L’Oréal Marketing Strategies in IndiaBefore the facial cosmetics, L‟Oreal was known as a hair-color formula developed by Frenchchemist Eugene Schueller in 1907. It was then known as”Aureole”. Schueller formulated andmanufactured his own productswhich were sold to Parisian hairdressers. It was only in 1909 thatSchueller registered his company as “Societe Francaise de Teintures Inoffensives pourCheveus,”the future L‟Oreal. Scheuller began exporting his products, which was then limited tohair-coloring products. There were 3 chemists employed in 1920. In 1950, the research teamsincreased to 100 and reached 1,000 by 1984. Today, research teams are numbered to 2,000 andare still expected to increase in the near future. Through agents and consignments, Scheullerfurther distributed his products in the United States of America, South America, Russia and theFar East. The L‟Oreal Group is present worldwide through its subsidiaries and agents. L‟Orealstarted to expand its products from hair-color to other cleansing and beauty products. TheL‟Oreal Group today markets over 500 brands and more than 2,000 products in the varioussectors of the beauty business. Such includes hair colors, permanents, styling aids, body andskincare, cleansers and fragrances. Indeed, the L‟Oreal Group has reached the peak that allcosmetic brands sought after.L‟Oreal has engaged in many forms of Market Segmentation in their venture in India, withdifferent variables during different time periods. Firstly we will discuss the segmentationmethods when it first entered the market in 1991, followed by what ensued after their makeover.When it First Entered the MarketGender Segmentation: L‟Oreal first segmented the population into the different sexes as theythought their products‟ “combination of low price and natural ingredients would fit India‟smarket, where women use plants and herbs as part of their beauty culture”. Their productspecifically catered to the women of India, though later our group discusses how it should carvea niche market for itself in the Men‟s sector as well.
Income Segmentation: L‟Oreal segmented the market into 2 main segments: the poorer massesand the rest. It marketed its product as low in cost to attract the poorer masses, and her efforts inreducing ingredients to cut price reveals her aim to minimize costs as much as possible. At thispoint of time, it was not yet targeting the affluent middle class or upper class and thus did notmake any distinct segmentation of the richer classes, preferring to regard them as a whole entity.The “L’Oreal Makeover”After a poor start, L‟Oreal approached the market with a different concept. Presence of homebrands posed problems as they had already captured a large proportion of the masses‟ marketshare. They offered cheaper products to buyers at a price which L‟Oreal was unable to match,and their long presence had established a strong sense of loyalty in the buyers, making it difficultto pry them away. With the understanding that it needed to capture a different market, itproceeded with a different from of segmentation in order to better identify its target segmentsIncome Segmentation: This time L‟Oreal separated a new segment from the original 2segments: the quickly rising middle class which was gaining in affluence. This was very specificcompared to the original two broad segments it identified as they saw that this was the fastestgrowing income class that represented a highly untapped market potential due to their radicallydifferent mindsets from the masses.Psychographic Segmentation: L‟Oreal segmented India into different groups based on theirthinking and behavior from the older, more conservative Indians who held conservative values ofthriftiness more strongly and stubbornly, and the younger more impressionable generation whohad developed a very different and westernized view on spending and culture. Influx of brandslike Tommy Hilfiger, Benetton and even MTV in 1991 greatly emphasized Western values ofluxury, beauty, and self-awareness leading to the rise of a new segment of people who did notview thriftiness with equal importance as their predecessors but were rather more willing tosplurge on luxury goods which were previously considered too expensive and wasteful.Age Segmentation: By segmenting the market into the younger middle class from the moreconservative, often older Indians, it had also inevitably segmented the market based on age, andshowed an increased interest in capturing the market share of the younger Indians.Benefits Segmentation: L‟Oreal further segmented the market on a benefits basis when itintroduced Excellence Crème. Being in crème form, it [was gentler on hair] compared to thenatural ingredients such as ammonia which damaged and dried up women‟s hair. It thussegmented the market into those who needed the hair dying and strengthening benefits ofExcellence Crème and those who did not. This was a crucial form of segmentation for L‟Oreal asit underlined the core concept of its marketing strategy to promise superior products withadditional benefits to consumers when choosing between L‟Oreal and Home brands, andsubsequently has led to the immense success that L‟Oreal has experienced in India.L‟Oreal has made use of various variables to identify the segments it wishes to target, and alsoengaged in using Multiple Segmentation Bases (Age, Income, Psychographic and Benefits) tocomplement its Differentiated Marketing approach. This allows them to effectively identify
several differentiated segments and design separate offers for each, translating into stronger salesand a stronger position within each market segment. In the following section we discuss whichsegments were targeted and the strategies employed by L‟Oreal with its newly identifiedsegments.L’Oreal targeting and positioning its productsL‟Oreal now targets the young affluent middle class females, especially those with graying hair,and also maintains some effort in targeting the masses. It saw a need to target this new untappedmarket for maximum profits as it not only possessed the purchasing power that masses lacked,but more critically a modernized mentality that made these people more receptive to purchasingL‟Oreals‟ more luxurious and expensive products.. While retaining their core values ofthriftiness, the young middle class were more willing to spend on luxuries and formed the heartof transformation of consumer spending in India.L‟Oreal also target women that sought benefits from using its products. Since there waspreviously no product that solved women‟s hair greying problems, L‟Oreal introducedExcellence: Crème that promised additional benefits apart from just dying of hair. It did notdamage hair like henna or ammonia but even promised to strengthen it. The young middle classfit into this segment well because unlike their older predecessors, who did not mind usingproducts that damaged their hair as long as they were cheap due to monetary problems, thesewomen were more educated and concerned for the need to have healthy beautiful hair, as well asmore equipped with the purchasing power to do so. Cheap harmful products would not appeal tothem as much as high quality L‟Oreal products which justified their higher price with higherbenefits.L‟Oreal has not given up on targeting the lower income masses however. Demand for necessitieshave been increasingly driven by the rural rather than the urban sector, and as of 2008 only 29%of India lived in urban areas. Thus it has introduced new products like „Colour Naturals‟ whichbe used multiple times and cost only $3.10, translating into increased value for the masses.Though difficult to capture, the masses‟ market share formed too large a proportion of the totalmarket share to be ignored, and L‟Oreal maintains some effort in capturing their market share,thus inducing L‟Oreal to introduce products in this sector of the market.„Excellence Crème‟ was marketed as a „luxury purchase‟ and a „high-end niche‟ product,positioning itself as higher quality and made of extensively developed ingredients with additionalbenefits. One of the most innovative and pricey products in Europe then, it was also gentler onthe hair than local products such as henna or ammonia. L‟Oreal hired Ms World in anadvertisement to show that beautiful women use L‟Oreal, thus positioning itself as not just abasic shampoo, but one that made women beautiful. This promise of beauty and benefitspositioned L‟Oreal higher in the market compared to the home brands which positionedthemselves as cheap, value-for-money products which only served the most basic of functions ofhair cleaning.In terms of how L‟Oreal differs from other brands, it employs a “more for more” marketingconcept while home brands used a “less for less” concept. Home brands sought to sell the most
basic shampoos with the lowest quality ingredients in order to offer the lowest prices, whileL‟Oreal justified their high prices by using high quality ingredients. While home brands usedsuch a concept to attract the lower-income masses that only needed bare necessities, L‟Oreal‟sstrategy targeted the more affluent that were more educated and had more disposable income tosplurge on luxury items if they justified their price.There was also a difference in how they captured loyalty. Home brands aimed to garner loyaltyof existing users through brand familiarity as repeated use by generations of Indians would bringabout feelings of trust and dependability. This attracted thrifty housewives who wanted thecheapest products, which translated into loyalty and substantial profits when their children grewup and also continued to use the same brands. L‟Oreal however could not and did not try toestablish brand familiarity in such a short time as it was very new in the market. It thus attemptedto capture the loyalty of a new segment of the market by promising better quality products to therising middle class, hoping they would realise L‟Oreal‟s higher price and better quality justifieda move away from home brands to a new found loyalty in L‟Oreal.Finally, in L‟Oreal‟s attempt to re-enter the lower income market, it differs from home brands byoffering good quality at lower prices instead of the home brands‟ offer of low price and lowquality. While still more expensive than home brands, it was considerably cheaper than its ownup market products but retained much of its quality. This translates to greater value for themasses who might switch to L‟Oreal when they realised the better quality shampoo offered atsimilar prices to the home brands.Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) also plays a significant role in profitability in manycompanies, describing the relationship between businesses and the larger society surrounding it.It can also redefine the role and obligation of the private business within that society if deemednecessary (Keinert). When L‟Oreal first entered India, beauty education was absent, trainingseemed redundant and hairdressers were well satisfied with cheap local domestic brands (Patel).L‟Oreal realized that its business operations in this case concerned a larger group than itself if itwished to increase profits. L‟Oreal‟s CSR thus began to be driven by the need to include socialconcerns into its business decisions and operations, and it focused on increasing its reputation asthe leading beauty industry amongst the urban Indian middle-class. Since then, they haveenvisioned to differentiate themselves from the rest of its competitors and invested heavily ineducation and training to boost their status in the community.(Patel)L‟Oreal‟s social initiatives can be linked to 3 key areas: Education, Women and Science.Working with Aide ET Action, a non-governmental organization whose aim is to promote accessto education in rural areas, L‟Oreal India launched the program “Beautiful Beginnings” on 7thJuly 2009, an initiative which aimed to train at least 200 unprivileged school drop-out girls everyyear to make them employable. It was even inaugurated by Bollywood actress Aishwarya Rai ,an influential and popular female artist in Bollywood. Her patronage enabled the masses toidentify L‟Oreal more closely to the Indian community, and we believe this had far-reachingeffects on how the masses perceived L‟Oreal as a socially responsible and dependable brand.The initiative was very successful, with more than 200 students graduating within a year, andsome even gainfully employed by L‟Oreal. In January 2009, L‟Oreal, in collaboration withNehru Science Centre (NSC), set up an exhibition “Decoding the Hair” in Mumbai. An
exhibition that is first of its kind in India, it showcased large magnified sculptures of the hairstrands as well as other games and activities relating to hair care and products. Housed in a well-known exhibition point like NSC and reaching out to schools, college and the corporate sector,L‟Oreal is able to position itself in India as a “true expert in hair care” with its focus on scientificresearch and development. In 1998, L‟Oreal India started the “For Young Women in ScienceScholarships” which awarded Rs 250,000 to 5 esteemed girl students each year from the state ofMaharashtra, to pursue studies in a recognized college or university in India. By sponsoring theseyoung women and their hopes for the future, the programme can increase the role of womenworking in scientific disciplines, empowering them with knowledge.By empowering women with new skills and knowledge, female participation in the labourmarket can be increased, thereby increasing their disposable income and their financialindependence. This translates to a larger pool of urban middle-class females with the purchasingpower for L‟Oreal products and thus a rise in profits for. Most importantly, with these initiatives,L‟Oreal places itself in the light of possessing a genuine sense of responsibility via itscontributions back to the community. Ultimately, this increases their reputation, image andreliability with not just the targeted female urban middle-class, but the rest of India and even theworldQuestionsQ1. Comment on the segments chosen by L‟Oreal and suggest segmentation and positioningstrategies which could help the brand in future.Q2. Does any social responsibility play in L‟Oreal‟s marketing strategy in India?