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1
H-BRIDGES AND STEPPER MOTORS
E R I C T A S E S K I , Y I H E H U A N G , R O N A K M E H T A
2
STANDARD DC MOTORS
Speed determined by voltage level.
3
Motor
Vcc
GND
+ -- +
STOPPING
No movement, holds position.
4
Motor
Vcc
GND
STOP
FREE SPINNING
Disconnected, does whatever it wants.
5
Motor
Vcc
GND
WHAT IF YOU WANT PRECISION?
6
STEPPER MOTORS!
Precision movement via stepping
Can count revolutions
Can rotate continuously unlike a standard servo
7
HOW STEPPER MOTORS WORK
Divides a full rotation into a number of steps.
Move one ‘step’ at a time.
8
STEPPER MOTORS
9
1. The horizontal pair is
driven with power in one
direction. This pulls the
oppositely polarized teeth
to align with them.
2. The horizontal pair is
de-energized, and the
vertical pair is energized.
3. The vertical pair is de-
energized, and the
horizontal pair is energized
in the opposite direction.
4. The horizontal pair is de-
energized, and the vertical
pair is energized in the
opposite direction.
HOW STEPPER MOTORS WORK
10
STEPPER MODES: WAVE MODE
11
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Drive.png
A
B
C
D
(codeproject.com)
STEPPER MODES: FULL STEP MODE
12
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Drive.png
A
B
C
D
(codeproject.com)
STEPPER MODES: HALF STEP MODE
13
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Drive.png
A
B
C
D
(codeproject.com)
14
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stepper_motor
STEPPER MOTORS CONTD.
15
http://www.pololu.com/catalog/product/1205/specs
HOW DO WE POWER THEM?
16
H-BRIDGES!
Allows low voltage logic
while driving external
power to motors.
Easily control current in
both directions,
allowing motors to
move forwards and
backwards.
Useful for DC motors,
stepper motors,
servos, solenoids, etc.
17
H-BRIDGES
Each half bridge is a transistor with an enable.
• LOW Voltage Input Control Logic
• HIGH Voltage Output
18
Motor Voltage
Logic Enable
Motor
Logic Input
H-BRIDGES
19
EN 1,2
EN 3,4
Input 1
Input 2
Input 3
Input 4
Output 1
Output 2
Output 3
Output 4
Vcc, Motor Supply Voltage
GND
H-BRIDGE PINOUT
-EN pins enable output (1 EN pin per pair)
-A’s are control inputs
-Y’s are outputs
-Vcc1 is circuit logic voltage
-Vcc2 is the motor supply
-Grounds go to ground
20
http://www.ti.com/lit/ds/symlink/l293d.pdf
FULL-BRIDGE WITH DC MOTOR
21
Motor
+ -
Enable
Input A
Input B
ENABLE Input A Input B Result
1 1 0 Motor turns CW
1 0 1 Motor turns CCW
1 0 or 1 0 or 1 Fast Stop
0 0 or 1 0 or 1 Free Spin
1
0
1
0
1
1
- +
HOW TO WIRE UP A STEPPER MOTOR AND
THE L293D
Left side can be adapted to our SmartFusion kits.
22
(codeproject.com)
PROTIPS#1-4
1. Heatsinks, or drive low to all pins to not drive current
2. Non-negligible voltage drop across H-Bridge
3. Varying PWM Duty Cycles can be used on ENABLE to
control voltage supplied (speed control)
4. Frequency response of motor
• Low PWM frequencies may create audible buzz or hum
• High PWM frequencies waste power
23
REFERENCES
L293D explanation with Stepper Motor details:
http://www.codeproject.com/Articles/151763/Motor-Primer-and-the-L293D-Quad-Half-H-Driver
Stepper motor configurations with microcontroller pins:
http://www.8051projects.net/stepper-motor-interfacing/stepper-motor-connections.php
Microstepping (not covered):
http://homepage.cs.uiowa.edu/~jones/step/micro.html
Different types of stepper motors explained:
http://www.wimb.net/index.php?s=motion&page=52
Stepper wikipedia page:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stepper_motor
H-Bridge wikipedia page:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H_bridge
24
BACKUP SLIDES
25
H-BRIDGE WITH DC MOTOR
26
S
1
S2 S3 S4 Result
1 0 0 1 Move CW
0 1 1 0 Move CCW
0 0 0 0 Free Spin
0 1 0 1 Brake
1 0 1 0 Brake
1 1 0 0 Shoot-
through
0 0 1 1 Shoot-
through
1 1 1 1 Shoot-
through
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H_bridge
MICROSTEPPING
Half stepping with sinusoidal transitions between steps allowing
theoretically infinitesimally small step sizes.
27
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stepper_motor

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Stepper and hbridgestepper motor as generator hack

  • 1. 1
  • 2. H-BRIDGES AND STEPPER MOTORS E R I C T A S E S K I , Y I H E H U A N G , R O N A K M E H T A 2
  • 3. STANDARD DC MOTORS Speed determined by voltage level. 3 Motor Vcc GND + -- +
  • 4. STOPPING No movement, holds position. 4 Motor Vcc GND STOP
  • 5. FREE SPINNING Disconnected, does whatever it wants. 5 Motor Vcc GND
  • 6. WHAT IF YOU WANT PRECISION? 6
  • 7. STEPPER MOTORS! Precision movement via stepping Can count revolutions Can rotate continuously unlike a standard servo 7
  • 8. HOW STEPPER MOTORS WORK Divides a full rotation into a number of steps. Move one ‘step’ at a time. 8
  • 9. STEPPER MOTORS 9 1. The horizontal pair is driven with power in one direction. This pulls the oppositely polarized teeth to align with them. 2. The horizontal pair is de-energized, and the vertical pair is energized. 3. The vertical pair is de- energized, and the horizontal pair is energized in the opposite direction. 4. The horizontal pair is de- energized, and the vertical pair is energized in the opposite direction.
  • 11. STEPPER MODES: WAVE MODE 11 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Drive.png A B C D (codeproject.com)
  • 12. STEPPER MODES: FULL STEP MODE 12 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Drive.png A B C D (codeproject.com)
  • 13. STEPPER MODES: HALF STEP MODE 13 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Drive.png A B C D (codeproject.com)
  • 16. HOW DO WE POWER THEM? 16
  • 17. H-BRIDGES! Allows low voltage logic while driving external power to motors. Easily control current in both directions, allowing motors to move forwards and backwards. Useful for DC motors, stepper motors, servos, solenoids, etc. 17
  • 18. H-BRIDGES Each half bridge is a transistor with an enable. • LOW Voltage Input Control Logic • HIGH Voltage Output 18 Motor Voltage Logic Enable Motor Logic Input
  • 19. H-BRIDGES 19 EN 1,2 EN 3,4 Input 1 Input 2 Input 3 Input 4 Output 1 Output 2 Output 3 Output 4 Vcc, Motor Supply Voltage GND
  • 20. H-BRIDGE PINOUT -EN pins enable output (1 EN pin per pair) -A’s are control inputs -Y’s are outputs -Vcc1 is circuit logic voltage -Vcc2 is the motor supply -Grounds go to ground 20 http://www.ti.com/lit/ds/symlink/l293d.pdf
  • 21. FULL-BRIDGE WITH DC MOTOR 21 Motor + - Enable Input A Input B ENABLE Input A Input B Result 1 1 0 Motor turns CW 1 0 1 Motor turns CCW 1 0 or 1 0 or 1 Fast Stop 0 0 or 1 0 or 1 Free Spin 1 0 1 0 1 1 - +
  • 22. HOW TO WIRE UP A STEPPER MOTOR AND THE L293D Left side can be adapted to our SmartFusion kits. 22 (codeproject.com)
  • 23. PROTIPS#1-4 1. Heatsinks, or drive low to all pins to not drive current 2. Non-negligible voltage drop across H-Bridge 3. Varying PWM Duty Cycles can be used on ENABLE to control voltage supplied (speed control) 4. Frequency response of motor • Low PWM frequencies may create audible buzz or hum • High PWM frequencies waste power 23
  • 24. REFERENCES L293D explanation with Stepper Motor details: http://www.codeproject.com/Articles/151763/Motor-Primer-and-the-L293D-Quad-Half-H-Driver Stepper motor configurations with microcontroller pins: http://www.8051projects.net/stepper-motor-interfacing/stepper-motor-connections.php Microstepping (not covered): http://homepage.cs.uiowa.edu/~jones/step/micro.html Different types of stepper motors explained: http://www.wimb.net/index.php?s=motion&page=52 Stepper wikipedia page: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stepper_motor H-Bridge wikipedia page: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H_bridge 24
  • 26. H-BRIDGE WITH DC MOTOR 26 S 1 S2 S3 S4 Result 1 0 0 1 Move CW 0 1 1 0 Move CCW 0 0 0 0 Free Spin 0 1 0 1 Brake 1 0 1 0 Brake 1 1 0 0 Shoot- through 0 0 1 1 Shoot- through 1 1 1 1 Shoot- through http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H_bridge
  • 27. MICROSTEPPING Half stepping with sinusoidal transitions between steps allowing theoretically infinitesimally small step sizes. 27 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stepper_motor

Editor's Notes

  1. Steps per revolution… here, we can see 200 steps per revolution, which would correspond to 100 teeth, in our previous slides.
  2. In most applications, HIGH is driven to the enable pins. Drive Vcc1 with logical HIGH (typically 5V). Drive Vcc2 with motor supply HIGH. Inputs are the A’s, outputs are the Y’s.
  3. We don’t have time to go through all of this today, but hooking up the stepper motor and H-bridge is fairly straightforward: each wire to the motor gets 1 bridge output. Before we leave you…
  4. Here are a few tips….