    30. 30. KM @ Infosys: Thought Leadership
    31. 31. KMail Repository Query Query forward Response Responses forwarded Repositorize responses No result In repository 1 2 3 4 5 6 Infosys is constantly developing solutions to enhance knowledge exchange & collaboration KPortal KSummarizer Automatic Summarization (prescribed compression) KSpeak Speech interface To K-Portal KAgent KSummarizer <ul><li>Broadcast and Delivery of knowledge available in the intranet universe </li></ul><ul><li>K-Feed based on user profile and work context </li></ul>COMMUNITY KPortal PIS
    32. 32. KMail : An Automatic e-mail Based System for Real-time Collaboration User A Sends a query 1 Results found 2 Responses are sent with zipped results attached 3 Satisfied 4 Repository A Repository B Repository C
    33. 33. KMail (Continued) User A Expert List A Reduction in the number of mails sent to the experts lists: 45% Forward to Experts 4 Query is forwarded 5 Experts respond 6 Add responses to repository 7 Responses are forwarded 8 Earlier Sends a query Responses are sent with zipped results attached Results found 1 2 3 Repository A Repository B Repository C
    34. 34. Technologies to Enhance KM tools and systems KPortal <ul><li>KSpeak </li></ul><ul><li>Nuance Foundation SpeechObjects - voice recognition software </li></ul><ul><li>DiaLogic card - telephone to computer interface (Analog) </li></ul><ul><li>Java </li></ul><ul><li>KSummarizer </li></ul><ul><li>Focused summaries of business and technical information </li></ul><ul><li>Condensed text for mobile users </li></ul><ul><li>Internally developed extraction-type summarization algorithm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>word-frequencies, sentence-length, sentence-position… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Java </li></ul>KSummarizer Automatic Summarization (prescribed compression) of documents KSpeak: Speech interface to the knowledge portal
    35. 35. Technologies to Enhance KM tools and systems (Continued) <ul><li>KAgent </li></ul><ul><li>KAgent is a customizable knowledge agent designed to provide knowledge assistance proactively and non-intrusively . Implementation is based on end-user context sensing, communicating with the knowledge environment and providing interactive help. </li></ul><ul><li>Proactively broadcast and deliver knowledge available in the intranet universe </li></ul><ul><li>Significant time and effort saving for end-user </li></ul><ul><li>K-Feed tailored for specific user profile and work context </li></ul>KPortal PIS KAgent: Semi-intrusive, Proactive, Intelligent Agent KSummarizer
    36. 36. [email_address] <ul><li>First Indian Company to win the Global MAKE Award . Hat-trick in 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>The only Indian Company in the MAKE HALL of FAME </li></ul><ul><li>Only Indian Company to win the MAKE Asia Award every year since inception in 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>Accenture </li></ul><ul><li>BMW </li></ul><ul><li>BP </li></ul><ul><li>Buckman Laboratories </li></ul><ul><li>Dell </li></ul><ul><li>Ernst & Young </li></ul><ul><li>General Electric </li></ul><ul><li>Google </li></ul><ul><li>IBM </li></ul><ul><li>Infosys Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>McKinsey & Company </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft </li></ul><ul><li>Nokia </li></ul><ul><li>PricewaterhouseCoopers </li></ul><ul><li>Science Applications (SAIC) </li></ul><ul><li>Samsung Group </li></ul><ul><li>Siemens </li></ul><ul><li>Sony </li></ul><ul><li>3M </li></ul><ul><li>Toyota Motor </li></ul><ul><li>Wipro Technologies </li></ul>(Reference: http://www.knowledgebusiness.com . Teleos – The KNOW network conducts the MAKE survey. MAKE and KNOW are service marks of Teleos)
    37. 37. <ul><li>Exhaustive coverage of: </li></ul><ul><li>The Dimensions of KM </li></ul><ul><li>How a KM solution evolves with maturity </li></ul><ul><li>For each lesson: </li></ul><ul><li>The “why” </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrations and analogies </li></ul><ul><li>Actual solution from KM@Infosys </li></ul><ul><li>Practical guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Pitfalls of ignoring the lesson </li></ul>References <ul><li>“ What is the K in KM Technology,” Kavi Mahesh and J.K. Suresh, Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management Volume 2 Issue 2 2004(11-22). www.ejkm.com ISSN 1479-4411. 17. </li></ul>1.
    38. 38. KM@Infosys: Publications Book: “ Ten Steps to Maturity in Knowledge Management: Lessons in Economy,” Suresh J.K. and Mahesh Kavi, © 2006, Chandos Publishing, Oxford, UK Book Chapters: &quot; Knowledge and Business Process Management&quot; (ISBN 1-59140-036-8), Mahesh Kavi, Mahind CS and Kochikar VP, Ed. Vlatka Hlupic, © 2002, Idea Group publishing, Hershey, PA, USA &quot; Leading with Knowledge“ (ISBN 0-07-049960-8), J.K. Suresh, © 2003, McGraw-Hill publications Case: “ Towards a Knowledge-Sharing Organization: Some Challenges Faced on the Infosys Journey ” (ISBN 1-59140-259-X), Annals of Cases on Information Technology (ACIT), Suresh J.K. and Kochikar V.P., © 2003 , Idea Pub., Hershey, Pa, USA Invited Entry: in “ Encyclopedia of Information Science and Technology, Vol. 1-V,” titled, “ Experiential Perspective on Knowledge Management ,” Suresh J.K. and Kochikar V.P., © 2004, Idea Pub., Hershey, Pa, USA
    39. 39. KM@Infosys: Publications Journals “ Emergent by Design: Performance and Transformation at Infosys Technologies,” Raghu Garud, Arun Kumaraswamy, and V. Sambamurthy, OrganizationScience, Vol. 17, No. 2, March–April 2006, pp. 277–286, issn 1047-7039 eissn 1526-5455 06 1702 0277 “ Vicious and Virtuous Circles in the Management of Knowledge: The Case of Infosys Technologies ”, Raghu Garud and Arun Kumaraswamy, MIS Quarterly Vol. 29 No. 1, pp. 9-33/March 2005 “ What is the K in KM Technology ,” Suresh J.K. and Mahesh Kavi, Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management Volume 2 Issue 2 2004(11-22). www.ejkm.com ISSN 1479-4411. 17. Conferences/ Invited Talks “ Knowledge Management: A Practitioner’s Account, ” Suresh J.K., in the Taiwan Knowledge Management Conference, Taipei, Oct 2005 “ Linking different taxonomies into one central taxonomy ”, Mahind C.S., “Creating a workable knowledge classification system”, Arkgroup Asia, Singapore in April 2004 “ Measuring the value of KM Implementation ”, Suresh J.K., KM Asia 2003, Nov 2003, Singapore “ Knowledge Management at Infosys ”, Suresh J.K., Global Knowledge Management Forum (GKMF), Aug 2003, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    40. 40. KM@Infosys: Other Publications <ul><li>Interviews with Dr. J.K. Suresh </li></ul><ul><li>“ India KM-ready in every sense: Infy ”, CIOL, Mar 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>“ How Infosys embeds knowledge management to drive customer intimacy ”, KM Review Magazine, Melcrum Publishing, March 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Software Companies Capitalise On KM Solutions ”, The Financial Express, Jun 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Your say: Knowledge Management in Asia ”, KM Magazine, Ark Publications, July 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>&quot; Country Focus Interview ”, KM Magazine, Ark Publications, May 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Knowledge management: the new mantra – the JKSuresh interview ”, Economic Times, Dec 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>Case Studies </li></ul><ul><li>“ Knowledge Management at Infosys Technologies Limited ”, Case Repository, IIM/A, 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>“ KM at Infosys Technologies ”, Case Repository, IIM, Lucknow, 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Infosys: Architecture of a Scalable Corporation ”, Stern Business School, New York </li></ul><ul><li>Patent </li></ul><ul><li>” Automated Method for Quantitative Measurement of Benefits in a Plurality of Self-assessing, Knowledge Sharing Communities ” (PCT application filed) </li></ul>
    41. 41. Thank You
    42. 42. A Walk through the KM portal of Infosys..
    43. 43. KShop Homepage KShop Home page
    44. 44. Search for Knowledge Assets KShop Search Interface - Shows the information architecture
    45. 45. Search Results Search results – Rated according to KCU* A typical Document KCU is knowledge currency unit – The instrument for document rating and personal rewards
    46. 46. Document Rating and Reward/Recognition Scheme Rating interface Includes quality and usefulness of the document The KCU scoreboard – Recognizes the most active knowledge sharers and contributors
    47. 47. Project Snapshot Search Project Snapshots – Gives a brief overview of each project including the key people involved, technologies used etc
    48. 48. Experts Search Expert search interface A typical expert details - Includes the knowledge areas proficient in
    49. 49. Communities – Discussion Forum The discussion forum interface view - This is integrated with MS Outlook A typical discussion thread
    50. 50. “ KM in Projects” Process Kit The KM Kit – KM Practitioner’s and adopter’s training & compliance kit
    51. 51. 1 st screen of the Submission Interface
    52. 52. Common Lessons in KM? <ul><li>Formulate a KM strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Design KM solution and KM plan </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare for changes </li></ul><ul><li>Constitute a “high level” KM team </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bring in KM consultants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Invest: “what you reap is what you sow” </li></ul><ul><li>Manage centrally </li></ul><ul><li>Buy KM products </li></ul><ul><li>Entrust quality department with KM quality </li></ul><ul><li>Measure benefits and demonstrate ROI </li></ul>
    53. 53. <ul><li>NO! </li></ul>“ Knowledge managers are often in error, but never in doubt!” - with apologies to Lev Landau
    54. 54. Uncommon Lessons in KM <ul><li>People are not at the centre of focus of KM; Knowledge is </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hence called KM, not PM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Managing knowledge is not just yet another problem in management (focus on K, not M) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to study K </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Viewing KM as Change Management may not be best </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus should be on not making changes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High-profile KM consultants may be a bad idea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The lesson of disempowerment </li></ul></ul>
    55. 55. More Uncommon Lessons <ul><li>KM is a journey, not a solution to a problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ rolling out” may be a bad metaphor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Every KM instance involves discoveries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No “type A”, “type B”, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Measurement in KM is hardly about ROI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More important to measure other things </li></ul></ul><ul><li>KM’s ultimate objective is to eliminate itself </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Build, Own, Operate, Disappear” </li></ul></ul>
    56. 56. Misleading Distinctions in KM <ul><li>Tacit vs. explicit knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Content vs. collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>People vs. technology </li></ul><ul><li>etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Important distinctions in KM </li></ul><ul><li>Direct vs. indirect knowledge transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Formal vs. informal KM </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge-level vs. information-level meta-data </li></ul><ul><li>etc. </li></ul>
    57. 57. The Basic Lesson <ul><li>Economy in KM </li></ul><ul><li>Do not invest too much in KM </li></ul><ul><li>Do not try to “manage” (change) too much </li></ul><ul><li>There are no shortcuts in KM </li></ul><ul><li>KM takes time </li></ul>
    58. 58. Steps towards … Maturity in KM <ul><li>Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Economy of Plan: Evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Economy of Change: Non-intrusive </li></ul><ul><li>Economy of Control: Disempowerment </li></ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><li>Economy of Scope: Knowledge dynamics </li></ul><ul><li>Economy of Effort: Decentralization </li></ul><ul><li>Economy in Deployment: Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Practice </li></ul><ul><li>Economy in Assessment: Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Economy in Promotion: Recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Economy in Evolution: Measurement </li></ul><ul><li>Future </li></ul><ul><li>Beyond KM </li></ul>
    59. 59. Lesson 1: Evolutionary Strategy <ul><li>Evolve the strategy as the journey progresses </li></ul><ul><li>Strategy evolves in each dimension </li></ul><ul><ul><li>who is involved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>what is managed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>which systems are needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how processes change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>what to measure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how to promote </li></ul></ul>
    60. 60. Lesson 2: Non-Intrusive Changes <ul><li>Don’t make changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>or </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hide changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To reduce expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid disruptions </li></ul></ul>
    61. 61. Lesson 3: Disempowered KM Team <ul><li>Make it difficult to enforce changes </li></ul><ul><li>Keep it outside of main-line business </li></ul><ul><li>Augment it with top-level guidance and support </li></ul>
    62. 62. Lesson 4: Scope Defined by K Dynamics <ul><li>Not for all </li></ul><ul><li>Travel metaphor for knowledge transfer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify sources and destinations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine volume of flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design pathways </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expand scope incrementally </li></ul>
    63. 63. Lesson 5: Decentralized Operations <ul><li>Decentralize </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content repositories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content management processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People and responsibilities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Centralize (to avoid knowledge fragmentation): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classification scheme </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overall KM strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotion schemes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where “aggregation, normalization, and standardization” are needed </li></ul></ul>
    64. 64. Lesson 6:Adaptable Enterprise Architecture <ul><li>KM lives in an enterprise environment </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate with business/MIS systems </li></ul><ul><li>Anticipate changes </li></ul><ul><li>A component and services architecture for KM </li></ul>
    65. 65. Lesson 7: Self-Assessing Quality System <ul><li>Who says what is good? </li></ul><ul><li>Self-assessing communities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With formal review processes </li></ul></ul>
    66. 66. Lesson 8: Promotion through Recognition <ul><li>Start with incentives </li></ul><ul><li>Switch to recognition </li></ul>
    67. 67. Lesson 9: Measurement throughout KM Journey <ul><li>Measure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>contribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge gaps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process conformance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Satisfaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceived productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Derived quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge capital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brand value </li></ul></ul>
    68. 68. Lesson 10: Looking Beyond KM <ul><li>Consider all knowledge-related functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recruitment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outsourcing and Supply Chain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education and training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compensation and benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R&D </li></ul></ul><ul><li>From KM to K nowledge R esource P lanning </li></ul>
    69. 69. Final Lesson: KM as a Way of Life <ul><li>KM should be like E-Mail </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Everybody uses it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not much regulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No promotion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Well-integrated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard products </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why have a literacy program if everyone is literate? </li></ul>
    70. 70. From knowledge are all beings born, With knowledge they live, And into knowledge they merge in the end. Taittiriyopanishad (9-5-1) All great enterprise is characterized by an optimism of the spirit, and the pessimism of the intellect - Anon
    71. 71. Questions? Thank You
    72. 72. The 21 st Century Organization <ul><li>The Pervasion of Complexity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The rise of the tertiary sector </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The world of objects vs. that of the mind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determinacy vs. Indeterminacy: E.g., Newton vs. Liebnitz </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Space-Time Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Globalization: Diverse locations, languages, cultures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outsourcing: Extensible organizational boundaries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exchange Relationships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge as IP: Dominant expression of capital today? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The economics of knowledge: Public vs. positional good </li></ul></ul>Why, when I only wanted to hire a pair of hands, do I get a whole person? - Henry Ford
    73. 73. KM: (Yet) Another Definition <ul><li>Strategic management of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>knowledge representations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>along with associated content and information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>using </li></ul><ul><ul><li>technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>processes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>by transferring knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>directly between people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>or </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>indirectly through systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>to optimize </li></ul><ul><ul><li>knowledge sharing and utilization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>derive overall benefits to the organization. </li></ul></ul>
    74. 74. The KM Problem <ul><li>Given </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a present context with a knowledge need </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Find </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the most appropriate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>prior contexts where </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>relevant knowledge was acquired or applied </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>or </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>someone who </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>can provide the knowledge </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>or </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>point to a source of knowledge </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    75. 75. Data, Information and Knowledge <ul><li>Data Attributes: Record structure, syntax, size, encoding </li></ul><ul><li>Information Attributes: Language, dialect, version, template and format, author’s name, date, previous usage statistics, ISBN and other classification numbers, an expert’s telephone number and address </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Attributes: describe the knowledge itself (KI) as well as its applicability in a context (KC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>KI: Aboutness, gist, ontological mappings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>KC: Intended target audience, background assumed, ratings and reviews, author’s knowledge profile, conditions or constraints to be considered in applying the knowledge </li></ul></ul>