crop harvester in agricultural approach

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crop harvester in agricultural approach

  1. 1. CROP HARVESTER IN AGRICULTURAL APPROACH 2012-13 Page 1 ABSTRACT Crop cutting machine is mechanical device. It can be use for cutting the dry cut stalks of grain break or covering of trunk of tree. In the crop cutting machine required less human effort and it is very reasonable for middle class farmer it is not complicated structure and it is easily operated by unskilled person. In this cutting machine have the two blades one is right hand side and another is left hand side. This can be applicable for the cutting of crop such as Javari, Tuar, maize etc. It can reduce labor cost due to the only one person can handle. Crop cutter machine does not required high maintenance. Key words Crop, Grain, Farmer, Stalks, Javari, Tuar, Maize. Cost
  2. 2. CROP HARVESTER IN AGRICULTURAL APPROACH 2012-13 Page 2 INDEX Sr.No Contents Page No 1 Abstract 2 Introduction 4 3 Necessity of crop harvester m/c 5 4 Conceptual background 6 5 Design methodology 7-18 6 Material procurement 19 7 Experimental fabrication 20-26 8 Experimental set-up 27-36 9 Working 37-38 10 Advantages 39 11 Limitation 40 12 Application 41 13 Future scope 42 14 Conclusion 43 15 Reference 44
  3. 3. CROP HARVESTER IN AGRICULTURAL APPROACH 2012-13 Page 3 FIGURE INDEX Fig. No Name of Figure Page. No 3.1 Leonardo Da-Vinci concept 6 4.1 Cutter 7 4.2 Side view of cutter 7 4.3 Intermediate shaft 8 4.4 Cutter shaft 9 4.5 Transmission system 10 4.6 Open belt 11 4.7 Cross belt 12 6.1 Frame 21 6.2 Wheel 21 6.3 Assembly of wheel 22 6.4 Cutter assembly 23 6.5 Cutter 23 6.6 Handle 24 6.7 Supporting plate of cutter assembly 25 6.8 Cover 26 7.1 Body 27 7.2 Engine 28 7.3 V-belt 29 7.4 Cross section of v-belt 30 7.5 Intermediate shaft 31 7.6 Cutter shaft 31 7.7 Pedestal bearing 33 7.8 Lever sleeves 33 7.9 Pulley 34 7.10 Wheel 34 7.11 Cutter 35 8.1 Working of crop harvester ( Side view ) 37 8.2 Working of crop harvester ( Front view ) 38
  4. 4. CROP HARVESTER IN AGRICULTURAL APPROACH 2012-13 Page 4 1. INTRODUCTION:- Agriculture forms the backbone of our country economy; about 55% of citizen is depending on agriculture. Thus developing our country means providing our farmers with more “Sophisticated” and “Advanced Tool” which would decreases overall time required for the task and the task will become more easy and convenient. Crop harvesting is last stage in farming which takes maximum time of farmer among all farming process. In India harvesting is generally done manually. Thus our intention is to provide farmer a “CROP HARVESTER IN AGRICULTURAL APPROACH”. This machine consists of simple mechanism make to run by an engine which will be economical to farmer and will take less time for harvesting operation. Crop harvesting is a process of cutting the crops closed to the ground or pulling the plants when they are ripped out. It include cutting the stems of coral crops like tuar, Jawar, Bajra, Maize etc. closed to the ground. in our country it is generally done by sharp sickle. On the basis of this large number of crop harvester are in use at today’s date, which are available at different shape and size and on different power supply. Some of them are pneumatic crop harvester, hydraulic crops harvester and crop harvester running on tractor engine. Since they are costlier keeping in to consideration the economic ability of our farmer it is required that is should be simple and should fulfill the same intention which are achieved by “CROP HARVESTER IN AGRICULTURAL APPROACH”. This machine is made to run by a single cylinder four stroke petrol engine of 197cc and having a speed of nearly 3600 rpm.
  5. 5. CROP HARVESTER IN AGRICULTURAL APPROACH 2012-13 Page 5 2. NECCESITY OF CROP HARVESTER MACHINE COMPARISON BETWEEN CROP HARVESTER AND LABOUR CROP HARVESTER LABOUR 1) When machine working in the farm it takes less time as compared to labour. 1) When the labour is working in the farm it takes more time as compared to machine. 2) Less stresses on machine. 2) More stresses on the labour in the farm. 3) There is no requirement of skilled labour for handling the machine in the farm. 3) It required a skilled labour in the farm for cutting the crops. 4) Machine cuts the crops in two rows at a time in the farm. 4) Labour cuts the crop in one row at time in the farm. 5) This machine saves some labour cost because it handled by only one person. 5) In today era the labour cost is more as compared to this machine. 6) This machine cuts the crop in 1 acre area in 2 hour. 6) Two labour are cut the crops in 1 acre area in 1 day. 7) This machine cut the crops in 1 acre area in the cost of 200Rs. 7) Labour are cut the crops in 1 acre area in the cost of 400Rs.
  6. 6. CROP HARVESTER IN AGRICULTURAL APPROACH 2012-13 Page 6 3. CONCEPTUAL BACKGROUND:- In 14th century the ‘Leonardo Da-vinci’ is a one man who is an architect, engineer, geologist, and painter, he is shown various inventions and thought through his drawing and we take our project concept from this picture. Fig. no 3.1 Leonardo da-vinci concept This picture show the war when the horse is running, wheel is rotate in circular motion and this motion give the cutter through the propeller shaft by using the bevel gear which is connected to the wheel of chariot. This cutter act’s like a weapon and it used in war. So this concept we use for a agricultural approach and we decided to create a new invention in agricultural and we make a demo model. In this invention we used the engine which generated the power and this power we can used for rotating the cutter with the help of pulleys and belt to cut the crop in the farm.
  7. 7. CROP HARVESTER IN AGRICULTURAL APPROACH 2012-13 Page 7 4. DESIGN METHODOLOGY: 4.1 Cutting blades: The cutting blades materials are high speed steel. We used this material for making the cutter because following properties of this material. 4.1.1Properties of high speed steel  Resists corrosion  Retains strength even at high temperatures  High resistance to shock at low and high temperatures  Yields durable long-life products Fig no 4.1.Cutter The total length of cutter is 290 mm. Cutting edges having the length of 115mm. on both side of both end. In the middle portion of the plate the hole is created of 13mm. and key way slot is provided of 5 x 5mm. The thickness of cutting portion is 4mm, and width of cutting portion is 43mm. At the cutting edge outer and inner corner the 8mm radius round shape is provided. The main thing is that the slightly in cutting edge is created the angle of 20 degree and 10degree with faces on both side of cutting edge opposite to each other as shown in fig. So the dynamic shape has got to the cutter which is main purpose of it can cut the crop very easily.
  8. 8. CROP HARVESTER IN AGRICULTURAL APPROACH 2012-13 Page 8 Fig no.4.2. Side view of cutter 4.2 shafts: The shaft is made up of M.S.bar.In our Project we required a two shaft are as follows 1) Intermediate shaft 2) Cutter shaft 4.2.1 Intermediate shaft: The total length of intermediate shaft is 550mm and 22mm diameter. And both the end having a step of 50mm in length and 20mm in diameter. Three pulleys are mounted on it. And this intermediate shaft is fixed inside the pedestal bearing. Fig no 4.3. Intermediate shaft
  9. 9. CROP HARVESTER IN AGRICULTURAL APPROACH 2012-13 Page 9 4.2.2 Cutter shaft: The cutter shaft is made up of M.S. bar. In the crop harvesting machine is having two cutters and this two cutter is mounted on two shaft having a length of 250mm and the diameter of this shaft is 22mm.Both end of these shaft having a step turning at upper end 70mm in length and 20mm in diameter and at lower end 20mm in diameter and 50mm in length after that we made up 5mm key and then the threading is done up to 20mm in length and 13mm in diameter. Fig no 4.4.Cutter shaft
  10. 10. CROP HARVESTER IN AGRICULTURAL APPROACH 2012-13 Page 10 4.3 Calculations:- Power transmission is achieved by specially designed belt and pulley. This arrangement as shown in fig. the power is transmitted engine shaft to cutter shaft which is decrease the speed and increase the torque. The speed transfer ratio is 2:1. Fig no 4.5 .Transmission system Where:- P=power of engine 𝐷1=diameter of small pulley 𝐷2=diameter of big pulley N1=speed of engine shaft N2=speed of intermediate shaft N3=speed of cutter shaft T1=torque of engine shaft T2=torque of intermediate shaft T3=torque of cutter shaft
  11. 11. CROP HARVESTER IN AGRICULTURAL APPROACH 2012-13 Page 11 t1 = t3 = Tension in tight side of belt t2=t4= Tension in slack side of belt Torque of driving pulley on engine shaft (T) T= (t1-t2) r1 Let us, To find the angle of contact of the open belt on the driving pulley (A) 21   R r c  Fig no.4.6 Open belt Let Ɵ= angle of contact of the belt on the driving pulley (A) We have, Sin α = r1−r2 x = 63.5−31.75 267 Sin α= 0.11879 α=6.83 Ɵ=180°-2α =180°-2×6.83=166.34
  12. 12. CROP HARVESTER IN AGRICULTURAL APPROACH 2012-13 Page 12 Ɵ=166.34× 𝜋 180 =2.94rad We know that 2.3 log 𝑡1 𝑡2 =µƟcosecβ 2.3 log 𝑡1 𝑡2 =0.12×2.94× 1 𝑠𝑖𝑛22.7 2.3 log 𝑡1 𝑡2 =0.91 𝑡1 𝑡2 =2.5 Maximum tension in belt t= σ.b.t =2.3×106 ×17×10-3 ×11×10-3 t=430.1N We have, Centrifugal tension tC = 𝑡 3 = 430.1 3 = 143.36N t1=t-tC =430.1-143.36 =286.74N 𝑡1 𝑡2 =2.5 286.74 𝑡2 =2.5
  13. 13. CROP HARVESTER IN AGRICULTURAL APPROACH 2012-13 Page 13 𝑡2= 286.74 2.5 𝑡2=114.7N T1= (t1-t2) r1 = (286.74-114.7)×31.75×10-3 T1=5.5Nm Power transmitted by driving pulley on engine shaft (A) P1= 2×𝜋×𝑁1×𝑇1 60 = 2×𝜋×3600×5.5 60 P1=2.07Kw Torque on driven pulley (B) on intermediate shaft (T2) R2= 63.5mm T2= (t1-t2)r2 = (286.74-114.7)×63.5×10-3 T2=11Nm To find the speed of intermediate shaft (N2) We have, Velocity ratio, 𝑁1 𝑁2 = 𝐷2 𝐷1 3600 𝑁2 = 127 63.5 𝑁2=1800rpm
  14. 14. CROP HARVESTER IN AGRICULTURAL APPROACH 2012-13 Page 14 Power transmitted by driven pulley (B) on intermediate shaft (P2) P2= 2𝜋𝑁2 𝑇2 60 = 2×𝜋×1800×11 60 P2=2.07Kw Then Torque on driving pulley (C ) on intermediate shaft (T3) T3=(t3-t4)r1 Let us, To find the angle of contact of the cross belt on the driving pulley of intermediate shaft. 2 1    R C r Fig no 4.7 Cross belt We have, Sin α = r4+r3 x = 63.5+31.75 455 Sin α= 0.2093 α=12.080 Ɵ=180°+2α =180°+2×12.08 =204.160
  15. 15. CROP HARVESTER IN AGRICULTURAL APPROACH 2012-13 Page 15 Ɵ=204.16× 𝜋 180 Ɵ =3.56rad We know that 2.3 log 𝑡3 𝑡4 =µƟcosecβ 2.3 log 𝑡3 𝑡4 =0.12×3.56× 1 𝑠𝑖𝑛15 𝑡1 𝑡2 =5.21 We know that, Maximum tension in belt t= σ.b.t =2.3×106 ×14×10-3 ×10×10-3 t=322N We have, Centrifugal tension tC = 𝑡 3 = 322 3 tC =107.33N T3=t-tC =322-107.33 T3=214.67N 𝑡3 𝑡4 =5.21 214.67 𝑡4 =2.5
  16. 16. CROP HARVESTER IN AGRICULTURAL APPROACH 2012-13 Page 16 𝑡4=41.20N T3= (t3-t4) r3 = (214.67-41.20)×31.75×10-3 T3=5.5Nm Power transmitted by driving pulley (C ) on intermediate shaft(P3) P3= 2𝜋𝑁2 𝑇2 60 = 2×𝜋×1800×5.5 60 P3=1.03 Kw Torque of the driven pulley (D) on the cutter shaft (T4) T4= (t3-t4)×r4 = (214.67-41.20)×63.5×10-3 T4 =11N-m To find the speed of cutter shaft we have (N3) Velocity ratio 𝑁2 𝑁3 = 𝐷4 𝐷3 3600 𝑁3 = 127 63.5 𝑁3=900rpm Power is transmitted by driven pulley on cutter shaft (P4) P4= 2𝜋𝑁3 𝑇4 60 = 2×𝜋×900×11 60 P4=1.03 Kw
  17. 17. CROP HARVESTER IN AGRICULTURAL APPROACH 2012-13 Page 17 Force exerted on cutter blade (F1)at a distance 145 mm T=Fr F1= 𝑇4 𝑅1 = 11 145×10−3 = F1=75.86N Force exerted on cutter blade (F2) at a distance 116.25 mm F2= 𝑇4 𝑅2 = 11 116.25×10−3 F2=94.62N Force exerted on cutter blade (F3) at a distance 87.5 mm F3= 𝑇4 𝑅3 = 11 87.5×10−3 F3=125.71N Force exerted on cutter blade (F4) at a distance 58.75 mm F4= 𝑇4 𝑅4 = 11 58.75×10−3 F4=187.23N Average force exerted on blade F F= 𝐹1+𝐹2+𝐹3+𝐹4 4 F= 75.86+94.62+125.71+187.23 4 =120.85 N
  18. 18. CROP HARVESTER IN AGRICULTURAL APPROACH 2012-13 Page 18 Then, n = No of rotation of cutter per sec We have, n = 𝑁3×60 3600 n = 900×60 3600 n = 15 rotation/sec The cutter rotation is done 15 rotations per sec. The cutter shaft speed is 900 rpm & The torque of cutter shaft is 11 N.m The force exerted on blade is 120.85N
  19. 19. CROP HARVESTER IN AGRICULTURAL APPROACH 2012-13 Page 19 5. MATERIAL PROCURMENT Sr.No Material Price Quantity Cost 1 Engine Rs.7000 1 Rs.7000 2 HSS Metal strip Rs.50 Kg 2 Kg Rs.100 3 MS Angle plate Rs.40 Kg 16 Kg Rs.640 4 MS Plate Rs.40 Kg 6 Kg Rs.240 5 MS Rod (Bar) Rs.40 Kg 3 Kg Rs.120 6 GI pipe Rs.40 Kg 3 Kg Rs.120 7 Sheet Metal Rs.60 Kg 3 Kg Rs.180 8 Pedestal Bearing Rs.150 6 Rs.900 9 CI. Pulley Rs.100 1 Rs.100 10 Aluminum Pulley Rs.200 5 Rs.1000 11 V-Belt Rs.250 3 Rs.250 12 Wood Wheel Rs.62.50 4 Rs.250 13 Rubber grip of wheel Rs.75 4 Rs.300 14 Nut & Bolt Rs.40 Kg 8 kg Rs.320 15 Spring Washer Rs.2 30 Rs.60 16 Hand Grip Rs.9 2 Rs.18 17 Cable Wire Rs.3 feet 8 feet Rs.24 18 Colour Rs.300 1 Rs.300 Total Material cost Rs.11922
  20. 20. CROP HARVESTER IN AGRICULTURAL APPROACH 2012-13 Page 20 6. EXPERIMENTAL FABRICATION: Firstly we have design the project from the concept “Leonardo Da-vinci” .We fabricate the overall project in collage workshop. We purchase a raw material 1) M.S. Plate , 2) Wood Wheel, 3) M.S. Rod, 4) Engine , 5) Pulley, 6) Bearing, 7) HSS Plate, 8) Rubber Grip, . First of all we design the body of model for these purposes we cut the MS angle plate in required dimension of Length =30 inch Width =21 inch
  21. 21. CROP HARVESTER IN AGRICULTURAL APPROACH 2012-13 Page 21 6.1 Frame: The frame is consisting of MS angle. The length of frame is 76 cm and width is 53 cm. the angle is heavy for the more load absorption. The two 12 mm drill is on rear end both corner on the angle. Fig no 6.1.frame 6.2Wheel: A wheel is made up of wood with the height of 254 mm and width 63.5 mm. In this wheel 5mm thick rubber grip is attached with the help of nails. In a wheel 20mm bore is in center of the wheel for connecting a shaft to given a forward and back direction in the working position. Fig no 6.2.Wheel
  22. 22. CROP HARVESTER IN AGRICULTURAL APPROACH 2012-13 Page 22 And then welded as per requirement. After that for wheel arrangement we cut the wood in 10 inch in diameter & 2.5 inch in width and the outer periphery of wheel is covered by rubber grip with the help of nails and after that at wheel center we make a bore of 25 mm and we fixed 3 inch MS pipe then we cut MS rod of 3 inch in length & 1 inch in dia. In 4 pieces then it put in wheel bore and welded to the body at a suitable distance. Similarly remaining 3 wheels are welded to the body and total body structure is completed. Fig no 6.3.Assembly of wheel At right corner of rear end we make 4 drills of 5 mm on body with help of drilling machine. After that we place a engine on that particular arrangement and it fastened by nut and bolt. At engine shaft we insert a driving pulley & fastened it. We take 4 angle plate of 90 mm in length and drill it at 12 mm in dia. at center of plate. And this angle plate welded to the front end of the body. After we cut the M.S. plate in 2 pieces of 170 mm in height and 120 mm in length with the help of hand cutter machine. And each corner of plate we make 4 drills in 12 mm in dia. And one of M.S. plate we fixed to pedestal bearing with the help of nut & bolt, similarly we place 2 pedestals bearing on 2nd M.S . plate. Then we insert 2 pulleys at upper end & 2 cutters at lower end of 2 cutter shafts and these cutter shafts insert in pedestal bearing and fixed it with the help of nut & bolt. We make 2 slots on 2 support plate for fixing these support plate to the front end of the body.
  23. 23. CROP HARVESTER IN AGRICULTURAL APPROACH 2012-13 Page 23 Fig no 6.4. Cutter assembly First of all we take 600x38x5 mm H.S.S. plate & are cut in to 290 mm length in 2 pieces. And then we sharp these 2 edges of plate in length of 115 mm from outer end on both side of each cutter. And then the 100 , 70 angles is provided to the cutting edge in opposite direction. These overall processes are carried out in tin smithy section. For increasing the hardness & life of cutter following 3 heat treatment processes is carried out on cutter, 1) Tempering 2) Forging 3) Quenching Then we make a hole of 13 mm in dia. at middle of plate with the help of drilling machine. And make a keyway slot of 5x5 mm inside these holes on slotting machine. Then we balance these cutters on balancing machine. Fig no 6.5.cutter We take 10 feet G.I. pipe then cut these pipe in 3 pieces .First 2 pieces is 3 feet and remaining 1 piece is 17 inch. Then we cut 17 inch square rod with the help of hand cutter machine. After that at upper end of these two 3 feet G.I. pipe bend at an angle of 1300 and 6 inch in length. And at lower end of these two 3 feet G.I. pipe bend
  24. 24. CROP HARVESTER IN AGRICULTURAL APPROACH 2012-13 Page 24 at an angle of 1300 & 3 inch in length. After we pressed these two 3 feet G.I. pipe & then drill by 12 mm with the help of hammer, drilling machine & anvil. Then we cut 3 inch M.S. plate in two pieces & at center of both plate make a hole of 12mm in diameter. Then welded these 2 plates to the lower end of 3 feet G.I pipe. Then 2 pieces of 17 inch square rod is welded to the upper & lower portion of the handle assembly. After that we make to drill at both corner of rear end of body and join these handle assembly to that rear end of body with the help of nut & bolt. Then we provided a stop switch on the handle at the right hand side. 6.3 Handle: Handle is made up of GI pipe of 7mm diameter. This handle is join in small MS plate to the lower end of the handle and is attach to the rear end of the body. The handle is straight up to 76mm and lower side of the handle is bending 130° and then length of the handle is 910 mm and then upper side handle is bending 130° and remaining length of handle is 155 mm. The 20 mm diameter GI pipe is attached at the bend of between two handle the distance is 460 mm. the pipe is attached upper side and lower side square bar is attached side of the bar is 10 mm and length is 460mm. Fig no 6.6.Handle
  25. 25. CROP HARVESTER IN AGRICULTURAL APPROACH 2012-13 Page 25 6.4 Supporting plate: The supporting plate is consisting of MS plate. The length of plate is 170 mm and width is 120 mm. thickness of the plate 6mm. Making the four drills is 12 mm at corner of the plate. The successive distance between the two drills is 90 mm and the remaining corner distance is 15 mm from both sides away from the drill. At the middle of the plate making two slots length is 38 mm and width is 12mm. the two successive distances between two slots is 90 mm and remaining corner distance is 15 mm. Fig no 6.7.Supporting plate of cutter assembly
  26. 26. CROP HARVESTER IN AGRICULTURAL APPROACH 2012-13 Page 26 6.5 Cover We cut sheet metal in required size. Then we cut M.S. plate in 8 inch of 4 pieces & drill each corner of an all end of the body. And cut M.S. plate in 6 inch of 2 pieces. 1st 4 pieces is welded vertically at outer periphery of body & remaining 2 pieces is welded vertically to front end of body & covered total assembly by sheet metal plate and fixed by nut & bolt. And we should open this bonnet with the help of hinges. Fig no 6.8. Cover
  27. 27. CROP HARVESTER IN AGRICULTURAL APPROACH 2012-13 Page 27 7. EXPERIMENTAL SET-UPS: It consists of the following component. Component: 7.1 Body: The frame of a consist of following components suitably mounted: 1) Engine. 2) Transmission system. 3) Road wheel. 4) Handling system. 5) Cutter assembly. All the components listed above are mounted in either of two ways, viz., the conventional construction, in which a separate frame is used and the frameless or unitary construction in which no separate frame is employed. Out of these, the conventional type of construction is being used presently only for heavy vehicle whereas for car the same has been replaced by the frameless type or the monologue chassis is manufactures, which still find it economical to use frame. Fig no 7.1.Body
  28. 28. CROP HARVESTER IN AGRICULTURAL APPROACH 2012-13 Page 28 7.2 Engine: It is the model of MK20HSPP of the mode hand pump. It is the type of 4 stroke air cooled engine net power is 3600 rpm (3HP). Fig no 7.2.Engine Actually this engine used in agricultural purpose for taking the water from the bore but we does not required water pump so that this water pump remove from engine. The engine is the petrol +kerosene. When it has start it required petrol means beginning of the engine. Stop the petrol chock because we have required whole the work with the help of kerosene through the work running on kerosene so that when engine start Engine we can start with the help of starter the arrangement of starter by the rope the rope is a rounded on the starter pulley which is mount engine shaft. When rope is pulled outward than engine will start at high speed up to the 3600 rpm but we required only 900 rpm for drive the cutter Multiple applications of this engine because it has ability to carried high speed so we can used cultivator, absorber by using its speed.
  29. 29. CROP HARVESTER IN AGRICULTURAL APPROACH 2012-13 Page 29 7.3 V-Belt: V-belt is mostly used in factories and workshops where a great amount of power is to be transmitted from one pulley to another when the two pulleys are very each near to other. It made of fabric and cords moulded in rubber and covered with fabric and rubber. V-belt are trapezoidal in shape are made endless. These belt are particularly suitable for short drive i.e. shaft are small distance apart from each other. The included angle for v belt is 30 degree to 40 degree. In the v belt drives the rim of the pulley is grooved in which the v belt run. the effect of the groove is to increase the frictional grip of v belt on the pulley and thus to reduce the tendency of slipping .in order to have a good grip on pulley the v belts is in contact with side faces of the grooves and not on bottom the power is transmitted by the wedging action between the belts and v grooves in the pulley. Fig no 7.3.v-belt A belt is a loop of flexible material used to mechanically link two or more rotating shafts. Belts may be used as a source of motion, to transmit power efficiently, or to track relative movement. Belts are looped over pulleys. Belts are the cheapest utility for power transmission between shafts that may not be axially aligned. Power transmission is achieved by specially designed belts and pulleys. The demands on a belt drive transmission system are large and this has led to many variations on the theme. They run smoothly and with little noise v- belts have mainly replaced flat-belts for short-distance power transmission; and longer-distance power transmission is typically no longer done with belts at all. For example, factory machines now tend to have individual electric motors.
  30. 30. CROP HARVESTER IN AGRICULTURAL APPROACH 2012-13 Page 30 V- Belts (also known as V-belt or wedge rope) solved the slippage and alignment problem. It is now the basic belt for power transmission. They provide the best combination of traction, speed of movement, load of the bearings, and long service life. They are generally endless, and their general cross-section shape is trapezoidal (hence the name "V"). The "V" shape of the belt tracks in a mating groove in the pulley (or sheave), with the result that the belt cannot slip off. The belt also tends to wedge into the groove as the load increases—the greater the load, the greater the wedging action—improving torque transmission and making the V-belt an effective solution, needing less width and tension than flat belts. V-belts trump flat belts with their small center distances and high reduction ration. The preferred center distance is larger than the largest pulley diameter, but less than three times the sum of both pulleys. Optimal speed range is 1000–7000 ft/min. V-belts need larger pulleys for their larger thickness than flat belts. For high-power requirements, two or more v- belts can be joined side-by-side in an arrangement called a multi-V, running on matching multi-groove sheaves. This is known as a multiple-V-belt drive (or sometimes a "classical V-belt drive"). Advantages of v belt:-  The v-belt gives more compactness due to the small distance between the centre  Drive is positive as there is negligible slip between pulley groove and belt  The belt have the ability to cushion the shocks when machine are started  The high velocity ratio may be obtained  Central line may be vertical, horizontal and inclined.
  31. 31. CROP HARVESTER IN AGRICULTURAL APPROACH 2012-13 Page 31 Ration of driving tension for v belt:- Let R1 = normal reaction between belt and side of the grooves R= Total reaction in the plane of grooves 2β= angle of grooves µ= coefficient of friction between belts and side of the grooves Fig no 7.4.Cross section of v-belt In this project is required three v-belt .one is B-section (B 31/830) and other two is A- section (A 1204 LP/A46). Power transmitted between a belt and a pulley is expressed as the product of difference of tension and belt velocity:[1] where, T1 and T2 are tensions in the tight side and slack side of the belt respectively. They are related as: Where, μ is the coefficient of friction, and α is the angle subtended by contact surface at the centre of the pulley.
  32. 32. CROP HARVESTER IN AGRICULTURAL APPROACH 2012-13 Page 32 7.4 Shaft: A shaft is a rotating machine element which is used to transmit power from one place to another. The power is delivered to the shaft by some tangential force and the resultant torque (or twisting moment) set up within the shaft permits the power to be transferred to various machines linked up to the shaft to another, the various members such as pulleys, gears etc., are mounted on it. These members along with the forces exerted upon them causes the shaft to bending. In other words, we may say that a shaft is used for the transmission of torque and bending moment. The various members are mounted on the shaft by means of keys or splines. Two shafts is required of this project, 1) Intermediate shaft Fig no 7.5.Intermediate shaft 2) Cutter shaft Fig no 7.6.Cutter shaft
  33. 33. CROP HARVESTER IN AGRICULTURAL APPROACH 2012-13 Page 33 7.5 Plumber block or pedestal bearing: It is used for proper fixing of shaft and shaft is easily assemble or dissemble from the plumber block. six plumber block is used in this machine. It is a split type of bearing. This type of bearing is used for higher speeds, heavy loads and large sizes. The component of the bearing Cast iron pedestal or block with a sole Brass or gun-metal or phosphorus-bronze “Brasses”, bushes or steps made in two halves. Cast iron cap. This bearing facilitates the placements and removal of the of the shaft from the bearing. Unlike the solid bearing which are to be inserted end-wise and hence are kept near the ends of the shaft, these can be placed anywhere. This bearing ensures a perfect adjustment for wear in the brasses by screwing the cap. Fig no 7.7.Pedesteal bearing 7.6 Lever sleeves: It is simple and easy to fit, perfect for providing improved grip. Their open-ended design simply pulls over levers, increasing finger grip and giving you greater control. Available in many different colors there is sure to be one suitable for you. Fig no 7.8.Lever sleeves
  34. 34. CROP HARVESTER IN AGRICULTURAL APPROACH 2012-13 Page 34 7.7 Pulleys: A pulley is a wheel on an axle that is designed to support movement of a cable or belt along its circumference. Pulleys are used in a variety of ways to lift loads, apply forces, and to transmit power. A pulley is also called a sheave or drum and may have a groove between two flanges around its circumference. The drive element of a pulley system can be a rope, cable, belt, or chain that runs over the pulley inside the groove. Pulleys are assembled to form a block and tackle in order to provide mechanical advantage to apply large forces. Pulleys are also assembled as part of belt and chain drives in order to transmit power from one rotating shaft to another. Fig no 7.9.Pulley
  35. 35. CROP HARVESTER IN AGRICULTURAL APPROACH 2012-13 Page 35 7.8 Wheel: Frame is mounted on the four wheels and these wheels are made up of wood. For smooth running we have designed a rubber grip and it is attached or fixed on the periphery of the wheel. Fig no 7.10.Wheel 7.9 Cutter: Cutter is made up of high speed steel it has high hardness and stiffness it have great ability to cut the crop. The cutting edge is providing as angle for giving to dynamics shape for easily cutting the crop. Fig no 7.11 .Cutter
  36. 36. CROP HARVESTER IN AGRICULTURAL APPROACH 2012-13 Page 36  It consists of body structure which is made up of M.S.angle bar which is in 30 inch length and 21 inch width and in 2.5 inch height.  It consists of four wheels which is made up of wood and cover by rubber grip.  It consists of MK20 3Hp single cylinder four stroke petrol engine.  Mechanism inside body structure is simple and consists of engine shaft, intermediate shaft and cutter shaft.  Engine shaft which will get the power from engine with the help of pulley and v belt drive. Over this engine shaft one small driving pulley 63.5 mm in diameter (single groove B section) will be mounted. This pulley will transmit the power to the intermediate shaft which is parallel to engine shaft.  Over this intermediate shaft three aluminum pulleys are mounted one of which is a driven pulley of 127mm in diameter for engine shaft and which is fixed at near centre. And remaining two small pulleys which is in 63.5mm in diameter (A section) is fixed on this intermediate shaft .one at right side and other at left side from the big pulley. We mounted the v belt over the pulley. And this intermediate shaft is supported in a two pedestal bearing by means of which the cutter shaft will able to rotate inside the bearing.  The again this two small driving pulley will transmit the power to cutter shaft which is perpendicular to the intermediate shaft. At top end of two different cutter shaft we fixed two aluminum pulleys (driven) and at lower end of this shaft we fixed two cutters. One cutter shaft is supported in two pedestal bearing and similarly another cutter shaft is supported in two pedestal bearing by means of which the cutter shaft will able to rotate inside bearing. And these pedestal bearing is supported on M.S. plate. And these M.S. plates fastened with the help of nut and bolt to the front end of body structure.  To the lower end of this shaft blade is fixed which will perform the harvesting operation.  This blade will be light in weight and made up of high speed steel. So as to resist abrasion due to cutting.  We provide handle for the pushing the harvester in the farm. And we also provide the power switch for stop the engine which is at right corner of right hand side of the handle.  It consists of guiding cover for protecting the whole mechanism.
  37. 37. CROP HARVESTER IN AGRICULTURAL APPROACH 2012-13 Page 37 8. WORKING: Firstly the MK 20 3 HP single cylinder four stroke petrol engine having a speed of 3600 rpm is started by manually. The engine shaft which will get the power from engine. Then fixed a small cast iron driving pulley on these engine shafts. At this stage the speed of engine is 3600 rpm, but we required a speed of 900rpm for the operation of harvesting . For these purpose we use pulley and v belt drive on intermediate shaft for reducing the speed. Then we fixed 3 (A section) aluminum pulley and v belt on intermediate shaft. From these engine shafts power will be transmitted to the intermediate shaft with the help of pulley and v-belt drive. The motion of power transmission from engine shaft to intermediate shaft is horizontal. And at this stage speed of intermediate shaft become 1800 rpm. And again for the purpose of harvesting operation we use two cutter shaft. At top end of these cutter shafts we fixed a 127mm aluminum driven pulley and at lower end of shaft cutter is fixed, similarly for other cutter shaft. The 2 driving pulley which is mounted on intermediate shaft will transmit the Power to the cutter shaft and at this stage we got the required speed of 900 rpm. By this ultimately a power will be transmitted to the both cutter and it’s start to rotating whose half portion will be outside the length of casing. This half portion of cutter will comes in a contact with crops and perform harvesting operation without shattering of grain. These cutter revolve 15 times per second. Fig no 8.1.Working of crop harvester (Side view)
  38. 38. CROP HARVESTER IN AGRICULTURAL APPROACH 2012-13 Page 38 It cuts the crops simultaneously in two rows crops like Jowar, Tuar, Bajara, and Maize etc. When the operator needs to stop the engine they can use the stop switch. Fig no 8.2.Working of crop harvester (Front view)
  39. 39. CROP HARVESTER IN AGRICULTURAL APPROACH 2012-13 Page 39 9. ADVANTAGES 1. Reduce the human effort:-crop harvester mostly designs for reduce the human efforts in which only one operator can be operate or handle the machine. While the machine will begin there is not required more than one or two worker. 2. Reduce the cost: - in the agriculture for cropping the soya bin, javar and tuvar. It can cut cheapest prices because it saves the worker cost. 3. Reduce the time: - when worker is cutting the crop they have more time for cutting but when the use of the crop cutter harvester they increase the capacity of the working and cutting & it can possible the maximum crop cutting within minimum time. 4. Easy to handle: - crop cutter machine is easy for handling we can easily start the machine. 5. Unskilled worker can operate: - no skill person required for operating the machine. 6. Safety to use: - during the working if any problem occurs in the machine we can easily find it. 7. Simple in construction: - it is construct is very simple in way we can easily dissemble and assemble. 8. Less fuel cost: - it is start on petrol but whole work on kerosene & kerosene is available at chipset cost.
  40. 40. CROP HARVESTER IN AGRICULTURAL APPROACH 2012-13 Page 40 10. LIMITATIONS 1 Light weight crops it can’t’s cut e.g. .Wheat, Rice, Soybean 2 Cost is increase when petrol is use. 3 Noise pollution.
  41. 41. CROP HARVESTER IN AGRICULTURAL APPROACH 2012-13 Page 41 11. APPLICATIONS: The harvesting of different crops is carried out at present only by manual labors and the tools are used are only ordinary sickle, the cutting edge of which is specially serrated for this purpose. They vary slightly in shapes different part of country, but they are all adopted for cutting only one handful of stems or stalks of the grain crop at each cut. This kind of harvesting needs of large labour force and as the harvesting has to be carried out quickly and almost simultaneously in each tract, the demand for labour is very more, the work become very expensive and labour to very difficult to get even at high wages therefore “CROP HARVESTER IN AGRICULTURAL APPROACH” has brought into existence which carry out this process easily and fastly.
  42. 42. CROP HARVESTER IN AGRICULTURAL APPROACH 2012-13 Page 42 12. FUTURE SCOPES 12.1 Cultivators A cultivator is any of several types of farm implement used for secondary tillage. One sense of the name refers to frames with teeth (also called shanks) that pierce the soil as they are dragged through it linearly. Another sense refers to machines that use rotary motion of disks or teeth to accomplish a similar result. The rotary tiller is a principal example. 12.2 Floors cleaner A floor cleaner machine to use cleaning of a floor in home, mall, offices, etc. so in this machine remove the cutter & fix floor cleaning brush. This process is easy to clean floor as compare to the human effort. 12.3 Agricultural spryer In agriculture, a sprayer is a piece of equipment that spray nozzles to apply herbicides, pesticides, and fertilizers to agricultural crops. Sprayers range in size from man-portable units (typically backpacks with spray guns) to trailed sprayers that are connected to this machine.
  43. 43. CROP HARVESTER IN AGRICULTURAL APPROACH 2012-13 Page 43 13. CONCLUSIONS In this way we made a demo model “CROP HARVESTER IN AGRICULTURAL APPROACH” for the use of crop cutting in the farm. In this project the following conclusions were drawn from the study & observation: 1) For Machine: Machine is working in 1 acre area the fuel consumption is = 1.5 liter /- Fuel cost is Rs.115 + labour cost is Rs.35 + M/C cost is Rs.50 = Rs.200 /- 2) For Labour Labour working in 1 acre area the associated cost is = Rs.400 /- Cutting time for 2 labour in 1 acre area of farm = 6 hr Hence in above comparison it is clear that the cost of working by machine in the farm for said application is less as compared to labour cost. Future scope Total cost of the project is Rs.14000, in futures launch of this project in the market the cost of this project will be near about Rs 8000 to 10000.Hence its can easily affordable by farmer.
  44. 44. CROP HARVESTER IN AGRICULTURAL APPROACH 2012-13 Page 44 14. REFRENCE  en.wikipedia.org/.../Science_and_inventions_of_Leonardo_da_Vinci  Yuming Guo, Hongmei Yuan, Yan Yin, Li Liang. Biomechanical evaluation and grey relational analysis of lodging resistance of stalk crops. Transactions of the CSAE, 2007, 2007, vol. 23, no. 7, pp. 14-18.  Kronbergs et al. Cutting Properties of Arranged Stalk Biomass  http://www.faracresfarm.com  http://www.AllCropHarvester.com  http://www.indiamart.com/krishna-agricultural.  A text book of .Theory of machine by Khurmi & Gupta (Chap no.11,page no 329-338)

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