The cross cultural training for the global workforce and


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This PPT will help to under stand the importance of cross cultural trainings in organizations.

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The cross cultural training for the global workforce and

  1. 1. Subject : Managing Cross Cultural Issues Faculty: Dr. Satish Pandey Prepared by: Sarjeevan Sainbhi (20104006) Sudeep Paniker (20104008) Rutwik Gandhe (20102001) 1/29/2015
  2. 2.  A distinct advantage for organizations.  A means for conscious switching from an automatic, home-culture international management mode to a culturally appropriate, adaptable and acceptable one.  An aid to improve coping with unexpected events or culture shock in a new culture.  A means of reducing the uncertainty of interactions with foreign nationals.  A means of enhancing expatriates' coping ability to by reducing stress and disorientation. 1/29/2015
  3. 3. (1) To understand the role of cross-cultural training in the expatriates' adjustment process. (2) To analyze the personality and situational characteristics signifying the success of sojourners' and expatriates' psychological and socio-cultural adjustments. (3) To present a refined model of cross-cultural training incorporating individual and situational variables along with intercultural competence variables. 1/29/2015
  4. 4. 1/29/2015 Cross-cultural comparison of ethical perceptions: A case of Whistle-blowing. Hypotheses - Since the U.S. and Japan differ on many of Hofstede's dimensions, it was expected that accounting students in these nations would respond differently to questions posed of them in a whistle blowing scenario (Cohen et al., 1992, 1995, 1996; Gernon, 1993). we expected significant differences in the ethical perceptions of U.S. and Japanese students related to this dimension. Our first hypothesis was:- H1: Japanese (U.S.) accounting students' responses will reflect a more collectivist (individualist) orientation than will those of U.S. (Japanese) accounting students. H2: Japanese (U.S.) accounting students' responses will reflect a greater (lesser) power distance orientation than those of U.S. (Japanese) accounting students. H3: Japanese (U.S.) accounting students' responses will reflect greater (lesser) uncertainty avoidance than those of U.S. Japanese) accounting students.
  5. 5. 1/29/2015 Individualism Vs Collectivism - The degree to which individuals are integrated into groups”. In individualistic societies, the stress is put on personal achievements and individual rights. People are expected to stand up for themselves and their immediate family, and to choose their own affiliations. In contrast, in collectivist societies, individuals act predominantly as members of a life-long and cohesive group or organization . Power Distance- In high power distance countries, less powerful accept power relations that are more autocratic and paternalistic. Subordinates acknowledge the power of others simply based on where they are situated in certain formal, hierarchical positions. Uncertainty avoidence-It reflects the extent to which members of a society attempt to cope with anxiety by minimizing uncertainty. People in cultures with high uncertainty avoidance tend to be more emotional. In contrast, low uncertainty avoidance cultures tend to be more pragmatic, they are more tolerant of change.
  6. 6. 1/29/2015 Methodology Subjects Subjects in both nations were senior accounting majors enrolled in programs of study designed to prepare them for their country's respective Certified Public Accounting (CPA) exams. U.S. subjects (n = 20) were from a Northeastern university, and Japanese students (n = 19) were from a major university in Tokyo. Subjects were nearly evenly divided between men and women (52.6% and 47.4%, respectively), and their overall mean age was 23.3 years.
  7. 7. 1/29/2015 Materials The scenario presented to subjects described a company whose poor internal control had led to a possible whistle-blowing situation. In cross-cultural research, it is essential that the versions of a scenario presented to subjects in each country be linguistically equivalent (Hofstede, 1980; Adler, 1983). The version presented to Japanese students was translated from English into Japanese by a Japanese national, translated back into English by a second Japanese national, and then checked for consistency with the original. Evidence suggests that the vast majority of both Japanese and U.S. managers view private use of company funds as unacceptable (94.6% and 89.0%, respectively, see Lee and Yoshihara, 1997).
  8. 8. 1/29/2015 Conclusions and direction for future research. This research examined cross-cultural differences in business-related ethical perceptions. • First, subjects were not randomly selected but instead were attending one university in either the U.S. or Japan. • Second, the scenario presented to the participants did not contain all of the information that might normally be available. • Third, an experimental study does not invoke the sorts of real-world pressures faced by someone in an actual whistle-blowing scenario (e.g., fear of retaliation by coworkers and/ or management).
  9. 9. 1/29/2015 Implications of the result One implication of the results is that businesses with multinational operations should perhaps consider the cross-cultural effectiveness of their systems of internal control. Over time, however, a series of whistle-blowing scenarios could be developed and fine-tuned to more extensively catalogue where and how cultural dimensions manifest differences in ethical perceptions and behaviors. Given our findings of significant differences on two of the three Hofstede dimensions examined, additional research into the effects of the other dimensions seems warranted. The present study could also be replicated in other countries that differ substantially on the dimensions examined.
  10. 10. 1/29/2015 CONCLUSION Overall, the results of this study offer new insights to guide future cross-cultural research. While our focus was on U.S. and Japanese accounting students, it remains to be determined if the results extend to accounting professionals, different ethical measures, other cultures, and/or different types of students. Each area offers avenues for future work and it is hoped that many of these opportunities will be more fully explored. The need to train people is unquestionable. With adequate knowledge and competencies, people will develop a more stable psychological sense of well being, and thus become better socialized to their new environment. As evident from the case presented later in the discussion of this paper, it is imperative to deeply understand the cross-cultural comparison of ethical perceptions related to business affairs before the training is imparted.
  11. 11. 1/29/2015 References • International Journal of Intercultural Relations, Vol. 7, pp. 53-67. • Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture's Consequences. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications. Hofstede, G. (1991). • American Business Review 16. 2 (Jun 1998): 14-21. • Adler, N. (1983). "A typology of management studies involving culture." Journal of International Business Studies, 14, 29-47. • Bhawuk, D.P.S and Brislin, R (1992), "The measurement of intercultural sensitivity using the concepts of individualism and collectivism", International Journal of Intercultural Relations, Vol. 16, pp. 413-36. • Deshpande, S.T. and Viswesvaran, C. (1992), "Is cross-cultural training of expatriate managers effective? A meta analysis", International Journal of Intercultural Relations, Vol. 16 No. 3, pp. 295-310. •“ Ethical development of accounting students, non-accounting business students, and liberal arts students." Issues in Accounting Education, 8, 86-96. Jun, J. and Muto, H.(1995). "The hidden dimensions of Japanese administration: Culture and its impact.’Public Administration Review, 55, 125-134.